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Protein disulphide isomerase-induced refolding of sonochemically prepared Ribonuclease A microspheres

Fernandes, Margarida M.; Silva, Raquel; Ferreira, Helena; Donelli, Ilaria; Freddi, G.; Paulo, Artur Cavaco
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 Português
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The present communication describes for the first time the development of Ribonuclease A (RNase A) microspheres using the sonochemical method followed by an enzymatic treatment with protein disulphide isomerase (PDI). Ultrasound application induced changes on the protein physicochemical and biological properties: the enzymatic activity of RNase A was decreased in 35% and the free thiol groups content was significantly increased, probably due to the breakage of protein disulphide bonds and assembly of RNase A monomers. The deconvolution of amide I band, from Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, showed that the secondary structure of RNase A was slightly changed after microspherization. The PDI application on microspheres promoted the recovery of RNase A biological activity and induced the release of active protein into solution in its native state. These results were promoted by different states of PDI active site: oxidized and reduced, respectively. The PDI aptitude to catalyze the refolding of a protein substrate in the form of spheres is here reported.

Thermal studies on protein isolates of white lupin seeds (Lupinus albus).

Fontanari, G.G.; Martins, J.M.; Kobelnik, M.; Pastre, I.A.; Arêas, J.A.G.; Batistuti, J.P.; Fertonani, F.L.
Fonte: Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry Publicador: Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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This study used TG, DSC, and SDS-PAGE techniques to study protein isolates (PIs) in the powder form obtained from lupin seeds flour Lupinus albus. Different methods of preparing PIs were tested, resulting in final products that were different only in relation to the yield and protein content. The results of the protein analysis by SDS-PAGE showed that the same protein fractions were present in the lupin seeds and in the obtained PIs. This result shows that the process of extraction was not damaging to the composition of the original protein. On the other hand, the results of the thermal analysis (DSC and TG–DTG curves) obtained for the different PIs, led to the detection of changes in the protein conformation through the ?H values, which in general decreased with increasing values of pH and ionic strength in the experimental conditions of extraction. Keywords Lupinus albus, TG, DSC, Protein isolate, SDS-PAGE

Protein-bound polysaccharides from Amanita ponderosa cultures: characterisation, toxicological assessment and antioxidant properties

Nunes, Patricia; Salvador, Catia; Arteiro, J. M.; Martins, M. Rosário; Caldeira, A. Teresa
Fonte: Universidade de Aveiro Publicador: Universidade de Aveiro
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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In recent years, protein-polysaccharide complexes extracted from mushrooms have received great attention from the scientific community, due to their medicinal properties, namely antioxidant, antitumor, antimicrobial, immunomodulatory, antiatherogenic and hypoglycaemic properties [1, 2]. The southern of Portugal, due to its Mediterranean climate and flora diversity, is a region with a high prevalence of wild edible mushrooms Amanita ponderosa [3]. The aim of this work was to produce and characterize the protein-polysaccharide complexes, extracted from cultures (mycelia or supernatants) of different strains of A. ponderosa in order to evaluate their biological activities. Batch cultures were performed during 15 days, and polysaccharides concentrations were determined by the phenol–sulphuric method. A combined FTIR-ATR (Fourier-transform infrared using the attenuated total reflection) and Raman spectroscopy was used for the screening of bioactive protein-polysaccharides compounds present in the culture extracts. FTIR-ATR and Raman spectra of protein-bound polysaccharides samples showed bands profile compatible with this type of compounds. The characterization and fractionated of polysaccharide-protein complexes, performed by SEC UV-IR-HPLC (HPLC Size Exclusion Chromatography...

Soy protein concentrate as a protein source for Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis Kaup 1858) diets: Effects on growth and amino acid metabolism of postlarvae

Aragão, C.; Conceição, L. E. C.; Dias, J.; Marques, A. C.; Gomes, E.; Dinis, Maria Teresa
Fonte: Wiley Publicador: Wiley
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2003 Português
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The objective of this workwas to evaluate the effect of a dietary amino acid imbalance, originating from the use of a soy protein concentrate (SPC) as the major protein source, on the growth performance and amino acid metabolism of Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) postlarvae. Senegalese sole (85.6724.6mg wet weight) were fed one of two experimental diets: one based on fish meal (FM) and another based on SPC. Diet were isonitrogenous (around 56% crude protein) and isoenergetic. Diet acceptability was very good and the growth rate was 6.9%day 1 for sole eating the FM diet and 6.0%day 1 for sole eating the SPC diet. Mass-speci¢c ammonia excretion and the activities of selected amino acid metabolic enzymes (ALAT, ASATand GDH) did not present significant differences between treatments, although this may have been due to the high variability found for these parameters in the SPC treatment. This variability may suggest different capacities of individual fish to adapt to the possible methionine dietary deficiency. The utilization of amino acids as a substrate for lipogenesis does not seem to be affected by the dietary protein source, since NAPDH-generating enzymes (G6PD and ME) had similar activities in both treatments. Amino acid metabolism in Senegalese sole postlarvae seems to be slightly affected by the dietary protein source. Nevertheless...

Bovine S protein (vitronectin) increases phagocytosis of Streptococcus dysgalactiae

Filippsen,Laerte Francisco
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/1999 Português
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The effects of bovine S protein (vitronectin) on phagocytosis of Streptococcus dysgalactiae strains isolated from cattle with mastitis were investigated. Phagocytized streptococci were determined by a fluorometric microassay using glass adherent polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN). Preincubation of S. dysgalactiae with bovine S protein significantly increased their phagocytosis by PMN. Bovine S protein had no effect on phagocytic killing of non-S protein binding S. pyogenes cultures. Enzymatic digestion of the bovine S protein binding sites on S. dysgalactiae with pronase resulted in a significative reduction of the effects of S protein on phagocytosis. It could thus be concluded that in addition to its role as a promoter of cellular adhesion and complement inhibitor, bovine S protein may also influence the phagocytosis of S. dysgalactiae during inflammatory processes.

INFLUENCE OF DIETARY PROTEIN CONTENT ON Trypanosoma cruzi INFECTION IN GERMFREE AND CONVENTIONAL MICE

CINTRA,Isa P.; SILVA,Marcelo E.; SILVA,Marcílio E.C.; SILVA,Márcio E.; AFONSO,L.C. C.; NICOLI,Jacques R.; BAMBIRRA,Eduardo A.; VIEIRA,Enio C.
Fonte: Instituto de Medicina Tropical Publicador: Instituto de Medicina Tropical
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/11/1998 Português
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Germfree (GF) and conventional (CV) mice were fed on diets containing 4.4, 13.2 or 26.4% of protein (weight/weight). CV mice fed on low protein diet did not gain weight during four weeks, whereas the protein deficient diet did not affect the growth of GF mice. After four weeks on these diets, the mice were inoculated with 5x103 trypomastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi. The protein deficiency affected less the GF than the CV mice, according to the following parameters: weight gain, hemoglobin, plasma protein and albumin levels and water and protein contents of the carcass. Infection with T. cruzi produced a significant decrease in hemoglobin levels, red blood cell count, and water and protein contents in the carcass. This decrease was more pronounced in the GF mice. Histopathologically, there was no difference between the treatments in animals with the same microbiological status (GF or CV). However, the disease was more severe in the GF than in the CV mice.

Improving the production of the denatured recombinant N-terminal domain of rhoptry-associated protein 2 from a Plasmodium falciparum target in the pathology of anemia in falciparum malaria

Mariuba,Luis Andre; Orlandi,Patricia Puccinelli; Medeiros,Márcia; Holanda,Rudson; Grava,Andrea; Nogueira,Paulo Afonso
Fonte: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde Publicador: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2008 Português
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Rhoptry-associated protein 2 (RAP2) is known to be discharged from rhoptry onto the membrane surface of infected and uninfected erythrocytes (UEs) ex vivo and in vitro and this information provides new insights into the understanding of the pathology of severe anemia in falciparum malaria. In this study, a hexahistidine-tagged recombinant protein corresponding to residues 5-190 of the N-terminal of Plasmodium falciparum RAP2 (rN-RAP2) was produced using a new method of solubilization and purification. Expression was induced with D-lactose, a less expensive alternative inducer to the more common isopropyl-²-D-thio-galactopyranosidase. The recombinant protein was purified using two types of commercially-available affinity columns, iminodiacetic and nitrilotriacetic. rN-RAP2 had immunogenic potential, since it induced high titers of anti-RAP2 antibodies in mice. These antibodies recognized full-length RAP2 prepared from Triton X-100 extracts from two strains of P. falciparum. In fact, the antibody recognized a 29-kDa product of RAP2 cleavage as well as 82 and 70-kDa products of RAP1 cleavage. These results indicate that the two antigens share sequence epitopes. Our expressed protein fragment was shown to contain a functional epitope that is also present in rhoptry-derived ring surface protein 2 which attaches to the surface of both infected and UEs and erythroid precursor cells in the bone marrow of malaria patients. Serum from malaria patients who developed anemia during infection recognized rN-RAP2...

Subunit composition of seed storage proteins in high-protein soybean genotypes

Taski-Ajdukovic,Ksenija; Djordjevic,Vuk; Vidic,Milos; Vujakovic,Milka
Fonte: Embrapa Informação Tecnológica; Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira Publicador: Embrapa Informação Tecnológica; Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/07/2010 Português
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The objective of this work was to quantify the accumulation of the major seed storage protein subunits, ?-conglycinin and glycinin, and how they influence yield and protein and oil contents in high-protein soybean genotypes. The relative accumulation of subunits was calculated by scanning SDS-PAGE gels using densitometry. The protein content of the tested genotypes was higher than control cultivar in the same maturity group. Several genotypes with improved protein content and with unchanged yield or oil content were developed as a result of new breeding initiatives. This research confirmed that high-protein cultivars accumulate higher amounts of glycinin and ?-conglycinin. Genotypes KO5427, KO5428, and KO5429, which accumulated lower quantities of all subunits of glycinin and ?-conglycinin, were the only exceptions. Attention should be given to genotypes KO5314 and KO5317, which accumulated significantly higher amounts of both subunits of glycinin, and to genotypes KO5425, KO5319, KO539 and KO536, which accumulated significantly higher amounts of ?-conglycinin subunits. These findings suggest that some of the tested genotypes could be beneficial in different breeding programs aimed at the production of agronomically viable plants, yielding high-protein seed with specific composition of storage proteins for specific food applications.

Effect of protein malnutrition on the glycolytic and glutaminolytic enzyme activity of rat thymus and mesenteric lymph nodes

Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/1997 Português
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The activity of important glycolytic enzymes (hexokinase, phosphofructokinase, aldolase, phosphohexoseisomerase, pyruvate kinase and lactate dehydrogenase) and glutaminolytic enzymes (phosphate-dependent glutaminase) was determined in the thymus and mesenteric lymph nodes of Wistar rats submitted to protein malnutrition (6% protein in the diet rather than 20%) from conception to 12 weeks after birth. The wet weight (g) of the thymus and mesenteric lymph nodes decreased due to protein malnutrition by 87% (from 0.30 ± 0.05 to 0.04 ± 0.01) and 75% (0.40 ± 0.04 to 0.10 ± 0.02), respectively. The protein content was reduced only in the thymus from 102.3 ± 4.4 (control rats) to 72.6 ± 6.6 (malnourished rats). The glycolytic enzymes were not affected by protein malnutrition, but the glutaminase activity of the thymus and lymph nodes was reduced by half in protein-malnourished rats as compared to controls. This fact may lead to a decrease in the cellularity of the organ and thus in its size, weight and protein content.

Food intake and weight of lactating rats maintained on different protein-calorie diets, and pup growth

Cambraia,R.P.B.; Vannucchi,H.; De-Oliveira,L.M.
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/1997 Português
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Studies on rats maintained on low-protein-calorie diets during the lactation period show that food intake decreases. This process results in weight loss and a delay in litter development. The purpose of the present study was to determine the alterations in food intake, maternal weight and litter growth during lactation when dams were exposed to diets with different levels of protein and carbohydrate. Female Wistar rats receiving one of 4 different diets, A (N = 14), B (N = 14), C (N = 9) and D (N = 9), were used. Diet A contained 16% protein and 66% carbohydrate; diet B, 6% protein and 77% carbohydrate; diet C, 6% protein and 66% carbohydrate; diet D, 16% protein and 56% carbohydrate. Thus, C and D diets were hypocaloric, while A and B were isocaloric. The intake of a low-protein diet in groups B and C affected the weight of dams and litters during the last two weeks of lactation, while the low-calorie diets limited the growth of D litters at 21 days compared with A litters, but had no effect on the weight of D dams. Group B showed an increase in intake during the first five days of lactation, resulting in a behavioral calorie compensation due to the increase in carbohydrate content, but the intake decreased during the last part of lactation. Food intake regulation predominantly involves the recruitment of a variety of peripheral satiety systems that attempt to decrease the central feeding command system.

Identification of a protein kinase activity that phosphorylates connexin43 in a pH-dependent manner

Yahuaca,P.; Ek-Vitorin,J.F.; Rush,P.; Delmar,M.; Taffet,S.M.
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2000 Português
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The carboxyl-terminal (CT) domain of connexin43 (Cx43) has been implicated in both hormonal and pH-dependent gating of the gap junction channel. An in vitro assay was utilized to determine whether the acidification of cell extracts results in the activation of a protein kinase that can phosphorylate the CT domain. A glutathione S-transferase (GST)-fusion protein was bound to Sephadex beads and used as a target for protein kinase phosphorylation. A protein extract produced from sheep heart was allowed to bind to the fusion protein-coated beads. The bound proteins were washed and then incubated with 32P-ATP. Phosphorylation was assessed after the proteins were resolved by SDS-PAGE. Incubation at pH 7.5 resulted in a minimal amount of phosphorylation while incubation at pH 6.5 resulted in significant phosphorylation reaction. Maximal activity was achieved when both the binding and kinase reactions were performed at pH 6.5. The protein kinase activity was stronger when the incubations were performed with manganese rather than magnesium. Mutants of Cx43 which lack the serines between amino acids 364-374 could not be phosphorylated in the in vitro kinase reaction, indicating that this is a likely target of this reaction. These results indicate that there is a protein kinase activity in cells that becomes more active at lower pH and can phosphorylate Cx43.

Correlates of C-reactive protein levels in young adults: a population-based cohort study of 3827 subjects in Brazil

Nazmi,A.; Oliveira,I.O.; Victora,C.G.
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/05/2008 Português
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The socio-demographic, behavioral and anthropometric correlates of C-reactive protein levels were examined in a representative young adult Brazilian population. The 1982 Pelotas Birth Cohort Study (Brazil) recruited over 99% of births in the city of Pelotas that year (N = 5914). Individuals belonging to the cohort have been prospectively followed up. In 2004-2005, 77.4% of the cohort was traced, members were interviewed and 3827 individuals donated blood. Analyses of the outcome were based on a conceptual model that differentiated confounders from potential mediators. The following independent variables were studied in relation to levels of C-reactive protein in sex-stratified analyses: skin color, age, family income, education, parity, body mass index, waist circumference, smoking, fat/fiber/alcohol intake, physical activity, and minor psychiatric disorder. Geometric mean (95% confidence interval) C-reactive protein levels for the 1919 males and 1908 females were 0.89 (0.84-0.94) and 1.96 mg/L (1.85-2.09), respectively. Pregnant women and those using oral contraceptive therapies presented the highest C-reactive protein levels and all sub-groups of women had higher levels than men (P < 0.001). Significant associations between C-reactive protein levels were observed with age...

Expression of a hantavirus N protein and its efficacy as antigen in immune assays

Figueiredo,L.T.M.; Moreli,M.L.; Borges,A.A.; Figueiredo,G.G.; Souza,R.L.M.; Aquino,V.H.
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/07/2008 Português
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Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) has been recognized as an important public heath problem. Five hantaviruses associated with HCPS are currently known in Brazil: Juquitiba, Araraquara, Laguna Negra-like, Castelo dos Sonhos, and Anajatuba viruses. The laboratory diagnosis of HCPS is routinely carried out by the detection of anti-hantavirus IgM and/or IgG antibodies. The present study describes the expression of the N protein of a hantavirus detected in the blood sample of an HCPS patient. The entire S segment of the virus was amplified and found to be 1858 nucleotides long, with an open reading frame of 1287 nucleotides that encodes a protein of 429 amino acids. The nucleotide sequence described here showed a high identity with the N protein gene of Araraquara virus. The entire N protein was expressed using the vector pET200D and the Escherichia coli BL21 strain. The expression of the recombinant protein was confirmed by the detection of a 52-kDa protein by Western blot using a pool of human sera obtained from HCPS patients, and by specific IgG detection in five serum samples of HCPS patients tested by ELISA. These results suggest that the recombinant N protein could be used as an antigen for the serological screening of hantavirus infection.

Effect of praziquantel administration on hepatic stereology of mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni and fed a low-protein diet

Barros,L.A.; Costa-Silva,M.; Biolchini,C.L.; Neves,R.H.; Machado-Silva,J.R.
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2009 Português
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A study was undertaken to investigate the effect of administering praziquantel (PZQ), focusing on the liver stereological findings of malnourished mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni. Thirty female Swiss Webster mice (age: 21 days; weight: 8-14 g) were fed either a low-protein diet (8%) or standard chow (22% protein) for 15 days. Five mice in each group were infected with 50 cercariae each of the BH strain (Brazil). PZQ therapy (80 mg/kg body weight, per day) was started on the 50th day of infection and consisted of daily administration for 5 days. Volume density (hepatocytes, sinusoids and hepatic fibrosis) was determined by stereology using a light microscope. Body weight gain and total serum albumin levels were always lower in undernourished mice. Our stereological study demonstrated that treatment increased both volume density of hepatocytes in mice fed standard chow (47.56%, treated group and 12.06%, control) and low-protein chow (30.98%, treated group and 21.44%, control), and hepatic sinusoids [standard chow (12.52%, treated group and 9.06%, control), low-protein chow (14.42%, treated group and 8.46%, control)], while hepatic fibrosis was reduced [standard chow (39.92%, treated group and 78.88%, control) and low-protein chow (54.60%...

Maternal protein restriction affects gene expression and enzyme activity of intestinal disaccharidases in adult rat offspring

Pinheiro,D.F.; Pacheco,P.D.G.; Alvarenga,P.V.; Buratini Jr,J.; Castilho,A.C.S.; Lima,P.F.; Sartori,D.R.S.; Vicentini-Paulino,M.L.M.
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/2013 Português
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This study investigated the consequences of intrauterine protein restriction on the gastrointestinal tract and particularly on the gene expression and activity of intestinal disaccharidases in the adult offspring. Wistar rat dams were fed isocaloric diets containing 6% protein (restricted, n = 8) or 17% protein (control, n = 8) throughout gestation. Male offspring (n = 5-8 in each group) were evaluated at 3 or 16 weeks of age. Maternal protein restriction during pregnancy produced offspring with growth restriction from birth (5.7 ± 0.1 vs 6.3 ± 0.1?g; mean ± SE) to weaning (42.4 ± 1.3 vs 49.1 ± 1.6?g), although at 16 weeks of age their body weight was similar to control (421.7 ± 8.9 and 428.5 ± 8.5?g). Maternal protein restriction also increased lactase activity in the proximal (0.23 ± 0.02 vs 0.15 ± 0.02), medial (0.30 ± 0.06 vs 0.14 ± 0.01) and distal (0.43 ± 0.07 vs 0.07 ± 0.02 U·g-1·min-1) small intestine, and mRNA lactase abundance in the proximal intestine (7.96 ± 1.11 vs 2.38 ± 0.47 relative units) of 3-week-old offspring rats. In addition, maternal protein restriction increased sucrase activity (1.20 ± 0.02 vs 0.91 ± 0.02 U·g-1·min-1) and sucrase mRNA abundance (4.48 ± 0.51 vs 1.95 ± 0.17 relative units) in the duodenum of 16-week-old rats. In conclusion...

Maternal protein restriction affects gene expression and enzyme activity of intestinal disaccharidases in adult rat offspring

Pinheiro,D.F.; Pacheco,P.D.G.; Alvarenga,P.V.; Buratini Jr,J.; Castilho,A.C.S.; Lima,P.F.; Sartori,D.R.S.; Vicentini-Paulino,M.L.M.
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/2013 Português
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35.78%
This study investigated the consequences of intrauterine protein restriction on the gastrointestinal tract and particularly on the gene expression and activity of intestinal disaccharidases in the adult offspring. Wistar rat dams were fed isocaloric diets containing 6% protein (restricted, n = 8) or 17% protein (control, n = 8) throughout gestation. Male offspring (n = 5-8 in each group) were evaluated at 3 or 16 weeks of age. Maternal protein restriction during pregnancy produced offspring with growth restriction from birth (5.7 ± 0.1 vs 6.3 ± 0.1?g; mean ± SE) to weaning (42.4 ± 1.3 vs 49.1 ± 1.6?g), although at 16 weeks of age their body weight was similar to control (421.7 ± 8.9 and 428.5 ± 8.5?g). Maternal protein restriction also increased lactase activity in the proximal (0.23 ± 0.02 vs 0.15 ± 0.02), medial (0.30 ± 0.06 vs 0.14 ± 0.01) and distal (0.43 ± 0.07 vs 0.07 ± 0.02 U·g-1·min-1) small intestine, and mRNA lactase abundance in the proximal intestine (7.96 ± 1.11 vs 2.38 ± 0.47 relative units) of 3-week-old offspring rats. In addition, maternal protein restriction increased sucrase activity (1.20 ± 0.02 vs 0.91 ± 0.02 U·g-1·min-1) and sucrase mRNA abundance (4.48 ± 0.51 vs 1.95 ± 0.17 relative units) in the duodenum of 16-week-old rats. In conclusion...

Effect of wheat flour protein variations on sensory attributes, texture and staling of Taftoon bread

Salehifar,Mania; Ardebili,Mehdi Seyedein; Azizi,Mohammad Hosein
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Ciência e Tecnologia de Alimentos Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Ciência e Tecnologia de Alimentos
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2010 Português
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The quality of flat breads depends in part on the textural properties of breads during storage. These properties are largely affected by flour protein quality and quantity. The present study aimed to examine differences between sensory properties, textural and staling of Tandoori breads made from flours of different quality and different quantities of protein. This was implemented by using three flours with 9.4, 11.5 and 13.5% protein contents and different protein qualities shown by Zeleney sedimentation volume 16.25, 22.75 and 23.25 mL respectively. Bread strips were submitted to uniaxial compression between two parallel plates on an Instron Universal Testing machine, and firmness of the breads was determined. Results indicated the differences in the sensory attributes of breads produced by flours of different protein content and quality, demonstrating that high protein high quality flours are not able to sheet and expand under the high temperature - short time conditions employed in Taftoon bread production and are therefore not suitable for this kind of bread. Results showed that flour with 11.5% protein content, produced bread with better sensory characteristics and acceptable storage time.

Molecular surface directionality of the DNA-binding protein surface on the earth map

Lee,Wei-Po; Tzou,Wen-Shyong
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Genética Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Genética
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2006 Português
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Protein-DNA interactions play a pivotal role in both the transcriptional control and the maintenance of genome integrity, and these are two properties that are closely linked to the development of an organism, differentiation, physiology and to the progression of diseases. Chemical and geometric properties are typically two of the key components in any analysis that aims to understand the precise origin of specificity and elucidate the atomic features of a protein-DNA interface. In this study, we have developed a unique representation of the directionality of the molecular surface of a DNA-binding protein. The stereo-orientation of the normal vector that signifies the geometric properties of a protein surface was projected onto a two-dimensional surface (referred to here as an earth map). We identified considerably diverse patterns of the vector distribution of the protein surface, and besides this, the DNA-contact surface, a subset of an entire protein surface, has also been found to contain diverse patterns. At the same time, the direction of the DNA-contact surface was also tracked onto the earth map on a base-pair basis and distinct intertwining properties particular to the specific family of that DNA-binding protein are revealed.

Body composition and energy and protein requirements of grazing Nelore steers

Almeida,Vitor Visintin Silva de; Queiroz,Augusto César de; Silva,Fabiano Ferreira da; Silva,Robério Rodrigues; Oliveira,Aline Cardoso; Souza,Danilo Ribeiro de
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Zootecnia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Zootecnia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/07/2009 Português
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This experimentwas carried out with the objective of determining the energy and protein requirements of grazing Nellore steers. Twenty four Nellore steers (average 371 ± 14 kg of BW and 26 months old) were used. Four steers were slaughtered at the beginning of the experiment (reference group), serving as a reference for the subsequent study. The remaining 20 animals were weighed and distributed in a randomized complete block design with four levels of supplementation offers: 0.0 (mineral mixture - control), 0.3, 0.6 and 0.9% BW, with five replications. The supplements, based on ground corn, soybean meal and/or urea, were previously balanced to achieve an average daily gain of 350, 650 and 850g, respectively, for the different levels of supplementation offers. The protein, fat and energy contents retained in the animal body were determined by regression equations of the logarithm of the protein, fat and energy in the animal body contents, in function of the logarithm of empty body weight (EBW). Net requirements of protein and energy for a gain of 1kg of EBW were obtained by deriving the prediction equations of the animal body content of protein, fat, or energy in function of the EBW logarithm. The net energy requirements for weight gain of Nellore steer can be obtained by the equation: NEg = 0.05764 × EBW0...

Relationships among oil content, protein content and seed size in soybeans

Marega Filho,Mario; Destro,Deonisio; Miranda,Lilian Azevedo; Spinosa,Wilma Aparecida; Carrão-Panizzi,Mercedes Concórdia; Montalván,Ricardo
Fonte: Instituto de Tecnologia do Paraná - Tecpar Publicador: Instituto de Tecnologia do Paraná - Tecpar
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/2001 Português
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35.78%
During 1995/96 and 1996/97, experiments were carried out at Londrina State University, aiming at quantifying the oil and protein contents in two groups of soybean genotypes; estimating the phenotypic, genotypic and environmental correlations existent among oil, protein content and seed size, and identifying genotypes for direct human consumption with high protein content. The evaluated characters were Weight of a Hundred Seeds (WHS), expressed in grams/100 seeds, Oil Content (OC) and Protein Content (PC), expressed in %. In the experiment carried out in the field, OC ranged from 12 to 20.37 % and PC from 35.66 to 41.75% while in the experiment carried out in the greenhouse OC ranged from 12.26 to 21.79 % and PC from 32.95 to 41.56 % . The correlations between oil and protein were negative and significant. The relationship among WHS with OC and PC was low and higly affected by the time effect. Due to their high protein content and stability to oil and protein contents, there were distinction among the treatments carried out in the field (GA23 and GA20), and those carried out in the greenhouse (PI408251, Waseda, B6F4 (L-3 less), PI423909 and Tambagura).