Introdução: o curso de medicina é marcado por inúmeros fatores geradores de estresse que podem influenciar a qualidade de vida do estudante, exigindo dele adaptação e mudança de estilo de vida. É necessário conhecer esses fatores para poder prevenir e intervir sobre eles, visando à melhoria da qualidade de vida no curso de medicina. Objetivo: conhecer a qualidade de vida do estudante de medicina e os fatores interrelacionados que a influenciam. Métodos: o estudo foi realizado em duas fases. Na primeira fase foi realizada a modalidade de pesquisa qualitativa com grupos focais em seis escolas médicas, com grupos de estudantes heterogêneos em relação ao sexo e ano do curso. Os dados assim coletados nortearam a construção de um inventário de avaliação da qualidade de vida no curso de medicina (IQVEM), utilizado na segunda fase do estudo. Na segunda fase, realizada na modalidade de pesquisa quantitativa, foram estudados 800 estudantes oriundos de 75 escolas médicas brasileiras, públicas e privadas, matriculados entre o 1º e 6º anos, presentes ao Encontro Científico dos Estudantes de Medicina, no ano de 2004. Estes estudantes responderam a um caderno de respostas contendo os seguintes instrumentos de avaliação: auto-avaliação...
As Políticas Públicas são as diretrizes de ação do poder público, que estabelecem as regras de como se dará a mediação entre os atores da sociedade e do Estado. Elas respondem a demandas da sociedade, que chegam até o governo através de seus vários grupos, e criam programas de ação que em sua execução destinam-se a atingir seus objetivos. Em seu processo de elaboração, as políticas públicas refletem as formas de exercício do poder político. Nesta relação de poder estão envolvidos diversos atores com interesses diferenciados, inclusive contraditórios. É neste contexto de conflitos de interesses que se inserem as legislações e ações públicas sobre resíduos no Brasil. Atualmente, a gestão de resíduos é um dos principais desafios ambientais da humanidade. A produção limpa é cada vez mais procurada pelas entidades privadas. No entanto, no setor público do Brasil, a disposição final do lixo em aterros controlados ou lixões continua a ser uma realidade. Esta pesquisa analisou a gestão de resíduos sólidos urbanos do Município de Piracicaba-SP, com enfoque especial nos resíduos sólidos domiciliares e de serviços de saúde, sob o ponto de vista da formulação de políticas e ações municipais...
Dissertação (mestrado)—Universidade de Brasília, Instituto de Psicologia, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Processos de Desenvolvimento Humano e Saúde, 2012.; É crescente o interesse em investigar a influência da religiosidade e da espiritualidade no manejo do estresse em geral e de outras condições adversas, como doenças crônicas e seus respectivos tratamentos. Especificamente, denomina-se como enfrentamento religioso/espiritual a adoção de estratégias cognitivas ou comportamentais que utilizam religião e/ou fé. Em Oncologia, muitos trabalhos apontam correlações com apoio social, bem-estar e estratégias adaptativas dos pacientes. Todavia, ainda que em menor proporção, estudos têm relacionado piores índices de qualidade de vida ao maior uso de estratégias avaliadas como prejudiciais. Sendo assim, realizou-se uma pesquisa exploratória com o objetivo de conhecer as concepções de profissionais de saúde da área oncológica acerca da associação entre saúde, religiosidade e espiritualidade. Na primeira etapa, participaram 85 profissionais da saúde, das seguintes categorias: assistente social (n = 1); biólogo (n = 1); enfermeiros (n = 2); fisioterapeutas (n = 3); fonoaudiólogos (n = 2); médicos (n = 17); nutricionistas (n = 16); odontólogo (n = 1)...
Centrados numa preocupação fundamental que é a literacia digital dos professores, pretendemos conhecer como os professores percecionam as Tecnologias da Informação e Comunicação (TIC), dentro e fora do contexto pedagógico, e de que forma se posicionam face aos novos desafios que se colocam à escola, no âmbito do Plano Tecnológico da Educação.
Para tal, ao nível do quadro teórico, mobilizaremos os modelos de análise da forma-ção do professor, mais concretamente a Teoria do Professor-Reflexivo de Schön (1997) e Zeichner (1998), bem como a recente Teoria Conetivista de George Siemens (2004), para melhor compreendermos o modo como o professor está a apropriar-se das TIC, como as integra ou não nas suas práticas letivas e como também vai ultrapassando os medos, recei-os e/ou constrangimentos que eventualmente se têm colocado na sua atividade letiva, fruto das emergentes mudanças que têm ocorrido nas escolas, no que respeita à plena assunção das TIC como instrumento/recurso ao serviço do ensino e da aprendizagem.
Em termos metodológicos, o nosso estudo posiciona-se no âmbito do estudo de caso no sentido de querermos obter um conhecimento mais aprofundado da utilização/integração das TIC pelos professores do concelho de Viseu. As técnicas recrutadas foram o inquérito por questionário online dirigido a professores dos 2.º e 3.º ciclos...
Diversos autores salientaram a importância do envolvimento das famílias nos processos de ensino e de aprendizagem. O insucesso escolar é um fenómeno selectivo e cumulativo, particularmente vivenciado por quem convive com situações de pobreza, baixa literacia das famílias, e/ou participação em culturas minoritárias e socialmente desvalorizadas. Em Portugal, a percentagem de alunos que não concluem a escolaridade básica ainda é elevada. Muitas famílias apresentam habilitações literárias ao nível do 1.º ciclo. Como a matemática é das disciplinas onde o insucesso académico e a rejeição mais se fazem sentir, decidimos estudar como os diversos agentes educativos se relacionam com a aprendizagem da matemática e que expectativas mútuas têm em relação a cada um deles.
Este trabalho pertence ao projecto FAMA – Family Maths for Adult Learners –, um projecto internacional. Assumimos uma abordagem interpretativa e um design de estudos de caso intrínsecos (um por país). O de Portugal refere-se a uma escola dos arredores de Lisboa, inserida num meio desfavorecido. Decidimos triangular as fontes (professores, alunos e famílias), os instrumentos (recolha documental, questionários, entrevistas e focus groups) e os investigadores que fizeram a recolha de dados...
Mestrado em Marketing; O objectivo deste estudo é identificar os factores condicionantes, principais influências e/ou barreiras (atributos, atitude pessoal ou pressão social) na decisão de beber vinho em vez de outra bebida alcoólica para o consumidor português do sexo feminino.
Dois focus groups identificaram as crenças relevantes, que suportaram a elaboração de um questionário com treze perguntas (em que duas, eram perguntas de filtro).
Obtiveram-se 215 respostas válidas de consumidoras regulares de vinho portuguesas (frequência igual ou superior a uma vez por mês).
Os resultados mostraram que, com base na variável sóciodemográfica idade, se pode identificar dois grupos distintos.
As consumidoras mais jovens (18/34 anos) encaram o vinho como álcool, ou seja, como uma, de várias, alternativa a outras bebidas alcoólicas. Crenças pessoais, como saúde, controlo do teor alcoólico e permitir evitar "misturas", têm impacto na sua frequência de consumo - quanto melhor percepcionam o vinho, maior é a frequência, e a intenção, de consumo fora das refeições.
As consumidoras mais velhas (45/64 anos) encaram o vinho como cultura, ou seja, o vinho surge como uma bebida de acompanhamento das refeições, com a sofisticação e o requinte que merece. Ligado ao controlo do teor alcoólico...
Viral interference studies have demonstrated the existence of four distinct murine leukemia virus (MuLV) receptors on NIH 3T3 mouse cells. The four viral interference groups are ecotropic MuLV; mink cell focus inducing virus (MCF); amphotropic MuLV; and 10A1, a recombinant derivative of amphotropic MuLV that uses a unique receptor but also retains affinity for the amphotropic MuLV receptor. We report here that 10A1 infects rat and hamster cells, unlike its amphotropic parent. We isolated an infectious molecular clone of 10A1 and present here the sequences of the env genes and enhancer regions of amphotropic MuLV and 10A1. The deduced amino acid sequences of amphotropic MuLV and 10A1 gp70su are remarkably similar to those of MCF and xenotropic MuLV (for which mouse cells lack receptors), with 64% amino acids identical in the four groups. We generated a consensus from these comparisons. Further, the differences are largely localized to a few discrete regions: (i) amphotropic MuLV has two short insertions relative to MCF, at residues 87 to 92 and 163 to 169, and (ii) amphotropic MuLV and MCF are totally different in a hypervariable region, which is greater than 30% proline, at residues approximately 253 to 304. 10A1 closely resembles amphotropic MuLV in its N terminus but contains an MCF-type hypervariable region. These results suggest the possibility that receptor specificity is localized in these short variable regions and further that the unique receptor specificity of 10A1 is due to the novel combination of amphotropic MuLV and MCF sequences rather than to the presence of any novel sequences. The Env proteins of ecotropic MuLV are far more distantly related to those of the other four groups than the latter are to each other. We also found that the enhancer regions of amphotropic MuLV and 10A1 are nearly identical...
Focus groups were conducted with 45 young, single, low-income women regarding the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Risk in this sample was substantial as 53% had multiple sexual partners, and 55% reported a recent sexually transmitted disease. Qualitative analysis of transcribed focus groups identified six themes that emerged across groups: (a) misinformation about vertical transmission and treatment of HIV-related illnesses; (b) risk perception linked to emotive factors rather than objective data; (c) uncertainty regarding the risk-reducing value of monogamy; (d) fatalism linked with ambivalence about HIV-antibody testing and treatment; (e) recognition of the importance of discussing HIV-related topics with children, but concern that such discussion with other women might be inappropriate; and (f) inconsistent communication regarding HIV-transmission and prevention with partners, partly the result of concerns about violating trust in intimate relationships. These themes warrant attention in the development of HIV risk-reduction programs.
The aim of this study was to compare operating time, postoperative outcomes, and surgical complications of total thyroidectomy plus level III-IV and VI dissection between the no-tie technique using the Harmonic Focus and classic suture ligation for hemostasis. Fifty-four patients underwent total thyroidectomy plus level III-IV and VI dissection by classic suture ligation and 51 patients by the Harmonic Focus. There was obvious distinction as to the operating time between the Focus and classic group (102.8 and 150.1 minutes, respectively, P < 0.05). Drainage volume (202.7 ± 187.0 mL vs 299.7 ± 201.4 mL, P < 0.05) were significantly lower in the Focus group. Transient hypoparathyroidism had no statistically significant difference between the groups (17.6% vs 18.5%, P > 0 .05). No patient experienced nerve injury or permanent hypocalcemia. The use of Harmonic Focus for the control of thyroid vessels during thyroid surgery is reliable and safe. The device can offer extraordinary capabilities for delicate tissue grasping and dissection.
This study describes health and safety concerns and self-care strategies of San Francisco taxi drivers. Focus groups and a written cross-sectional survey were done in a convenience sample of taxi drivers working in San Francisco. Sessions were audiotaped, transcribed in English, and independently coded to identify major health and safety themes, using thematic content analysis. Strategies to manage health and safety issues are the focus of this analysis. Five focus groups were held in 2009 with 36 participants. Major health and safety themes included stress, body pain, danger, vulnerable employment status, and concerns related to unhealthy working conditions. Self-care strategies included diffusion/decompression to manage stress, maintaining a positive attitude, maintaining power and control, and practicing proactive self-care. Creative self-care strategies were described by taxi drivers to keep healthy and safe at work. These data will inform future self-care interventions to reduce health and safety risks of taxi driving.
The objective of this study was to qualitatively evaluate young Egyptians’ perceptions, attitudes, knowledge and behaviour towards injuries before implementation of an extensive questionnaire about injuries among Egyptian youth. In 2008, five focus groups of three to nine participants each were conducted in Cairo, Egypt in Arabic to evaluate young Egyptians’ attitudes towards injuries, injury prevention, and their understanding of ‘accidents’ and fatalism. Participants were 14–26 years of age and were from medium to high socioeconomic status. Focus group participants noted that the concept of hadthah (‘accident’) signified an event determined by destiny, whereas esabah (‘injury’) was the result of human actions. The results of these focus groups indicate that young, educated Egyptians are interested in injury prevention programmes despite low confidence in the preventability of injuries.
This qualitative research project explores how poverty, the built environment, education, working conditions, health care access, food insecurity and perceived discrimination are experienced by Puerto Rican Latinas through the course of their lives. Five focus groups were conducted with the primary objective of documenting community experiences and perspectives regarding: 1) stress, including perceived discrimination based on race/ethnicity (racism); 2) the impact of stress on Puerto Rican women of reproductive age, their families, and/or their community; and 3) stressors that affect maternal health. Focus groups were conducted in English and Spanish in the two cities with the highest rates of premature birth and low infant birthweight in the state of Connecticut. Focus group findings indicate that participants perceived poverty, food insecurity, lack of access to quality education, and unsafe environments as significant life stressors affecting maternal and child health.
One of the main challenges facing people living with HIV (PLH) in Thailand is HIV disclosure. The goal of this study was to examine HIV disclosure barriers and motivators in Northeastern Thailand. Focus groups were conducted with 40 PLH to explore the barriers and motivators. To confirm the themes identified in the focus groups, face-face interviews were conducted with 50 PLH. Focus group findings revealed barriers to HIV disclosure in three domains: perceived stigma, shame and fear of rejection. Motivators to HIV disclosure consisted of the following: coping with illness, seeking help and common experiences. Findings from the face-to-face interviews included the following barriers: fear of privacy breach, fear of rejection and communication difficulties. The motivators to HIV disclosure included seeking supportive relationship, duty to inform and catharsis. Based on these findings, we are currently developing family-focused HIV disclosure intervention in Northeastern Thailand.
Physicians use slices and 3D volume visualizations to place a diagnosis, establish a treatment plan and as a guide during surgical procedures. There is an observed difference in 2D and 3D visualization objectives of the various groups of specialists. We describe a generalized temporal focus?+?context framework that unifies different widely used and novel visualization methods. The framework is used to classify already existing common techniques and to define new techniques that can be used in medical volume visualization. The new techniques explore the time-dependent position of the framework focus region to combine 2D and 3D rendering inside the focus and to provide a new focus-driven context region that gives explicit spatial perception cues between the current and past regions of interest. An arbitrary-shaped focus region and no context rendering are two novel framework-based techniques that support improved planning of procedures that involve drilling or endoscopic exploration. The new techniques are quantitatively compared to already existing techniques by means of a user study.
Few studies have explored the application of message framing to promote health behaviors in adolescents. In this exploratory study, we examined young adolescents’ selection of gain- versus loss-framed images and messages when designing an HIV-prevention intervention to promote delayed sexual initiation. Twenty-six adolescents (aged 10–14 years) participated in six focus groups and created and discussed posters to persuade their peers to delay the initiation of sexual activity. Focus groups were audio-recorded and transcribed. A five-person multidisciplinary team analyzed the posters and focus group transcripts using thematic analysis. The majority of the posters (18/26, 69%) contained both gain- and loss-framed content. Of the 93/170 (56%) images and messages with framing, similar proportions were gain- (48/93, 52%) and loss-framed (45/93, 48%). Most gain-framed content (23/48, 48%) focused on academic achievement, whereas loss-framed content focused on pregnancy (20/45, 44%) and HIV/AIDS (14/45, 31%). These preliminary data suggest that young adolescents may prefer a combination of gain- and loss-framing in health materials to promote reduction in sexual risk behaviors.
Spanish speakers in the United States encounter numerous communication barriers during cancer treatment. Communication-focused interventions may help Spanish speakers communicate better with healthcare providers and manage symptoms and quality of life issues (SQOL). For this study, we developed a Spanish version of the electronic self-report assessment for cancer (ESRA-C), a web-based program that helps people with cancer report, track, and manage cancer-related SQOL. Four methods were used to evaluate the Spanish version. Focus groups and cognitive interviews were conducted with 51 Spanish-speaking individuals to elicit feedback. Readability was assessed using the Fry readability formula. The cultural sensitivity assessment tool was applied by three bilingual, bicultural reviewers. Revisions were made to personalize the introduction using a patient story and photos and to simplify language. Focus group participants endorsed changes to the program in a second round of focus groups. Cultural sensitivity of the program was scored unacceptable (x¯=3.0) for audiovisual material and acceptable (x¯=3.0) for written material. Fry reading levels ranged from 4th to 10th grade. Findings from this study provide several next steps to refine ESRA-C for Spanish speakers with cancer.
The posterior parietal cortex (PPC) has two attentional functions: top-down attentional control and stimulus-driven attentional processing. Using the focused version of the reading span test (RST), in which the target word to be remembered is the critical word for comprehending a sentence (focused word) or a non-focused word, we examined the effect of tDCS on resolution of distractor interference by the focused word in the non-focus condition (top-down attentional control) and on augmented/shrunk attentional capture by the focused word in both the focus and non-focus conditions (stimulus-driven attentional processing). Participants were divided into two groups: anodal tDCS (atDCS) and cathodal tDCS (ctDCS). Online stimulation was given while participants performed the RST. A post-hoc recognition task was also administered in which three kinds of words were presented: target words in the RST, distractor words in the RST, and novel words. atDCS augmented the effect of the focused word by increasing differences in performance between the focus and non-focus conditions. Such an effect was not observed in the ctDCS group. As for the recognition task, atDCS again produced the augmented effect of the focused words in the distractor recognition. On the other hand...
: Young people (18–25 years) during the adolescence/adulthood transition are vulnerable to weight gain and notoriously hard to reach. Despite increased levels of overweight/obesity in this age group, diet behaviour, a major contributor to obesity, is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to explore diet behaviour among 18–25 year olds with influential factors including attitudes, motivators and barriers. Methods: An explanatory mixed method study design, based on health Behaviour Change Theories was used. Those at University/college and in the community, including those Not in Education, Employment or Training (NEET) were included. An initial quantitative questionnaire survey underpinned by the Theory of Planned Behaviour and Social Cognitive Theory was conducted and the results from this were incorporated into the qualitative phase. Seven focus groups were conducted among similar young people, varying in education and socioeconomic status. Exploratory univariate analysis was followed by multi-staged modelling to analyse the quantitative data. ‘Framework Analysis’ was used to analyse the focus groups. Results: 1313 questionnaires were analysed. Self-reported overweight/obesity prevalence was 22%, increasing with age...
Consumer health informatics technologies have the potential to enhance shared decision-making and communication between older adults, health care providers, and other stakeholders. The objective of this study was to characterize the information needs of these stakeholders to inform the design of informatics tools that support wellness in older adults. We conducted four focus groups with 31 older adults and three focus groups with 10 health care providers to explore information needs, goals, and preferences for information sharing. Analysis of focus group transcripts was performed to identify and compare themes for different stakeholders. We identified four themes related to information activities: perceived goals of others, perceived information needs of others, information sharing by older adults, and role of family members. Older adults, family members and health care providers differ in their information needs. We provide recommendations to facilitate design and adoption of informatics tools that connect these stakeholders. Larger studies are needed to characterize different stakeholder goals, information needs and preferences.
Jones, Emily J.; Peercy, Michael; Woods, J. Cedric; Parker, Stephany P.; Jackson, Teresa; Mata, Sara A.; McCage, Shondra; Levkoff, Sue E.; Nicklas, Jacinda M.; Seely, Ellen W.
Fonte: Centers for Disease Control and PreventionPublicador: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
Introduction: Innovative approaches are needed to reduce cardiometabolic risk among American Indian women with a history of gestational diabetes. We assessed beliefs of Oklahoma American Indian women about preventing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease after having gestational diabetes. We also assessed barriers and facilitators to healthy lifestyle changes postpartum and intervention approaches that facilitate participation in a postpartum lifestyle program. Methods: In partnership with a tribal health system, we conducted a mixed-method study with American Indian women aged 19 to 45 years who had prior gestational diabetes, using questionnaires, focus groups, and individual interviews. Questionnaires were used to identify women’s cardiometabolic risk perceptions and feasibility and acceptability of Internet or mobile phone technology for delivery of a postpartum lifestyle modification program. Focus groups and individual interviews were conducted to identify key perspectives and preferences related to a potential program. Results: Participants were 26 women, all of whom completed surveys; 11 women participated in focus group sessions, and 15 participated in individual interviews. Most women believed they would inevitably develop diabetes...