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Cognitive abilities, sociocultural background and academic achievement

Diniz, António; Pocinho, Margarida Maria Ferreira Diogo Dias; Almeida, Leandro Silva
Fonte: Psicothema Publicador: Psicothema
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.77%
The infl uence of students’ sociocultural background on academic achievement is a well established fact. Research also points out that sociocultural background is related to students’ cognitive abilities and these have an effect on their academic achievement. However, the mediator role of cognitive abilities on the relationship between sociocultural background and academic achievement is less well known. A structural equation model that represents these relationships was tested in a sample (N= 728) of Portuguese junior high school students. Multigroup analysis of the model showed the importance of the cognitive ability mediation effect between sociocultural background and academic achievement in the 7th and 9th grades, but not in the 8th grade. This difference may be the result of the academic transition experienced in the 7th and 9th grades in the Portuguese educational system, which requires parents’ higher involvement in school.

Academic achievement and/or educational attainment : the role of teacher librarians in students’ future: main findings of a research in Portugal

Novo, Ana; Calixto, José António
Fonte: IASL Publicador: IASL
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/conferenceobject
Publicado em /09/2009 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.5%
Conferência realizada em Pádua, Itália, de 2-5 de Setembro de 2009; This paper aims at analysing 20 teacher librarians definitions’ of academic achievement and educational attainment targeting their students’ preparation for the future. Reflection is also done on how these teacher librarians see their roles and specific qualifications in relation with those concepts. This research work, belonging to a PhD program, is focused on School Libraries of Portuguese public elementary integrated schools, which were in the school libraries network till 2005. This research used a qualitative methodology both for data gathering and analysis techniques.

Determinantes do desempenho acadêmico dos alunos dos cursos de ciências contábeis; Determinants of the academic achievement of students accountancy courses

Santos, Nalbia de Araujo
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 28/03/2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.75%
O primeiro teste padronizado de larga escala que compôs o sistema de avaliação da educação superior implantado pelo governo brasileiro, pela Lei 9.131, 1995, foi o Exame Nacional de Cursos (ENC) - Provão, com período de aplicação entre 1996 a 2003. Em 2004, o ENC foi substituído pelo Exame Nacional de Desempenho de Estudantes (Enade), pela Lei 10.861, instituindo o Sistema Nacional de Avaliação da Educação Superior (SINAES), para auferir conhecimentos, habilidades acadêmicas e competências profissionais, definidas previamente por diretrizes educacionais e desenvolvidas pelos seus estudantes durante a graduação. Os estudantes da graduação em Ciências Contábeis participaram do Provão, em 2002 e 2003, e Enade, em 2006 e 2009. Entretanto, o histórico do desempenho geral desses estudantes, que estavam no final do último ano, conforme o Instituto Nacional de Estudos e Pesquisas Educacionais Anísio Teixeira (INEP), de 0 a 100, registrou média geral de 32,0 no Provão de 2002 e 2003, respectivamente, e no Enade de 2006, 33,9. Assim, este estudo objetivou a analisar o efeito de características individuais e institucionais sobre o desempenho acadêmico dos estudantes dos cursos de Ciências Contábeis, via resultados obtidos no ENC-Provão de 2002 e 2003 e Enade de 2006. Os fundamentos teóricos da função de produção educacional nortearam este trabalho. A série de microdados do Provão...

A relação entre o desempenho no vestibular e o rendimento acadêmico no ensino superior: um estudo em uma universidade pública paulista; The relationship between the performance in the university entrance exam and academic achievement in higher education: a study in a public university of the state of São Paulo

Baccaro, Thais Accioly
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 26/05/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.63%
O Brasil viveu, nas últimas décadas, um crescimento exponencial no ensino superior, aumentando-se o número de instituições, cursos, vagas e matrículas. No entanto, mesmo com essa expansão, o acesso à universidade ainda é restrito a poucos, principalmente nas universidades públicas. As universidades utilizam processos de seleção para ingresso, com o objetivo de escolher os candidatos mais aptos, para que, assim, aumentem as chances de sucesso no ensino superior. Nesse sentido, este trabalho buscou analisar a relação entre o desempenho no vestibular e o rendimento acadêmico dos alunos de uma universidade pública paulista, sendo que o desempenho no vestibular foi medido pela pontuação final do aluno para ingresso na universidade e o rendimento acadêmico, pela média geral do aluno concluinte nas carreiras selecionadas. Esse objetivo foi atingido por meio de uma pesquisa quantitativa utilizando dados de 6055 alunos ingressantes nos anos de 2005, 2006 e 2007, em 12 carreiras das áreas de Ciências Exatas e Tecnológicas, Ciências Biológicas e Humanidades. Os dados iniciais demonstraram que a média de idade dos alunos ingressantes é de 20 anos, sendo a maioria homens (64,3%), solteiros (96,5%), com renda familiar acima de R$ 3.000...

Academic achievement on first-year Portuguese college students : the role of academic preparation and learning strategies

Soares, Ana Paula; Guisande, M. Adelina; Almeida, Leandro S.; Páramo, M. Fernanda
Fonte: Psychology Press Publicador: Psychology Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2009 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.78%
This paper analyses the impact of learning strategies, gender, academic field attended and students’ entrance classification to the university on academic achievement at the end of the first academic year. The study, developed with 445 first-year college students (68.5% female), ages between 17 and 57 years old (M = 18.3; SD = 2.17), from the University of Minho (Portugal), implicated answering a questionnaire on learning strategies, which concerned five dimensions (comprehensive approach, surface approach, personal competency perceptions, intrinsc motivation and organization of study activities). Regression analyses showed that academic achievement was more related to students’ entrance classifications to the university than to their learning strategies, independently of the academic field attended. Despite the significance of the other variables, these results seem to highlight the relationship between students’ academic preparation and their achievement at the end of the first-year.; Cet article analyse le rôle de la préparation académique et des stratégies d’apprentissage dans la prediction des resultats académiques des étudiants collegiens portugais de premiere année, considerant le sexe des étudiants et le champ d’etudes poursuivies. Un échantillon de 445 etudiants collegiens de première annee (68...

Rendimento académico no Ensino Superior : estudo com alunos do 1º ano

Almeida, Leandro S.; Soares, Ana Paula; Guisande, M. Adelina; Paisana, Joanne
Fonte: Universidade da Coruña Publicador: Universidade da Coruña
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2007 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.75%
No quadro do projecto “Transição, adaptação e sucesso académico de jovens no Ensino Superior”, financiado pela Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian, avaliamos de forma sequencial uma amostra de 314 alunos do 1º ano da Universidade do Minho (UM) procurando, desse modo, identificar as variáveis pessoais e contextuais preditoras do rendimento académico no final do 1º ano. A par do Questionário de Vivências Académicas (QVAr; Almeida, Ferreira, & Soares, 1999), aplicado no decurso do 1º semestre para avaliar a qualidade das experiências universitárias dos alunos, aplicou-se no final do 2º semestre o Inventário de Atitudes e Hábitos de Estudo (IACHE; Tavares et al., 2002). Recolheram-se, ainda, junto dos Serviços Académicos da UM a média de candidatura dos alunos ao Ensino Superior e as classificações obtidas no final do 1º ano. Algumas diferenças com significado estatístico foram observadas nas vivências e nos métodos de estudo segundo o tipo de curso frequentado e a opção do curso em que o aluno se encontra. No entanto, mais que estas variáveis, é a própria média de candidatura do aluno à Universidade que melhor prediz o rendimento dos alunos no final do 1º ano, sendo o seu peso bastante diferenciado em função do curso que os alunos frequentam.; As part of the project “Transition...

Preparação académica, estatuto sociocultural, abordagens à aprendizagem e envolvimento académico : fatores de um modelo explicativo do rendimento académico no primeiro ano da universidade

Trigo, Maria Luísa
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em 20/12/2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.85%
Tese de doutoramento em Ciências da Educação (ramo de conhecimento em Psicologia da Educação); Os estudos que almejam identificar os fatores explicativos do (in)sucesso no ensino superior têm vindo a despertar um interesse crescente por parte de investigadores, docentes, estudantes, instituições de ensino superior, entidades governamentais e público em geral. Num contexto em mudança, com a criação de um Espaço Europeu do Ensino Superior e a implementação do Processo de Bolonha e com a crescente diversificação da população estudantil, torna-se importante compreender os fatores que influenciam os resultados académicos dos estudantes, no sentido de identificar caminhos que permitam promover a melhoria da qualidade das aprendizagens e maximizar o sucesso dos estudantes. Este estudo teve como principal objetivo analisar a viabilidade e estabilidade de um modelo explicativo do rendimento académico no primeiro ano do ensino superior, em dois momentos diferentes: no início e no final do primeiro semestre. Participaram nesta investigação duas amostras de estudantes do primeiro ano do ensino superior de uma universidade do grande Porto: 549 estudantes na Amostra 1 – início do semestre e 472 estudantes na Amostra 2 – final do semestre. Os dados foram analisados com recurso a modelos de equações estruturais...

Associations between gross motor coordination and academic achievement in elementary school children

Lopes, Luís Carlos Oliveira; Santos, Rute; Pereira, Beatriz Oliveira; Lopes, Vitor Pires
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.5%
We aimed to evaluate the relationship between gross motor coordination (MC) and academic achievement (AA) in a sample of Portuguese children aged 9–12 years. The study took place during the 2009/2010 school year and involved 596 urban children (281 girls) from the north of Portugal. AA was assessed using the Portuguese Language and Mathematics National Exams. Gross MC was evaluated with the Körperkoordination Test für Kinder. Cardiorespiratory fitness was predicted by a maximal multistage 20-m shuttle-run test of the Fitnessgram Test Battery. Body weight and height were measured following standard procedures. Socio-economic status was based on annual family income. Logistic Regression was used to analyze the association of gross MC with AA. 51.6% of the sample exhibited MC disorders or MC insufficiency and none of the participants showed very good MC. In both genders, children with insufficient MC or MC disorders exhibited a higher probability of having low AA, compared with those with normal or good MC (p < .05 for trend for both) after adjusting for cardiorespiratory fitness, body mass index and socio-economic status.; CIEC – Research Centre on Child Studies, UM (FCT R&D 317)

Rendimento académico em crianças e jovens institucionalizados; Academic achievement of children and youth in out-of-home care

Silva, Ana Paula de Carvalho Borges Cabral
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/masterthesis
Publicado em //2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.63%
Dissertação de mestrado em Estudos da Criança (área de especialização em Intervenção Psicossocial em Crianças, Jovens e Famílias); Este estudo pretende perceber a relação entre tempo de permanência na instituição, idade de acolhimento e rendimento académico de sujeitos com um passado de maltrato. Procurou-se também perceber se existiam diferenças ao nível do rendimento académico entre sujeitos por motivo de acolhimento: negligência ou negligência associada a outro tipo de abuso, bem como analisar as trajectórias de desempenho escolar dos sujeitos maltratados. Os participantes são sujeitos acolhidos numa instituição de protecção de menores e cujos processos judiciais constam dos ficheiros da instituição. Os resultados baseados em modelos de regressão linear e multinível, sugerem que o tempo de permanência na instituição tem um impacto positivo, em particular nas classificações a Matemática e que os sujeitos vítimas de negligência associada a outro tipo de abuso apresentam piores desempenhos. O modelo testado permite ainda perceber que, no caso das trajectórias a Matemática, há uma progressão aproximadamente linear das classificações, embora seja mais evidente nos primeiros anos da institucionalização. Os progressos individuais seguem trajectórias próprias...

The cognitive abilities’ impact on the relationship between sociocultural background and academic achievement

Diniz, Pocinho, & Almeida
Fonte: Colegio de Psicólogos del Principado de Asturias Publicador: Colegio de Psicólogos del Principado de Asturias
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.77%
The infl uence of students’ sociocultural background on academic achievement is a well established fact. Research also points out that sociocultural background is related to students’ cognitive abilities and these have an effect on their academic achievement. However, the mediator role of cognitive abilities on the relationship between sociocultural background and academic achievement is less well known. A structural equation model that represents these relationships was tested in a sample (N= 728) of Portuguese junior high school students. Multigroup analysis of the model showed the importance of the cognitive ability mediation effect between sociocultural background and academic achievement in the 7th and 9th grades, but not in the 8th grade. This difference may be the result of the academic transition experienced in the 7th and 9th grades in the Portuguese educational system, which requires parents’ higher involvement in school.

"Is it beneficial to stress grades to my child?" - Relationships between parental attitudes towards academic achievement, motivation, academic self-concept and academic achievement in adolescents

Peixoto, Francisco José Brito
Fonte: European Research Network about Parents in Education Publicador: European Research Network about Parents in Education
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.89%
In this study we analyse the relations of parental attitudes towards academic achievement (process-centred vs. performance-centred) with self-representations, motivational orientations and academic achievement. Participants were 498 students attending 7th and 9th grades. To collect data we used a self-concept scale (Peixoto & Almeida, 1999), a scale of motivational orientations (Skaalvik, 1997), and a scale to assess parental attitudes towards academic performance (Antunes & Fontaine, 2003). Correlation analysis showed positive associations between processes centred attitudes and academic self-concept, self-esteem, task orientation, and academic achievement. Performance centred attitudes were negatively correlated with academic self-concept, self-esteem and academic achievement, and positively related to selfenhancing ego orientation, self-defeating ego orientation and avoidance orientation. Structural equation modelling revealed different paths, in the relationship between parental attitudes and academic achievement, for process centred attitudes and for performance centred attitudes. Results in this study support the idea that the perception of parental attitudes centred in the process are related to positive outcomes while parental attitudes centred on performance are related to less positive outcomes. Finally...

Support teachers’ beliefs about the academic achievement of students with special educational needs

Silva, José Maria de Castro; Morgado, José
Fonte: Wiley Publicador: Wiley
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2004 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.56%
José Castro Silva, lecturer in sciences of education, and José Morgado, assistant professor, both work at the Instituto Superior de Psicologica Aplicada in Lisboa, Portugal. In this article, they describe their study of support teachers’ beliefs about the academic achievement of school students with special educational needs. The ‘support teachers’ who were the subject of this study work in mainstream schools where the majority of pupils with special educational needs are educated in mainstream classes run by ‘general teachers’. The work of the support teachers is supervised and supported by ‘special education team co-o rd i n a t o r s ’ . The study reported here set out to elicit the support teachers’ beliefs about the factors that contribute to success at school for pupils with special educational needs. Results suggest that the support teachers consider that factors including ‘school climate’, ‘curriculum design’ and ‘teaching approach’ contribute significantly to achievements among these pupils. On the other hand, analysis reveals that the support teachers attribute difficulties and lack of achievement significantly to ‘out-of-school’ contextual variables. These findings are related to a detailed review of the literature and the authors discuss the implications for policy...

Cognitive style and learning strategies as factors which affect academic achievement of brazilian university students

Tinajero,Carolina; Lemos,Sônia Maria; Araújo,Margarete; Ferraces,M. José; Páramo,M. Fernanda
Fonte: Curso de Pós-Graduação em Psicologia da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Curso de Pós-Graduação em Psicologia da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.7%
In the present study, the influence of the cognitive style called field dependence-independence on academic achievement of Brazilian university students was explored as well as the mediating effect of learning strategies on that influence. Learning strategies of 313 first-year university students (189 women and 124 men; M age = 20.86, SD = 3.86) from different fields, with upper, medium and lower scores on field dependence-independence were assessed on a self-report questionnaire and their overall academic marks in the first year were registered. Results of a regression analysis showed that cognitive style and learning strategies significantly contributed to academic achievement. A path analysis revealed that planning strategies mediated the influence of cognitive style on achievement.

The association of Ecstasy use and academic achievement among adolescents in two U.S. national surveys

Martins, Silvia S.; Alexandre, Pierre K.
Tipo: text
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.75%
The association of ecstasy (3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, MDMA) use with low academic achievement was examined in two nationally representative surveys of adolescents. We tested whether associations with low academic achievement were of similar magnitude or of stronger magnitude for ecstasy versus marijuana use (without ecstasy use), alcohol/tobacco use (without other drug use) and non-drug use in adolescence. Data from the adolescents in the 2002–2005 National Survey of Drug Use and Health (NSDUH, n= 65,294) and from the 2001–2003 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS, n= 27,592) were analyzed via weighted logistic regression models. Ecstasy, marijuana, and alcohol/tobacco use were associated with moderate and low academic achievement among adolescents in both surveys. Moreover, ecstasy was more strongly associated with low academic achievement and reporting that school gave no grades than alcohol/tobacco in both samples and than marijuana (NSDUH sample only). Prevention programs should inform adolescents that ecstasy use might impair their academic achievement.

Manganese Exposure from Drinking Water and Children’s Academic Achievement

Khan, Khalid; Wasserman, Gail A.; Liu, Xinhua; Ahmed, Ershad; Parvez, Faruque; Slavkovich, Vesna; Levy, Diane; Mey, Jacob; van Geen, Alexander; Graziano, Joseph H.; Factor-Litvak, Pam
Tipo: text
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.78%
Drinking water manganese (WMn) is a potential threat to children’s health due to its associations with a wide range of outcomes including cognitive, behavioral and neuropsychological effects. Although adverse effects of Mn on cognitive function of the children indicate possible impact on their academic achievement little evidence on this issue is available.. Moreover, little is known regarding potential interactions between exposure to Mn and other metals, especially water arsenic (WAs). In Araihazar, a rural area of Bangladesh, we conducted a cross-sectional study of 840 children to investigate associations between WMn and WAs and academic achievement in mathematics and languages among elementary school-children, aged 8–11 years. Data on As and Mn exposure were collected from the participants at the baseline of an ongoing longitudinal study of school-based educational intervention. Annual scores of the study children in languages (Bangla and English) and mathematics were obtained from the academic achievement records of the elementary schools. WMn above the WHO standard of 400 ?g/L was associated with 6.4 percentage score loss (95% CI=0.5, 12.3) in mathematics achievement test scores, adjusted for WAs and other sociodemographic variables. We did not find any significant associations between WMn and academic achievement in either language. Neither WAs nor urinary As was significantly related to any of the three academic achievement scores. Our finding suggests that a large number of children in rural Bangladesh may experience deficits in mathematics due to high concentrations of Mn exposure in drinking water.

Is Preschool Executive Function Causally Related to Academic Achievement?

Willoughby, Michael T.; Kupersmidt, Janis; Voegler-Lee, Mary
Tipo: text
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.81%
The primary objective of this study was to re-evaluate the well-established result that preschoolers’ performance on executive function tasks are positively associated with their performance on academic achievement tests. The current study replicated the previously established concurrent associations between children’s performance on EF tasks and academic achievement tests. Specifically, children’s performance on measures of inhibitory and motor control were positively associated with their performance on tests of reading, writing, and mathematics achievement (rs = .2 –.5); moreover, although diminished in magnitude, most of these associations held up even after including an earlier measure of academic achievement as a covariate (rs = .1 –.3). However, the application of an alternative analytic method, fixed effects analysis, a method which capitalizes on repeated measures data to control for all time stable measured and unmeasured covariates, rendered the apparent positive associations between executive function and academic achievement non-significant(rs = .0 –.1).Taken together, these results suggest that the well-replicated association between executive function abilities and academic achievement may be spurious. Results are discussed with respect to the importance of utilizing analytic methods and research designs that facilitate strong causal inferences between executive function and academic achievement in early childhood...

Physical activity and obesity mediate the association between childhood motor function and adolescents’ academic achievement

Kantomaa, Marko T.; Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Kankaanpää, Anna; Kaakinen, Marika; Rodriguez, Alina; Taanila, Anja; Ahonen, Timo; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Tammelin, Tuija
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: text
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.81%
The global epidemic of obesity and physical inactivity may have detrimental implications for young people’s cognitive function and academic achievement. This prospective study investigated whether childhood motor function predicts later academic achievement via physical activity, fitness, and obesity. The study sample included 8,061 children from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986, which contains data about parent-reported motor function at age 8 y and self-reported physical activity, predicted cardiorespiratory fitness (cycle ergometer test), obesity (body weight and height), and academic achievement (grades) at age 16 y. Structural equation models with unstandardized (B) and standardized (?) coefficients were used to test whether, and to what extent, physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and obesity at age 16 mediated the association between childhood motor function and adolescents’ academic achievement. Physical activity was associated with a higher grade-point average, and obesity was associated with a lower grade-point average in adolescence. Furthermore, compromised motor function in childhood had a negative indirect effect on adolescents’ academic achievement via physical inactivity (B = –0.023, 95% confidence interval = –0.031...

A brief report on the relationship between self-control, video game addiction and academic achievement in normal and ADHD students

Haghbin, Maryam; Shaterian, Fatemeh; Hosseinzadeh, Davood; Griffiths, Mark D.
Fonte: Akadémiai Kiadó Publicador: Akadémiai Kiadó
Tipo: text
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.86%
Background and aims: Over the last two decades, research into video game addiction has grown increasingly. The present research aimed to examine the relationship between video game addiction, self-control, and academic achievement of normal and ADHD high school students. Based on previous research it was hypothesized that (i) there would be a relationship between video game addiction, self-control and academic achievement (ii) video game addiction, self-control and academic achievement would differ between male and female students, and (iii) the relationship between video game addiction, self-control and academic achievement would differ between normal students and ADHD students. Methods: The research population comprised first grade high school students of Khomeini-Shahr (a city in the central part of Iran). From this population, a sample group of 339 students participated in the study. The survey included the Game Addiction Scale (Lemmens, Valkenburg & Peter, 2009), the Self-Control Scale (Tangney, Baumeister & Boone, 2004) and the ADHD Diagnostic checklist (Kessler et al., 2007). In addition to questions relating to basic demographic information, students’ Grade Point Average (GPA) for two terms was used for measuring their academic achievement. These hypotheses were examined using a regression analysis. Results: Among Iranian students...

Profiling First-Year Students in STEM Programs Based on Autonomous Motivation and Academic Self-Concept and Relationship with Academic Achievement

Van Soom, Carolien; Donche, Vincent
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: text
Publicado em 12/11/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.85%
The low success rate of first-year college students in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) programs has spurred many academic achievement studies in which explanatory factors are studied. In this study, we investigated from a person-oriented perspective whether different motivational and academic self-concept profiles could be discerned between male and female first-year college students in STEM and whether differences in early academic achievement were associated with these student groups. Data on autonomous motivation, academic self-concept, and early academic achievement of 1,400 first-year STEM college students were collected. Cluster analyses were used to distinguish motivational profiles based on the relative levels of autonomous motivation and academic self-concept for male and female students. Differences in early academic achievement of the various profiles were studied by means of ANCOVA. Four different motivational profiles were discerned based on the dimensions of autonomous motivation (A) and academic self-concept (S): students scoring high and respectively low on both dimensions (HA-HS or LA-LS), and students scoring high on one dimension and low on the other (HA-LS or LA-HS). Also gender differences were found in this study: male students with high levels of academic self-concept and autonomous motivation had higher academic achievement compared to male students with low levels on both motivational dimensions. For female students...

Academic Achievement and Its Impact on Friend Dynamics

Flashman, Jennifer
Tipo: text
Publicado em /01/2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.79%
Academic achievement in adolescence is a key determinant of future educational and occupational success. Friends play an important role in the educational process. They provide support and resources and can both encourage and discourage academic achievement. As a result, the friends adolescents make may help to maintain and exacerbate inequality if friends are sorted on the basis of academic achievement. These observations prompt the question: How does academic achievement affect the friendship ties made? Using data from the high schools in the Add Health saturated sample, the author models network change using a stochastic actor-based Markov model for the co-evolution of networks and behavior. This model is carried out at the school level for each of the high schools included in the saturated sample. Results show that in the most typical American schools, similarity in academic achievement is an important and consistent predictor of friendship ties in a dynamic context. High-achieving students are more likely to extend ties to other high-achieving students, net of other sociodemographic, network, and proximity characteristics, while low-achieving students are more likely to extend ties to other low-achieving students. Adolescents respond to changes in academic achievement by changing their friendship ties.