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Water-Column, Sediment, and in Situ Chronic Bioassays with Cladocerans

Pereira, Anabela M. M.; Soares, Amadeu M. V. M.; Gonçalves, Fernando; Ribeiro, Rui
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: aplication/pdf
Português
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27.15%
In situ bioassays are becoming very popular for laboratory test validation and field extrapolation. Natural conditions, including environmental variables, affect the "behavior" of contaminants and, consequently, their toxicity. This work aimed to develop protocols for in situ chronic bioassays with cladocerans and to assess the ecological relevance of conventional protocols for laboratory testing (water-column and sediment). An aquatic system impacted with acid mine drainage was chosen for the study. At some stations that were contaminated with heavy metals, water-column bioassays did not reveal any toxicity, while sediment and, especially in situ bioassays, revealed a delay in reproduction and a reduction in fertility. Thus, both laboratory bioassays underestimated the actual toxicity of studied sites: sediment, besides being an important contaminant source, became significantly altered with sampling, transport, storage, and manipulation. Therefore, an extra caution is needed when interpreting laboratory results, since the extrapolation to natural systems could be a very problematic step.; http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6WDM-45F555T-17/1/77987940868d5036bcbb7831f3d1dc3b

Utilização de Chironomus sp (Diptera, Chironomidae) para a avaliação da qualidade de sedimentos e contaminação por metais; Use of Chironomus sp (Diptera, Chironomidae) to assess the quality of sediment and metal contamination

Dornfeld, Carolina Buso
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 02/10/2006 Português
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O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a viabilidade do uso das espécies Chironomus xanthus e Chironomus riparius na avaliação da qualidade de sedimentos e da contaminação por metais por meio de diferentes ensaios ecotoxicológicos. As amostras de sedimento foram coletados no rio Monjolinho e tributários (14 estações de amostragem). Foi realizada a análise da qualidade da água e do sedimento do sistema utilizando diversas variáveis, tais como nutrientes e metais, sendo possível observar um gradiente crescente de contaminação da nascente em direção à foz do rio Monjolinho. As concentrações dos agrotóxicos organoclorados foram superiores àquelas estabelecidas pela resolução CONAMA 357/05 em apenas algumas estações. Os resultados dos bioensaios laboratoriais com sedimentos indicaram toxicidade aguda em duas estações (Federal e Usina) e nos ensaios in situ observaram-se maiores porcentagens de mortalidade em relação aos ensaios laboratoriais. Os metais Cd e Cu estiveram acima do limite estabelecido pela resolução CONAMA 357/05 em algumas estações de amostragem e, portanto, foram utilizados nos testes de toxicidade aguda e crônica com C. xanthus. Observou-se para o IV instar a 'CL IND.50' 96h de 0,30 mg/L de Cu e de 0...

Estudo da atividade biológica e da expressão do gene da prolactina linfocitária e avaliação do nível de prolactina sérica em pacientes com lúpus eritematoso sistêmico; Study of biological activity and lymphocytic prolactin gene expression and evaluation of serum prolactin level in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

Paraiba, Diane Belchior
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 21/08/2008 Português
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INTRODUÇÃO: Estudos indicam uma prevalência de 20 a 30% de hiperprolactinemia discreta em pacientes com lúpus eritematoso sistêmico (LES), sugerindo um possível papel da prolactina (PRL) na sua etiopatogenia. Como a expressão do gene da PRL é encontrada na maioria das células do sistema imunológico, onde atua como citocina, de forma parácrina e autócrina, a origem linfocitária desta PRL tem sido aventada. OBJETIVOS: estudar a expressão do gene da PRL linfocitária de pacientes com LES em atividade e inatividade de doença e de controles normais, e sua atividade biológica em bioensaios com células Nb2 e Ba/F-LLP; Determinar o nível sérico de PRL e a prevalência de macroprolactinemia numa população nossa com LES. MÉTODOS: grupo 1, composto de 73 pacientes (66 mulheres e 7 homens), sendo 28 pacientes com LES em atividade e 45 em inatividade de doença, onde foi avaliado o nível de PRL sérica e a prevalência da macroprolactinemia; grupo 2, derivado do grupo 1, com 30 pacientes: 18 com LES em atividade e 12 em inatividade e um grupo controle com 10 indivíduos normais, dos quais foram extraídos linfócitos do sangue periférico e colocados em cultura por 72 horas. Em seguida, o sobrenadante da cultura foi utilizado como amostra de PRL linfocitária em ensaios com células Nb2 (heterólogo) e Ba/F-LLP (homólogo) para avaliação da bioatividade. Os RNAs totais destes linfócitos foram extraídos e usados na RT-PCR em tempo real (método quantitativo)...

Avaliação da qualidade da água e sedimento da sub-bacia do rio Corumbataí (SP) por meio de testes ecotoxicológicos; Water and sediment quality assessment of Corumbataí River (SP) using bioassays

Santos, Maria Alice Penna Firme dos
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 12/08/2008 Português
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Foram realizados testes de toxicidade ao longo de dois anos, com amostras de água e sedimento do rio Corumbataí, entre Novembro de 2004 e Setembro de 2006, com o objetivo de avaliar a qualidade da água e do sedimento. Os testes de toxicidade aguda realizados com os organismos Chironomus xanthus, Daphnia magna, Hydra attenuata, Lactuca sativa e Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata indicaram variados graus de toxicidade nos diferentes pontos de coleta do rio Corumbataí, com maior ocorrência de toxicidade nos pontos de coleta mais próximos à foz do rio, principalmente devido à afluência do Ribeirão Claro. Todas as amostras de sedimento se mostraram mais tóxicas do que as amostras de água dos mesmos locais, para todos os organismos utilizados, em todas as coletas realizadas. Para todos os organismos, foram realizados testes de sensibilidade, com substância de referência (NaCl), mensalmente, a fim de garantir a qualidade dos cultivos em laboratório e dos bioensaios realizados, com resultados regulares e satisfatórios. Os efeitos produzidos pelas amostras ambientais sobre as sementes de alface (Lactuca sativa) foram bastante variáveis e irregulares, não possibilitando os cálculos de CI50. Decidiu-se por bem suspender a realização deste teste após um ano. Dentre todos os endpoints avaliados...

Resistência de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) a fipronil: Padronização de bioensaios in vitro, detecção de resistência em populações de campo e avaliação sobre resistência cruzada com outras drogas.; Resistance of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) to fipronil standardization of in vitro bioassays, detection of resistance in field populations and evaluation of cross-resistance with other drugs.

Janer, Eleonor Adega Castro
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 02/12/2010 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Para o sucesso das estratégias de manejo de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (carrapato bovino) são necessários testes práticos, econômicos e confiáveis que possam detectar a presença de fenótipos resistentes a drogas em suas populações. O fipronil é um acaricida de uso relativamente recente não havendo testes padronizados para o diagnóstico de resistência do carrapato à molécula. No presente trabalho, foram padronizados bioensaios in vitro para esta finalidade: Teste de Imersão de Adultas, Teste de Imersão de Larvas e Teste de Pacote com Larvas. Os testes foram aplicados e, de forma inédita, populações resistentes foram diagnosticadas tanto no Brasil quanto no Uruguai. Ensaios com inibidores enzimáticos não evidenciaram participação importante de enzimas detoxificadoras no mecanismo de resistência. Foi demonstrada reação cruzada entre fipronil e lindano, não verificada para ivermectina. Em algumas situações, foi observado interferência do controle químico de pragas agrícolas no desenvolvimento de resistência dos carrapatos.; For the success of the strategies for the management of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (cattle tick), practical, economical and reliable tests are needed to detect the presence of drug-resistant phenotypes in their populations. Fipronil is a relatively new acaricide with no standardized tests for the diagnosis of tick resistance to this molecule. In this study...

Branchiura sowerbyi (Oligochaeta, Naididae) como espécie-teste em bioensaios ecotoxicológicos; Branchiura sowerbyi (Oligochaeta, Naididae) as test species in ecotoxicological bioassays

Nascimento, Haroldo Lobo dos Santos
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 18/07/2014 Português
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Estudos com oligoquetas aquáticos aplicados à ecotoxicologia são quase inexistentes no Brasil, embora diversas agências reguladoras já tenham demonstrado interesse na inclusão da espécie Branchiura sowerbyi (Oligochaeta, Naididae) em protocolos de monitoramento de ambientes aquáticos tropicais. Com o objetivo de ampliar o conhecimento sobre o potencial de utilização desta espécie em ensaios ecotoxicológicos, efetuou-se ampla revisão bibliográfica entre 1950 e 2012, verificando-se discrepâncias metodológicas, o uso quase exclusivo da matriz água e a inserção da turfa como fonte de matéria orgânica nos testes com sedimento artificial, recomendado como forma de reduzir a diferença entre os diversos tipos de sedimento avaliados. A partir desta revisão, bioensaios de toxicidade com sedimento natural e artificial (SAT, com a fibra de coco em substituição à turfa) foram realizados para avaliar a sobrevivência, crescimento e reprodução de B. sowerbyi. Posteriormente, testes de toxicidade aguda e crônica (incluindo a bioacumulação) foram realizados com B. sowerbyi eTubifex tubifex (espécie com uso padronizado) para avaliar os efeitos dos metais arsênio e zinco. Pelos resultados obtidos verifica-se que a reprodução e taxa de crescimento de B. sowerbyi...

Bioensaios para identificação de biótipos de Euphorbia heterophylla com resistência múltipla a inibidores da ALS e da PROTOX; Greenhouse and laboratory bioassays for identification of Euphorbia heterophylla biotypes with multiple resistance to Protox and ALS-inhibiting herbicides

Trezzi, Michelangelo Muzell; Vidal, Ribas Antonio; Kruse, Nelson Diehl; Nunes, Anderson Luis
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Português
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27.08%
Quatro bioensaios, dois em casa de vegetação e dois em laboratório, foram conduzidos com o objetivo de identificar biótipos de Euphorbia heterophylla (EPHHL) com resistência múltipla a inibidores da ALS e da PROTOX. Em casa de vegetação, plantas do biótipo suscetível (S) e dos biótipos 4 e 23, suspeitos de resistência múltipla, foram aspergidas com diferentes doses de imazethapyr e fomesafen. Nos bioensaios em laboratório, sementes dos biótipos S e 4 foram depositadas em placas de Petri contendo diferentes concentrações dos mesmos herbicidas. Curvas de dose-resposta foram ajustadas, utilizando os modelos logístico e polinomial, respectivamente, para os dados obtidos em casa de vegetação e em laboratório. Em casa de vegetação, o fator de resistência (FR) a imazethapyr para o biótipo 4 foi superior a 24, enquanto para o biótipo 23 ele foi de 15. Os FRs a fomesafen foram, respectivamente, de 62 e 39, para os mesmos biótipos. Em um período de 144 horas, concentrações de imazethapyr e fomesafen no bioensaio em laboratório foram capazes de discriminar os crescimentos da parte aérea e radicular dos biótipos de EPHHL com resistência múltipla e S. Os resultados confirmam ser tanto os testes em casa de vegetação quanto os laboratoriais...

Bioensaios para diagnóstico da resistência aos herbicidas imidazolinonas em arroz; Bioassays for diagnosis of resistance to the herbicides imidazolinones in rice plants

Roso, Ana Carolina; Merotto Junior, Aldo; Delatorre, Carla Andrea
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Português
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26.99%
Cultivares de arroz resistentes aos herbicidas imidazolinonas têm proporcionado a utilização destes para o controle do arroz-vermelho, que é um dos principais problemas da cultura do arroz irrigado. No entanto, biótipos de arroz-vermelho resistentes aos herbicidas imidazolinonas têm ocorrido em várias lavouras dessa cultura. O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver métodos expeditos para a identificação de plantas de arroz resistentes aos herbicidas imidazolinonas em diferentes fases do desenvolvimento da planta. Foram utilizados os cultivares de arroz IRGA 422 CL, SATOR CL e PUITÁ INTA CL como padrão resistente aos herbicidas imidazolinonas, e o cultivar IRGA 417, como padrão suscetível. Os bioensaios realizados em sementes, plântulas e afilhos discriminaram de forma efetiva e rápida plantas de arroz resistentes e suscetíveis. As concentrações discriminadoras aos herbicidas imazethapyr + imazapic para os bioensaios de sementes, plântulas e afilhos foram de 0,01, 4 e 3 mM, respectivamente. A utilização desses bioensaios permite a identificação de indivíduos resistentes mesmo durante o desenvolvimento da lavoura, proporcionando assim a adoção de medidas que possam manter a sustentabilidade do controle de arroz-vermelho por meio de cultivares resistentes aos herbicidas.; Red rice is the most troublesome weed in rice paddy fields. Herbicide resistant rice cultivars allow red rice control through the herbicides imidazolinones. However...

Interclonal variation in the performance of Daphnia-magna Straus in chronic bioassays

Soares, Amadeu M. V. M.; Baird, Donald J.; Calow, Peter
Fonte: Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry Press - SETAC Publicador: Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry Press - SETAC
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.99%
As an ecotoxicological test organism, Daphnia magna Straus has a long history and is now used extensively. Despite this, considerable variation in interlaboratory bioassays using the same reference toxicant has been reported. Using a standard quantitative genetics approach, the relative tolerance of different genotypes of Daphnia magna to two toxicants (sodium bromide and 3,4-dichloroaniline) was assessed. As expected, the environmental component of variability dominated the chronic response with a significant component of interaction. Differences between genotypes, although significant, were not large. It was concluded that genotype-environment interactions played a key role in determining chronic responses of Daphnia magna to both compounds. Some suggestions are given to improve the level of repeatability in Daphnia magna bioassays.; EC - B/86000160; NATO - 3/A/87/PO; NERC - TSF/86/AcT/4; JNICT Portugal

In situ and laboratory bioassays with Chironomus riparius larvae to assess toxicity of metal contamination in rivers: The relative toxic effect of sediment versus water contamination

Faria, Mafalda S.; Lopes, Ricardo J.; Nogueira, António J. A.; Soares, Amadeu M. V. M.
Fonte: SETAC Press Publicador: SETAC Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.15%
We used bioassays employing head capsule width and body length increase of Chironomus riparius larvae as end points to evaluate metal contamination in streams. Bioassays were performed in situ near an abandoned Portuguese goldmine in the spring of 2003 and 2004. Bioassays also were performed under laboratory conditions with water and sediment collected from each stream to verify if laboratory bioassays could detect in situ toxicity and to evaluate the relative contribution of sediment and water to overall toxicity. We used field sediments with control water and control sediments with field water to discriminate between metal contamination in water and sediment. Field water with dry and sieved, organic matter-free, and nontreated sediments was used to determine the toxicity of heavy metals that enter the organism through ingested material. In both in situ and laboratory bioassays, body length increase was significantly inhibited by metal contamination, whereas head capsule width was not affected. Body length increase was more affected by contaminated sediment compared to contaminated water. The lowest-effect level of heavy metals was observed in the dry and sieved sediment that prevented ingestion of sediment particles by larvae. These results suggest that body length increase of C. riparius larvae can be used to indicate the impact of metal contamination in rivers. Chironomus riparius larvae are more affected by heavy metals that enter the organism through ingested sediment than by heavy metals dissolved in the water column. Nevertheless...

Biological and functional responses of in situ bioassays with Chironomus riparius larvae to assess river water quality and contamination

Faria, Mafalda S.; Ré, Ana; Malcato, João; Silva, Paula C. L. D.; Pestana, João; Agra, Ana R.; Nogueira, António J. A.; Soares, Amadeu M. V. M.
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.85%
Single species responses have the potential to measure impacts at earlier stages than more traditional methods based in community structure. This study evaluates a bioassay with biological (survival, development, growth) and functional (post-exposure feeding rate) responses of Chironomus riparius larvae to assess water quality and contamination in rivers. The bioassay with C riparius third instar larvae was performed, in autumn and spring, in reference sites and in organic and metal contaminated sites in Portuguese rivers. Biotic, physical and chemical parameters were determined for each site. The relationship between both bioassays responses and biotic indices (IBMWP and IASPT) and the physical and chemical parameters of respective sites were determined. In general biotic indices were able to discriminate between contaminated and not contaminated sites although they demonstrated a poor ability to detect low level of metal contamination during autumn. IASPT was negatively related to ammonia concentrations in both seasons. No significant differences in survival and post-exposure feeding rate were found between sites. Development was inhibited in the most metal contaminated site during autumn, but pH and ammonia concentrations in water accounted for 82% of developmental variation during this season. Growth was highly inhibited in the most metal contaminated site during both seasons. In autumn...

An integrated approach to assess water quality and environmental contamination in the fluvial-lagoon system of the Palizada River, Mexico

Rendon-Von Osten, Jaime; Memije, Martin G.; Ortiz, Alejandro; Soares, Amadeu M. V. M.; Guilhermino, Lúcia
Fonte: SETAC Press Publicador: SETAC Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.99%
Water quality and the contamination in relation to land use in the fluvial-lagoon system of the Palizada River (FLSPR; State of Campeche, Mexico) was investigated using an integrated approach including 21-d in situ bioassays with the native mosquito fish Gambusia yucatana, determination of cholinesterase (ChE) activity in wild populations of this species, and water-quality variables. The present study was performed over 19 months at three sites with different types of anthropogenic impact. Significant differences in a water-quality index for aquatic life (WQI) were found among sites. Fish mortality was significantly and negatively correlated with WQI, dissolved oxygen, and sulfates. High survival rates (>= 80%) were found in preliminary exposures and in some of the bioassays performed at all sites. Therefore, test chambers and the cabinet seemed to be suitable for use in toxicity bioassays with G. yucatana. The in situ bioassay was able to discriminate levels of water contamination in both time and space, indicating that it is suitable for use in conditions similar to those found in the FLSPR. In the biomonitoring study, a ChE inhibition of greater than 20% in wild fish was found in some periods of the year at all sampling sites. This indicates the presence of anticholinesterase agents in the water. Fish from two of the sites had a ChE inhibition of greater than 40% in some sampling months...

Evaluation of the toxicity of two soils from Jales Mine (Portugal) using aquatic bioassays

Loureiro, Susana; Ferreira, Abel L. G.; Soares, Amadeu M. V. M.; Nogueira, António J. A.
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Soil contamination can be one path for streams and groundwater contamination. As a complement of chemical analysis and total contaminants determination, bioassays can provide information on the bioavailable fraction of chemical compounds, focusing on the retention and habitat function of soils. In this study the evaluation of the toxicity of two soils from the abandoned Jales Mine (Portugal) regarded both functions. The buffer capacity of soils was tested with bioassays carried out using the cladoceran Daphnia magna and the marine bacteria Vibrio fischeri. The habitat function of soils was evaluated with the reproduction bioassay with the collembolan Folsomia candida. The Microtox solid-phase test was performed with V fischeri using soil as test medium, and soil elutriates were extracted to perform the Microtox basic test, and an immobilization and reproduction bioassay with D. magna. The marine bacteria showed high sensitivity to the soil with low heavy metal content (JNC soil) and to JNC soil elutriates, while the soil with highest heavy metal content (JC soil) or soil elutriates exposure did not cause any toxic effect. In the bioassays with D. magna, organisms showed sensitivity to JNC and also to JC soil elutriates. Both mobilization and reproduction features were inhibited. The bioassay with F candida did not reflect any influence of the contaminants on their reproduction. Although JNC soil presented lower heavy metal contents...

Combined use of Daphnia magna in situ bioassays, biomarkers and biological indices to diagnose and identify environmental pressures on invertebrate communities in two Mediterranean urbanized and industrialized rivers (NE Spain)

Damásio, Joana; Tauler, Romà; Teixidó, Elisabeth; Rieradevall, Maria; Prat, Narcis; Riva, Maria Carmen; Soares, Amadeu M. V. M.; Barata, Carlos
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.99%
Environmental factors affecting aquatic invertebrate communities were assessed using Daphnia magna in situ bioassays and biological indices based on community assemblages of benthic macroinvertebrates. Investigations were carried out in two heavily industrialized and urbanized river basins from the NE of Spain (Llobregat and Besos). Measures of energy consumption (i.e. algal grazing), and of specific biochemical responses (biomarkers) were conducted on individuals transplanted upstream and downstream from effluent discharges of sewage treatment plants. In both rivers there was a clear deterioration of the ecological water quality parameters and benthic communities towards downstream reaches. In all but one of the 19 locations studied, transplanted organisms were affected in at least one of the five measured responses. In three of them, significant effects were detected in most of the traits considered. Principal Component and Partial Least Square Projections to Latent Structures regression analyses indicated that the measured responses in D. magna in situ bioassays and those of macroinvertebrate assemblages were affected by distinct environmental factors. From up to 20 environmental variables considered, seven of them including habitat degradation...

TBT toxicity and bioremediation in soils: bioassays with invertebrates; Toxicidade e bioremediação do TBT em solos: bioensaios com invertebrados

Silva, Patrícia Maria Veríssimo de Pinho e
Fonte: Universidade de Aveiro Publicador: Universidade de Aveiro
Tipo: masterthesis
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.99%
Tributyltin (TBT) compounds were broadly used as ingredient of antifouling paints for ships. Among other effects, TBT is known to be associated with endocrine disruption. In 2008, the International Maritime Organization – IMO banned globally the use of TBT-based coatings, but due to their persistence and widespread use during the last 50 years, TBT became a ubiquitous compound in the environment. TBT reaches soil through various sources and constitutes a risk for soil fauna, namely the invertebrates, and consequently to soil function. However, soil contamination by TBT and its inherent effects have received very little attention. Nowadays, biological degradation is considered to be the major pathway for TBT removal from the environment. As example, Aeromonas molluscorum Av27 is a bacterium that degrades TBT into DBT (dibutyltin) and MBT (monobutyltin) in aqueous solution and therefore has the potential to be used to develop a biosensor to detect TBT in soils and sediments and to bioremediate this pollutant. This work was conducted considering the following goals: a) assess the toxicity of TBT on the invertebrates Porcellionides pruinosus and Folsomia candida; b) use bioassays with P. pruinosus and Micrococcus luteus to evaluate the potencial of TBT degradation in soil by the bacterium Aeromonas molluscorum Av27. For TBT toxicity evaluation...

Ecological assessment of water quality using in situ bioassays with C. riparius; Avaliação ecológica da qualidade da água utilizando ensaios in situ com C. riparius

Faria, Ana Mafalda Sá de
Fonte: Universidade de Aveiro Publicador: Universidade de Aveiro
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.21%
This thesis deals with the use of in situ bioassays with Chironomus riparius larvae to assess water quality and the risk of contaminants on freshwater ecosystems. These bioassays were seasonally deployed in selected sites on contaminated and reference rivers of North and Central Portugal, to evaluate their performance in assessing water quality in lotic ecosystems. Several biological responses (development, growth, survival and post-exposure feeding rate) were determined and the biotic, physical and chemical parameters were collected for each site. It was found that in situ bioassays successfully evaluated the water quality of rivers, except when nutrient pollution was present. The impact of pesticides (used worldwide in agriculture) on river and macroinvertebrates is difficult to assess due to its quick degradation. To determine pesticide water contamination effects on biological parameters of the C. riparius larvae (development, growth, survival, post-exposure feeding rate and biomass), bioassays were carried out in indoor artificial streams (contaminated with the insecticide lambda-cyhalothrin), and in rice fields (contaminated with the insecticide endosulfan and the herbicides molinate and propanil). Exposure to the insecticide in artificial streams resulted in significant impairment in growth and inhibition in development of larvae. In rice fields...

Monitoring resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis in the field by performing bioassays with each Cry toxin separately

Tetreau,Guillaume; Stalinski,Renaud; David,Jean-Philippe; Després,Laurence
Fonte: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde Publicador: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/11/2013 Português
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36.99%
Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) is increasingly used worldwide for mosquito control and is the only larvicide used in the French Rhône-Alpes region since decades. The artificial selection of mosquitoes with field-persistent Bti collected in breeding sites from this region led to a moderate level of resistance to Bti, but to relatively high levels of resistance to individual Bti Cry toxins. Based on this observation, we developed a bioassay procedure using each Bti Cry toxin separately to detect cryptic Bti-resistance evolving in field mosquito populations. Although no resistance to Bti was detected in none of the three mosquito species tested (Aedes rusticus, Aedes sticticus and Aedes vexans), an increased tolerance to Cry4Aa (3.5-fold) and Cry11Aa toxins (8-fold) was found in one Ae. sticticus population compared to other populations of the same species, suggesting that resistance to Bti may be arising in this population. This study confirms previous works showing a lack of Bti resistance in field mosquito populations treated for decades with this bioinsecticide. It also provides a first panorama of their susceptibility status to individual Bti Cry toxins. In combination with bioassays with Bti, bioassays with separate Cry toxins allow a more sensitive monitoring of Bti-resistance in the field.

Evaluation of the mutagenicity and carcinogenicity of motor vehicle emissions in short-term bioassays.

Lewtas, J
Tipo: text
Publicado em /01/1983 Português
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27.15%
Incomplete combustion of fuel in motor vehicles results in the emission of submicron carbonaceous particles which, after cooling and dilution, contain varying quantities of extractable organic constituents. These organics are mutagenic in bacteria. Confirmatory bioassays in mammalian cells provide the capability of detecting chromosomal and DNA damage in addition to gene mutations. In order to evaluate the mutagenicity of these organics in mammalian cells, extractable organics from particle emissions from several diesel and gasoline vehicles were compared in a battery of microbial, mammalian cell and in vivo bioassays. The mammalian cell mutagenicity bioassays were selected to detect gene mutations, DNA damage, and chromosomal effects. Carcinogenesis bioassays conducted included short-term assays for oncogenic transformation and skin tumorigenesis. The results in different assay systems are compared both qualitatively and quantitatively. Good quantitative correlations were observed between several mutagenesis and carcinogenesis bioassays for this series of diesel and gasoline emissions.

Rapid Whole Blood Bioassays using Microwave-Accelerated Metal-Enhanced Fluorescence

Aslan, Kadir
Tipo: text
Publicado em //2010 Português
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The proof-of-principle demonstration of rapid whole blood bioassays based on microwave-accelerated metal-enhanced fluorescence (MAMEF) method using silver nanoparticle-deposited surfaces is presented. In this regard, spherical silver nanoparticles were deposited onto glass slides (silver nanoparticle films, SNFs) in a highly reproducible manner, which was assessed by optical absorption spectroscopy. Atomic force microscopy was employed to determine the size of the deposited silver nanoparticles. A model bioassay, based on the well-known interactions of biotinylated bovine serum albumin (b-BSA) and streptavidin was constructed on SNFs. The model bioassay was run at room temperature (metal-enhanced fluorescence (MEF)-based bioassay without microwave heating) for 60 minutes and with microwave heating (MAMEF-based bioassay) for 1 minute. In contrast to MEF-based bioassays that only allowed the use of samples in buffer solution, MAMEF-based bioassays afforded the use of whole blood samples. A lower detection limit of 1 nM and 0.01 nM for b-BSA was determined in MEF-based and MAMEF-based bioassays, respectively.

The Intersection of CMOS Microsystems and Upconversion Nanoparticles for Luminescence Bioimaging and Bioassays

Wei, Liping.; Doughan, Samer.; Han, Yi.; DaCosta, Matthew V.; Krull, Ulrich J.; Ho, Derek.
Fonte: MDPI Publicador: MDPI
Tipo: text
Publicado em 10/09/2014 Português
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Organic fluorophores and quantum dots are ubiquitous as contrast agents for bio-imaging and as labels in bioassays to enable the detection of biological targets and processes. Upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) offer a different set of opportunities as labels in bioassays and for bioimaging. UCNPs are excited at near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths where biological molecules are optically transparent, and their luminesce in the visible and ultraviolet (UV) wavelength range is suitable for detection using complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology. These nanoparticles provide multiple sharp emission bands, long lifetimes, tunable emission, high photostability, and low cytotoxicity, which render them particularly useful for bio-imaging applications and multiplexed bioassays. This paper surveys several key concepts surrounding upconversion nanoparticles and the systems that detect and process the corresponding luminescence signals. The principle of photon upconversion, tuning of emission wavelengths, UCNP bioassays, and UCNP time-resolved techniques are described. Electronic readout systems for signal detection and processing suitable for UCNP luminescence using CMOS technology are discussed. This includes recent progress in miniaturized detectors...