Deep wastewater reservoirs are used throughout Israel to store domestic wastewater effluents for summer irrigation. These effluents contain high concentrations of ammonia (?5 mM) that are frequently toxic to photosynthetic microorganisms and that lead to development of anoxic conditions. Population dynamics of nitrifying bacteria and rates of nitrification were studied in two wastewater reservoirs that differed in organic load and degree of oxygenation and in the laboratory under controlled conditions, both by serial dilutions in mineral medium and microscopically with fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated antibodies prepared against local isolates. The difference in counts by the two methods was within 1 order of magnitude. In the laboratory, an O2 concentration of 0.2 mg liter?1 was close to optimal with respect to growth of NH3 oxidizers on domestic wastewater, while O2 concentrations of 0.05 mg liter?1 supported significant rates of nitrification. It was found that even hypertrophic anaerobic environments such as the anaerobic hypolimnion of the wastewater reservoir or the anaerobic settling ponds are capable of sustaining a viable, although not actively nitrifying, population of Nitrosomonas spp. and Nitrobacter spp., in contrast to their rapid decline when maintained anaerobically in mineral medium in the laboratory. Nitrification rates of NH3 in effluents during storage in the reservoirs were slower by 1 to 2 orders of magnitude compared with corresponding rates in water samples brought to the laboratory. The factors causing this inhibition were not identified.
Samples of air and corresponding wastewater samples were taken at wastewater spray-irrigated fields. The concentrations of salmonellae and enteroviruses present in these samples were determined and compared with those of coliforms, and the ratios between them were calculated. The most common Salmonella serotype in the air was Salmonella ohio, whereas in the wastewater, Salmonella anatum was the most common. Enteroviruses isolated and identified were poliovirus, echovirus, and coxsackievirus type B. From the ratios of salmonellas to coliforms and enteroviruses to coliforms in the air, as compared to these ratios in the wastewater, it was concluded that the suitability of coliforms as an indication of airborne contamination caused by spray irrigation is questionable.
A laboratory-scale anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) was used to pretreat coking wastewater. Inoculated anaerobic granular biomass was acclimated for 225 d to the coking wastewater, and then the biochemical methane potential (BMP) of the coking wastewater in the acclimated granular biomass was measured. At the same time, some fundamental technological factors, such as the filling time and the reacting time ratio (t
r), the mixing intensity and the intermittent mixing mode, that affect anaerobic pretreatment of coking wastewater with ASBR, were evaluated through orthogonal tests. The COD removal efficiency reached 38%~50% in the stable operation period with the organic loading rate of 0.37~0.54 kg COD/(m3·d) at the optimum conditions of t
r, the mixing intensity and the intermittent mixing mode. In addition, the biodegradability of coking wastewater distinctly increased after the pretreatment using ASBR. At the end of the experiment, the microorganism forms on the granulated sludge in the ASBR were observed using SEM (scanning electron microscope) and fluoroscope. The results showed that the dominant microorganism on the granular sludge was Methanosaeta instead of Methanosarcina dominated on the inoculated sludge.
Wastewater samples from 12 slaughterhouses located in different regions in France were tested for the presence of stx-positive and eae-positive Escherichia coli isolates, and characteristics of the isolates obtained were determined. A total of 224 wastewater samples were collected in wastewater treatment plants at different stages of wastewater processing. Altogether, 5,001 E. coli isolates were obtained by colony counting and screened for the presence of stx and eae genes by multiplex PCR. stx-positive and eae-positive E. coli isolates were detected in 25% of the samples collected; they were found in 13% and 3% of the samples obtained from treated effluent and sludge, respectively, suggesting that they could be spread into the environment. Screening of the samples collected by immunomagnetic separation allowed us to isolate 31 additional E. coli serogroup O157 isolates. Four of these isolates harbored stx and eae genes. All stx-positive and eae-positive E. coli isolates were analyzed for eae and stx genetic variants, as well as for additional virulence factors and serotypes. Our results suggest that the majority of the stx- and eae-positive E. coli isolates from wastewater have low virulence for humans. However, the diversity of the enterohemorrhagic E. coli-associated virulence factors in the strains indicates that the environment may play an important role in the emergence of new pathogenic enterohemorrhagic E. coli strains.
The mercury (Hg) content of dental-operatory wastewater has become an issue in many localities, and Hg removal is rapidly becoming a matter of concern for all dental clinics. This preliminary study tested the efficacy of polymers for the removal of Hg contaminants from the dental-unit wastewater stream. Two commercially available polymers were used to treat dental-operatory wastewater. Used separately, each polymer removed from 74.9% to 88.4% of the Hg from dental-wastewater supernatant. The polymers used in combination, within the recommended pH range, removed up to 99.9% of the total Hg from dental-wastewater supernatant. The estimated optimal concentration of the two polymers is approximately 2.33 ml of each per liter of waste, and more than 90% of the Hg may be removed with 0.13 ml/l. Results indicate that a combination of the two polymers may sufficiently reduce Hg levels to allow discharge of clarified supernatants into public sewer systems.
Increasingly stringent restrictions on mercury concentrations in wastewater discharge may be problematic for aging research laboratory facilities. Relatively high levels of mercury compounds may exist and concentrate deep in the plumbing system and their sediments, resulting in elevated wastewater concentrations. This study was conducted to assess total mercury levels in an aging laboratory building wastewater system. Wastewater outflow, sink trap water, and pipe sediment samples were collected from the building. The Jerome 431™ Mercury Vapor Analyzer was assessed as a tool for screening lab sink trap drains for mercury deposition. Results revealed that the three day average for mercury discharge from this single structure, if not diluted by other waters, would be above the local total release parameters to the wastewater treatment plant. The sink traps did not contain a majority of the mercury; however, the pipe sediment and outflow samples revealed consistently elevated concentrations.
Fluorochemicals have widespread applications and are released into municipal wastewater treatment plants via domestic wastewater. A field study was conducted at a full-scale municipal wastewater treatment plant to determine the mass flows of selected fluorochemicals. Flow-proportional, 24-h samples of raw influent, primary effluent, trickling filter effluent, secondary effluent, and final effluent and grab samples of primary, thickened, activated, and anaerobically-digested sludge were collected over ten days and analyzed by liquid chromatography electrospray-ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Significant decreases in the mass flows of perfluorohexane sulfonate and perfluorodecanoate occurred during trickling filtration and primary clarification, while activated sludge treatment decreased the mass flow of perfluorohexanoate. Mass flows of the 6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonate and perfluorooctanoate were unchanged as a result of wastewater treatment, which indicates that conventional wastewater treatment is not effective for removal of these compounds. A net increase in the mass flows for perfluorooctane and perfluorodecane sulfonates occurred from trickling filtration and activated sludge treatment. Mass flows for perfluoroalkylsulfonamides and perfluorononanoate also increased during activated sludge treatment and are attributed to degradation of precursor molecules.
Fonte: American Chemical SocietyPublicador: American Chemical Society
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Mass balances are an instructive means for investigating the fate of chemicals during wastewater treatment. In addition to the aqueous-phase removal efficiency (?), they can inform on chemical partitioning, transformation, and persistence, as well as on the chemical loading to streams and soils receiving, respectively, treated effluent and digested sewage sludge (biosolids). Release rates computed on a per-capita basis can serve to extrapolate findings to a larger scale. This review examines over a dozen mass balances conducted for various organic wastewater contaminants, including prescription drugs, estrogens, fragrances, antimicrobials, and surfactants of differing sorption potential (hydrophobicity), here expressed as the 1-octanol?water partition coefficient (KOW) and the organic carbon normalized sorption coefficient (KOC). Major challenges to mass balances are the collection of representative samples and accurate quantification of chemicals in sludge. A meta-analysis of peer-reviewed data identified sorption potential as the principal determinant governing chemical persistence in biosolids. Occurrence data for organic wastewater compounds detected in digested sludge followed a simple nonlinear model that required only KOW or KOC as the input and yielded a correlation coefficient of 0.9 in both instances. The model predicted persistence in biosolids for the majority (>50%) of the input load of organic wastewater compounds featuring a log10KOW value of greater than 5.2 (log10KOC > 4.4). In contrast...
Wastewater treatment plant workers are exposed to microbes, including Salmonella, but the prevalence of antibodies against Salmonella species or serovars in their serum samples has not been studied. Antibodies against Salmonella Infantis and lipopolysaccharide antigen common to S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium in immunoglobulin classes IgA, IgM and IgG were measured from 79 serum samples of wastewater treatment plant workers and from 79 blood donor samples. Faecal samples for Salmonella and Campylobacter were studied. Gastrointestinal, dermal and other symptoms were compared between 81 wastewater treatment plant workers and 89 food-processing workers. The blood donors had more antibodies against all of the tested antigens expect for S. Infantis in IgM and IgA classes, even though the wastewater treatment plant workers had more gastrointestinal symptoms than the controls. No Salmonella or Campylobacter were found in any faecal samples. Salmonella is not a probable cause of symptoms among wastewater treatment plant workers.
The occurrence of Clostridium difficile in nine wastewater treatment plants in the Ticino Canton (southern Switzerland) was investigated. The samples were collected from raw sewage influents and from treated effluents. Forty-seven out of 55 characterized C. difficile strains belonged to 13 different reference PCR ribotypes (009, 010, 014, 015, 039, 052, 053, 066, 070, 078, 101, 106, and 117), whereas 8 strains did not match any of those available in our libraries. The most frequently isolated ribotype (40%) was 078, isolated from six wastewater treatment plants, whereas ribotype 066, a toxigenic emerging ribotype isolated from patients admitted to hospitals in Europe and Switzerland, was isolated from the outgoing effluent of one plant. The majority of the isolates (85%) were toxigenic. Forty-nine percent of them produced toxin A, toxin B, and the binary toxin (toxigenic profile A+ B+ CDT+), whereas 51% showed the profile A+ B+ CDT?. Interestingly, eight ribotypes (010, 014, 015, 039, 066, 078, 101, and 106) were among the riboprofiles isolated from symptomatic patients admitted to the hospitals of the Ticino Canton in 2010. Despite the limitation of sampling, this study highlights that toxigenic ribotypes of C. difficile involved in human infections may occur in both incoming and outgoing biological wastewater treatment plants. Such a finding raises concern about the possible contamination of water bodies that receive wastewater treatment plant effluents and about the safe reuse of treated wastewater.
To determine if there is a core microbial community in the microbial populations of different wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and to investigate the effects of wastewater characteristics, operational parameters, and geographic locations on microbial communities, activated sludge samples were collected from 14 wastewater treatment systems located in 4 cities in China. High-throughput pyrosequencing was used to examine the 16S rRNA genes of bacteria in the wastewater treatment systems. Our results showed that there were 60 genera of bacterial populations commonly shared by all 14 samples, including Ferruginibacter, Prosthecobacter, Zoogloea, Subdivision 3 genera incertae sedis, Gp4, Gp6, etc., indicating that there is a core microbial community in the microbial populations of WWTPs at different geographic locations. The canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) results showed that the bacterial community variance correlated most strongly with water temperature, conductivity, pH, and dissolved oxygen (DO) content. Variance partitioning analyses suggested that wastewater characteristics had the greatest contribution to the bacterial community variance, explaining 25.7% of the variance of bacterial communities independently, followed by operational parameters (23.9%) and geographic location (14.7%). Results of this study provided insights into the bacterial community structure and diversity in geographically distributed WWTPs and discerned the relationships between bacterial community and environmental variables in WWTPs.
The main goal of the study was the analysis of the parameters of wastewater generated during the ex situ underground coal gasification (UCG) experiments on lignite from Belchatow, and hard coal from Ziemowit and Bobrek coal mines, simulated in the ex situ reactor. The UCG wastewater may pose a potential threat to the groundwater since it contains high concentrations of inorganic (i.e., ammonia nitrogen, nitrites, chlorides, free and bound cyanides, sulfates and trace elements: As, B, Cr, Zn, Al, Cd, Co, Mn, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, Hg, Se, Ti, Fe) and organic (i.e., phenolics, benzene and their alkyl derivatives, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) contaminants. The principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering analysis enabled to effectively explore the similarities and dissimilarities between the samples generated in lignite and hard coal oxygen gasification process in terms of the amounts and concentrations of particular components. The total amount of wastewater produced in lignite gasification process was higher than the amount generated in hard coal gasification experiments. The lignite gasification wastewater was also characterized by the highest contents of acenaphthene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, and pyrene...
Numerous initiatives have been undertaken to circumvent the problem of antibiotic resistance, including the development of new antibiotics, the use of narrow spectrum antibiotics, and the reduction of inappropriate antibiotic use. We propose an alternative but complimentary approach to reduce antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) by implementing more stringent technologies for treating municipal wastewater, which is known to contain large quantities of ARB and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). In this study, we investigated the ability of conventional aerobic digestion to reduce the quantity of ARGs in untreated wastewater solids. A bench-scale aerobic digester was fed untreated wastewater solids collected from a full-scale municipal wastewater treatment facility. The reactor was operated under semi-continuous flow conditions for more than 200 days at a residence time of approximately 40 days. During this time, the quantities of tet(A), tet(W), and erm(B) decreased by more than 90%. In contrast, intI1 did not decrease, and tet(X) increased in quantity by 5-fold. Following operation in semi-continuous flow mode, the aerobic digester was converted to batch mode to determine the first-order decay coefficients, with half-lives ranging from as short as 2.8 days for tet(W) to as long as 6.3 days for intI1. These results demonstrated that aerobic digestion can be used to reduce the quantity of ARGs in untreated wastewater solids...
One possible way to address both water and energy shortage issues, the two of major global challenges, is to recover energy and water resource from wastewater. Herein, a novel electrochemical membrane bioreactor (EMBR) was developed to recover energy from wastewater and meantime harvest clean water for reuse. With the help of the microorganisms in the biocatalysis and biodegradation process, net electricity could be recovered from a low-strength synthetic wastewater after estimating total energy consumption of this system. In addition, high-quality clean water was obtained for reuse. The results clearly demonstrate that, under the optimized operating conditions, it is possible to recover net energy from wastewater, while at the same time to harvest high-quality effluent for reuse with this novel wastewater treatment system.
The presence of antibiotics in the environment and their subsequent impact on resistance development has raised concerns globally. Hospitals are a major source of antibiotics released into the environment. To reduce these residues, research to improve knowledge of the dynamics of antibiotic release from hospitals is essential. Therefore, we undertook a study to estimate seasonal and temporal variation in antibiotic release from two hospitals in India over a period of two years. For this, 6 sampling sessions of 24 hours each were conducted in the three prominent seasons of India, at all wastewater outlets of the two hospitals, using continuous and grab sampling methods. An in-house wastewater sampler was designed for continuous sampling. Eight antibiotics from four major antibiotic groups were selected for the study. To understand the temporal pattern of antibiotic release, each of the 24-hour sessions were divided in three sub-sampling sessions of 8 hours each. Solid phase extraction followed by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was used to determine the antibiotic residues. Six of the eight antibiotics studied were detected in the wastewater samples. Both continuous and grab sampling methods indicated that the highest quantities of fluoroquinolones were released in winter followed by the rainy season and the summer. No temporal pattern in antibiotic release was detected. In general...
Constructed wetland (CW) with monoculture of Arundo donax L. was investigated for the posttreatment of anaerobic bioreactor (ABR) treating combined industrial wastewater. Different dilutions of combined industrial wastewater (20, 40, 60, and 80) and original wastewater were fed into the ABR and then posttreated by the laboratory scale CW. The respective removal efficiencies of COD, BOD, TSS, nitrates, and ammonia were 80%, 78–82%, 91.7%, 88–92%, and 100% for original industrial wastewater treated in ABR. ABR was efficient in the removal of Ni, Pb, and Cd with removal efficiencies in the order of Cd (2.7%) > Ni (79%) > Pb (85%). Posttreatment of the ABR treated effluent was carried out in lab scale CW containing A. donax L. CW was effective in the removal of COD and various heavy metals present in ABR effluents. The posttreatment in CW resulted in reducing the metal concentrations to 1.95?mg/L, 0?mg/L, and 0.004?mg/L for Ni, Pb, and Cd which were within the permissible water quality standards for industrial effluents. The treatment strategy was effective and sustainable for the treatment of combined industrial wastewater.
The use of waste arising from agroindustrial activities, such as cassava wastewater, has been steadily implemented in order to reduce environmental pollution and nutrient utilization. The aim of this study is that the changes in chemical properties of dystrophic red-yellow latosol (oxisol) were evaluated at different sampling times after reuse of cassava wastewater as an alternative to mineral fertilizer in the cultivation of sunflower, hybrid Helio 250. The experiment was conducted at the Experimental Station of the Agricultural Research Company of Pernambuco (IPA), located in Vitória de Santo Antão. The experimental design was randomized blocks with 6 × 5 subplots; six doses of cassava wastewater (0; 8.5; 17.0; 34.0; 68.0; and 136?m3?ha?1); and five sampling times (21, 42, 63, 84, and 105 days after applying the cassava wastewater), with four replications. Concentrations of available phosphorus and exchangeable potassium, calcium, magnesium and sodium, pH, and electrical conductivity of the soil saturation extract were evaluated. Results indicate that cassava wastewater is an efficient provider of nutrients to the soil and thus to the plants, making it an alternative to mineral fertilizers.
A gas sensor array consisting of eight metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) type gas sensors was evaluated for its ability for assessment of the selected wastewater parameters. Municipal wastewater was collected in a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in a primary sedimentation tank and was treated in a laboratory-scale sequential batch reactor (SBR). A comparison of the gas sensor array (electronic nose) response to the standard physical-chemical parameters of treated wastewater was performed. To analyze the measurement results, artificial neural networks were used. E-nose—gas sensors array and artificial neural networks proved to be a suitable method for the monitoring of treated wastewater quality. Neural networks used for data validation showed high correlation between the electronic nose readouts and: (I) chemical oxygen demand (COD) (r = 0.988); (II) total suspended solids (TSS) (r = 0.938); (III) turbidity (r = 0.940); (IV) pH (r = 0.554); (V) nitrogen compounds: N-NO3 (r = 0.958), N-NO2 (r = 0.869) and N-NH3 (r = 0.978); (VI) and volatile organic compounds (VOC) (r = 0.987). Good correlation of the abovementioned parameters are observed under stable treatment conditions in a laboratory batch reactor.
Long-term irrigation with untreated wastewater can lead to an accumulation of antibiotic substances and antibiotic resistance genes in soil. However, little is known so far about effects of wastewater, applied for decades, on the abundance of IncP-1 plasmids and class 1 integrons which may contribute to the accumulation and spread of resistance genes in the environment, and their correlation with heavy metal concentrations. Therefore, a chronosequence of soils that were irrigated with wastewater from 0 to 100 years was sampled in the Mezquital Valley in Mexico in the dry season. The total community DNA was extracted and the absolute and relative abundance (relative to 16S rRNA genes) of antibiotic resistance genes (tet(W), tet(Q), aadA), class 1 integrons (intI1), quaternary ammonium compound resistance genes (qacE+qacE?1) and IncP-1 plasmids (korB) were quantified by real-time PCR. Except for intI1 and qacE+qacE?1 the abundances of selected genes were below the detection limit in non-irrigated soil. Confirming the results of a previous study, the absolute abundance of 16S rRNA genes in the samples increased significantly over time (linear regression model, p < 0.05) suggesting an increase in bacterial biomass due to repeated irrigation with wastewater. Correspondingly...
The global widespread use of antimicrobials and accompanying increase in resistant bacterial strains is of major public health concern. Wastewater systems and wastewater treatment plants are considered a niche for antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), with diverse microbial communities facilitating ARG transfer via mobile genetic element (MGE). In contrast to hospital sewage, wastewater from other health care facilities is still poorly investigated. At the instance of a nursing home located in south-west Germany, in the present study, shotgun metagenomics was used to investigate the impact on wastewater of samples collected up- and down-stream in different seasons. Microbial composition, ARGs and MGEs were analyzed using different annotation approaches with various databases, including Antibiotic Resistance Ontologies (ARO), integrons and plasmids. Our analysis identified seasonal differences in microbial communities and abundance of ARG and MGE between samples from different seasons. However, no obvious differences were detected between up- and downstream samples. The results suggest that, in contrast to hospitals, sewage from the nursing home does not have a major impact on ARG or MGE in wastewater, presumably due to much less intense antimicrobial usage. Possible limitations of metagenomic studies using high-throughput sequencing for detection of genes that seemingly confer antibiotic resistance are discussed.