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Optimization of the Enzymatic Interesterification of Milk Fat and Canola Oil Blends Using Immobilized Rhizopus oryzae Lipase by Response Surface Methodology

NUNES, Gisele Fatima Morais; PAULA, Ariela Veloso de; CASTRO, Heizir Ferreira de; SANTOS, Julio Cesar dos
Fonte: FACULTY FOOD TECHNOLOGY BIOTECHNOLOGY Publicador: FACULTY FOOD TECHNOLOGY BIOTECHNOLOGY
Tipo: article; proceedings paper; publishedversion
Português
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Blends of milk fat and canola oil (MF:CNO) were enzymatically interesterified (EIE) by Rhizopus oryzne lipase immobilized on polysiloxane-polyvinyl alcohol (SiO(2)-PVA) composite, in a solvent-free system. A central composite design (CCD) was used to optimize the reaction, considering the effects of different mass fractions of binary blends of MF:CNO (50:50, 65:35 and 80:20) and temperatures (45, 55 and 65 degrees C) on the composition and texture properties of the interesterified products, taking the interesterification degree (ID) and consistency (at 10 degrees C) as response variables. For the ID variable both mass fraction of milk fat in the blend and temperature were found to be significant, while for the consistency only mass fraction of milk fat was significant. Empiric models for ID and consistency were obtained that allowed establishing the best interesterification conditions: blend with 65 % of milk fat and 35 %, of canola oil, and temperature of 45 degrees C. Under these conditions, the ID was 19.77 %) and the consistency at 10 degrees C was 56 290 Pa. The potential of this eco-friendly process demonstrated that a product could be obtained with the desirable milk fat flavour and better spreadability under refrigerated conditions.

Lossless filter for multiple repeats with bounded edit distance

PETERLONGO, Pierre; SACOMOTO, Gustavo Akio Tominaga; LAGO, Alair Pereira do; PISANTI, Nadia; SAGOT, Marie-France
Fonte: BIOMED CENTRAL LTD Publicador: BIOMED CENTRAL LTD
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Background: Identifying local similarity between two or more sequences, or identifying repeats occurring at least twice in a sequence, is an essential part in the analysis of biological sequences and of their phylogenetic relationship. Finding such fragments while allowing for a certain number of insertions, deletions, and substitutions, is however known to be a computationally expensive task, and consequently exact methods can usually not be applied in practice. Results: The filter TUIUIU that we introduce in this paper provides a possible solution to this problem. It can be used as a preprocessing step to any multiple alignment or repeats inference method, eliminating a possibly large fraction of the input that is guaranteed not to contain any approximate repeat. It consists in the verification of several strong necessary conditions that can be checked in a fast way. We implemented three versions of the filter. The first is simply a straightforward extension to the case of multiple sequences of an application of conditions already existing in the literature. The second uses a stronger condition which, as our results show, enable to filter sensibly more with negligible (if any) additional time. The third version uses an additional condition and pushes the sensibility of the filter even further with a non negligible additional time in many circumstances; our experiments show that it is particularly useful with large error rates. The latter version was applied as a preprocessing of a multiple alignment tool...

Biotransformations of Substituted Phenylethanols and Acetophenones by Environmental Bacteria

KAGOHARA, Edna; PELLIZARI, Vivian Helena; COMASSETO, Joao Valdir; ANDRADE, Leandro Helgueira; PORTO, Andre Luiz Meleiro
Fonte: FACULTY FOOD TECHNOLOGY BIOTECHNOLOGY Publicador: FACULTY FOOD TECHNOLOGY BIOTECHNOLOGY
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Whole cells of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria, isolated from polluted sediments in the Santos Estuary (Baixada Santista, Sao Paulo, Brazil), were able to catalyse oxidoreduction reactions with various substituted phenylethanols and acetophenones as substrates. A number of substituted phenylethanols were formed with high (>99 %) enantiomeric excess. The results of microbial oxidation of phenylethanols 2, 3, 5-7 by Acinetobacter sp. 6.4T and the reduction of acetophenones 1a-6a by Serratia marcescens 5.4T showed that the bacteria used as biocatalysts in this study present significant potential for exploitation in biotechnological processes. The reduction of prochiral acetophenones by Serratia marcescens 3.5T yielded optically active alcohols with 90-99 % enantiomeric excess, and Acinetobacter sp. 6.4T is a potential biocatalyst for the oxidation of alcohols.; Fundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de Sao Paulo (FAPESP); FAPESP and Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnologico (CNPq)

Optimal recovery process conditions for manganese-peroxidase obtained by solid-state fermentation of eucalyptus residue using Lentinula edodes

ARANTES, Valdeir; SILVA, Ezequiel M.; MILAGRES, Adriane M. F.
Fonte: PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD Publicador: PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Enzyme production is a growing field in biotechnology and increasing attention has been devoted to the solid-state fermentation (SSF) of lignocellulosic biomass for production of industrially relevant lignocellulose deconstruction enzymes, especially manganese-peroxidase (MnP), which plays a crucial role in lignin degradation. However, there is a scarcity of studies regarding extraction of the secreted metabolities that are commonly bound to the fermented solids, preventing their accurate detection and limiting recovery efficiency. In the present work, we assessed the effectiveness of extraction process variables (pH, stirring rate, temperature, and extraction time) on recovery efficiency of manganese-peroxidase (MnP) obtained by SSF of eucalyptus residues using Lentinula edodes using statistical design of experiments. The results from this study indicated that of the variables studied, pH was the most significant (p < 0.05%) parameter affecting MnP recovery yield, while temperature, extraction time, and stirring rate presented no statistically significant effects in the studied range. The optimum pH for extraction of MnP was at 4.0-5.0, which yielded 1500-1700 IU kg (1) of enzyme activity at extraction time 4-5 h, under static condition at room temperature. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.; Fundacdo de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de sao Paulo - FAPESP[04/12080-0]; Coordenacao de Aperfeicoamento de Pessoal de Nivel Superior - CAPES

Effect of pH and oxalic acid on the reduction of Fe(3+) by a biomimetic chelator and on Fe(3+) desorption/adsorption onto wood: Implications for brown-rot decay

ARANTES, Valdeir; QIAN, Yuhui; MILAGRES, Adriane M. F.; JELLISON, Jody; GOODELL, Barry
Fonte: ELSEVIER SCI LTD Publicador: ELSEVIER SCI LTD
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Fenton reaction is thought to play an important role in wood degradation by brown-rot fungi. In this context, the effect of oxalic acid and pH on iron reduction by a biomimetic fungal chelator and on the adsorption/desorption of iron to/from wood was investigated. The results presented in this work indicate that at pH 2.0 and 4.5 and in the presence of oxalic acid, the phenolate chelator 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2,3-DHBA) is capable of reducing ferric iron only when the iron is complexed with oxalate to form Fe mono-oxalate (Fe(C(2)O(4))(+)). Within the pH range tested in this work, this complex formation occurs when the oxalate:Fe(3+) molar ratio is less than 20 (pH 2.0) or less than 10 (pH 4.5). When aqueous ferric iron was passed through a column packed with milled red spruce (Picea rubens) wood equilibrated at pH 2.0 and 4.5. it was observed that ferric iron binds to wood at pH 4.5 but not at pH 2.0, and the bound iron could then be released by application of oxalic acid at pH 4.5. The release of bound iron was dependent on the amount of oxalic acid applied in the column. When the amount of oxalate was at least 20-fold greater than the amount of iron bound to the wood, all bound iron was released. When Fe-oxalate complexes were applied to the milled wood column equilibrated in the pH range of 2-4.5...

AnSBBR Applied to a Personal Care Industry Wastewater Treatment: Effects of Fill Time, Volume Treated Per Cycle, and Organic Load

RODRIGUES, Jose Alberto Domingues; OLIVEIRA, Ricardo Polisaitis; RATUSZNEI, Suzana Maria; ZAIAT, Marcelo; FORESTI, Eugenio
Fonte: HUMANA PRESS INC Publicador: HUMANA PRESS INC
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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A study was performed regarding the effect of the relation between fill time, volume treated per cycle, and influent concentration at different applied organic loadings on the stability and efficiency of an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor containing immobilized biomass on polyurethane foam with recirculation of the liquid phase (AnSBBR) applied to the treatment of wastewater from a personal care industry. Total cycle length of the reactor was 8 h (480 min). Fill times were 10 min in the batch operation, 4 h in the fed-batch operation, and a 10-min batch followed by a 4-h fed batch in the mixed operation. Settling time was not necessary since the biomass was immobilized and decant time was 10 min. Volume of liquid medium in the reactor was 2.5 L, whereas volume treated per cycle ranged from 0.88 to 2.5 L in accordance with fill time. Influent concentration varied from 300 to 1,425 mg COD/L, resulting in an applied volumetric organic load of 0.9 and 1.5 g COD/L.d. Recirculation flow rate was 20 L/h, and the reactor was maintained at 30 A degrees C. Values of organic matter removal efficiency of filtered effluent samples were below 71% in the batch operations and above 74% in the operations of fed batch followed by batch. Feeding wastewater during part of the operational cycle was beneficial to the system...

AnSBBR Applied to the Treatment of Metalworking Fluid Wastewater: Effect of Organic and Shock Load

CARVALHINHA, Pedro P.; FLORES, Anderson; RODRIGUES, Jose A. D.; RATUSZNEI, Suzana M.; ZAIAT, Marcelo; FORESTI, Eugenio
Fonte: HUMANA PRESS INC Publicador: HUMANA PRESS INC
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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An investigation was performed regarding the application of a mechanically stirred anaerobic sequencing batch biofilm reactor containing immobilized biomass on inert polyurethane foam (AnSBBR) to the treatment of soluble metalworking fluids to remove organic matter and produce methane. The effect of increasing organic matter and reactor fill time, as well as shock load, on reactor stability and efficiency have been analyzed. The 5-L AnSBBR was operated at 30 A degrees C in 8-h cycles, agitation of 400 rpm, and treated 2.0 L effluent per cycle. Organic matter was increased by increasing the influent concentration (500, 1,000, 2,000, and 3,000 mg chemical oxygen demand (COD)/L). Fill times investigated were in the batch mode (fill time 10 min) and fed-batch followed by batch (fill time 4 h). In the batch mode, organic matter removal efficiencies were 87%, 86%, and 80% for influent concentrations of 500, 1,000, and 2,000 mgCOD/L (1.50, 3.12, and 6.08 gCOD/L.d), respectively. At 3,000 mgCOD/L (9.38 gCOD/L.d), operational stability could not be achieved. The reactor managed to maintain stability when a shock load twice as high the feed concentration was applied, evidencing the robustness of the reactor to potential concentration variations in the wastewater being treated. Increasing the fill time to 4 h did not improve removal efficiency...

Treatment of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate in a horizontal anaerobic immobilized biomass reactor

DUARTE, I. C. S.; OLIVEIRA, L. L.; SAAVEDRA, N. K.; FANTINATTI-GARBOGGINI, F.; MENEZES, C. B. A.; OLIVEIRA, V. M.; VARESCHE, M. B. A.
Fonte: ELSEVIER SCI LTD Publicador: ELSEVIER SCI LTD
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) is an anionic surfactant widely used to manufacture detergents and found in domestic and industrial wastewater. LAS removal was evaluated in a horizontal anaerobic immobilized biomass reactor. The system was filled with polyurethane foam and inoculated with sludge that was withdrawn from an up flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor that is used to treat swine wastewater. The reactor was fed with easily degradable substrates and a solution of commercial LAS for 313 days. The hydraulic retention time applied was 12 h. The system was initially operated without detergent and resulted to 94% reduction of demand. The mass balance in the system indicated that the LAS removal efficiency was 45% after 180 days. From the 109th day to the 254th day, a removal efficiency of 32% was observed. The removal of LAS was approximately 40% when 1500 mg of LAS were applied in the absence of co-substrates suggesting that the LAS molecules were used selectively. Microscopic analyses of the biofilm revealed diverse microbial morphologies and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiling showed variations in the total bacteria and sulfate-reducing bacteria populations. 16S rRNA sequencing and phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that members of the order Clostridiales were the major components of the bacterial community in the last step of the reactor operation. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.; Fapesp; CNPq

Effect of Organic Load on the Performance and Methane Production of an AnSBBR Treating Effluent from Biodiesel Production

BEZERRA, Roberto Antonio; RODRIGUES, Jose Alberto Domingues; RATUSZNEI, Suzana Maria; CANTO, Catarina Simone Andrade; ZAIAT, Marcelo
Fonte: HUMANA PRESS INC Publicador: HUMANA PRESS INC
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Currently, there is an increasing demand for the production of biodiesel and, consequently, there will be an increasing need to treat wastewaters resulting from the production process of this biofuel. The main objective of this work was, therefore, to investigate the effect of applied volumetric organic load (AVOL) on the efficiency, stability, and methane production of an anaerobic sequencing batch biofilm reactor applied to the treatment of effluent from biodiesel production. As inert support, polyurethane foam cubes were used in the reactor and mixing was accomplished by recirculating the liquid phase. Increase in AVOL resulted in a drop in organic matter removal efficiency and increase in total volatile acids in the effluent. AVOLs of 1.5, 3.0, 4.5 and 6.0 g COD L(-1) day(-1) resulted in removal efficiencies of 92%, 81%, 67%, and 50%, for effluent filtered samples, and 91%, 80%, 63%, and 47%, for non-filtered samples, respectively, whereas total volatile acids concentrations in the effluent amounted to 42, 145, 386 and 729 mg HAc L(-1), respectively. Moreover, on increasing AVOL from 1.5 to 4.5 g COD L(-1) day(-1) methane production increased from 29.5 to 55.5 N mL CH(4) g COD(-1). However, this production dropped to 36.0 N mL CH(4) g COD(-1) when AVOL was increased to 6.0 g COD L(-1) day(-1)...

Ammonia volatilization in soil treated with tannery sludge

MARTINES, A. M.; NOGUEIRA, M. A.; SANTOS, C. A.; NAKATANI, A. S.; ANDRADE, C. A.; COSCIONE, A. R.; CANTARELLA, H.; SOUSA, J. P.; CARDOSO, E. J. B. N.
Fonte: ELSEVIER SCI LTD Publicador: ELSEVIER SCI LTD
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The utilization of tannery sludge in agricultural areas can be an alternative for its disposal and recycling. Despite this procedure may cause the loss of nitrogen by ammonia volatilization, there is no information about this process in tropical soils. For two years a field experiment was carried out in Rolandia (Parana State, Brazil), to evaluate the amount of NH(3) volatilization due to tannery sludge application on agricultural soil. The doses of total N applied varied from zero to 1200 kg ha(-1), maintained at the surface for 89 days, as usual in this region. The alkalinity of the tannery sludge used was equivalent to between 262 and 361 g CaCO(3) per kg. Michaelis-Menten equation was adequate to estimate NH(3)-N volatilization kinetics. The relation between total nitrogen applied as tannery sludge and the potentially volatilized NH(3)-N, calculated by the chemical-kinetics equation resulted in an average determination coefficient of 0.87 (P > 0.01). In this period, the amount of volatilized NH(3) was more intense during the first 30 days; the time to reach half of the maximum NH(3) volatilization (K(m)) was 13 an 9 days for the first and second experiments, respectively. The total loss as ammonia in the whole period corresponded in average to 17.5% of the total N applied and to 35% of the NH(4)(+)-N present in the sludge. If tannery sludge is to be surface applied to supply N for crops...

LPS Removal from an E. Coli Fermentation Broth Using Aqueous Two-Phase Micellar System

LOPES, Andre M.; MAGALHAES, Perola O.; MAZZOLA, Priscila G.; RANGEL-YAGUI, Carlota O.; CARVALHO, Joao C. M. de; PENNA, Thereza C. V.; PESSOA JR., Adalberto
Fonte: JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD Publicador: JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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In biotechnology, endotoxin (LPS) removal from recombinant proteins is a critical and challenging step in the preparation of injectable therapeutics, as endotoxin is a natural component of bacterial expression systems widely used to manufacture therapeutic proteins. The viability of large-scale industrial production of recombinant biomolecules of pharmaceutical interest significantly depends on the separation and purification techniques used. The aim of this work was to evaluate the use of aqueous two-phase micellar system (ATPMS) for endotoxin removal from preparations containing recombinant proteins of pharmaceutical interest, such as green fluorescent protein (GFPuv). Partition assays were carried out initially using pure LPS, and afterwards in the presence of E. coli cell lysate. The ATPMS technology proved to be effective in GFPuv recovery, preferentially into the micelle-poor phase (K(GFPuv) < 1.00), and LPS removal into the micelle-rich phase (%REM(LPS) > 98.00%). Therefore, this system can be exploited as the first step for purification in biotechnology processes for removal of higher LPS concentrations. (C) 2010 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 26: 1644-1653, 2010; Capes - Brazil; National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq - Brazil); State of Sao Paulo Research Support Foundation (Fapesp - Brazil)

Plant-antivenom: Database of anti-venom medicinal plants

AMUI, Saulo Franca; PUGA, Renato David; SOARES, Andreimar Martins; GIULIATTI, Silvana
Fonte: UNIV CATOLICA DE VALPARAISO Publicador: UNIV CATOLICA DE VALPARAISO
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Plant-antivenom is a computational Websystem about medicinal plants with anti-venom properties. The system consists of a database of these plants, including scientific publications on this subject and amino acid sequences of active principles from venomous animals. The system relates these data allowing their integration through different search applications. For the development of the system, the first surveys were conducted in scientific literature, allowing the creation of a publication database in a library for reading and user interaction. Then, classes of categories were created, allowing the use of tags and the organization of content. This database on medicinal plants has information such as family, species, isolated compounds, activity, inhibited animal venoms, among others. Provision is made for submission of new information by registered users, by the use of wiki tools. Content submitted is released in accordance to permission rules defined by the system. The database on biological venom protein amino acid sequences was structured from the essential information from National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). Plant-antivenom`s interface is simple, contributing to a fast and functional access to the system and the integration of different data registered on it. Plant-antivenom system is available on the Internet at http://gbi.fmrp.usp.br/plantantivenom.; Fundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de Sao Paulo (FAPESP); Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnologico (CNPq); Coordenacao de Aperfeicoamento de Pessoal de Nivel Superior (CAPES)

Characterization of Equine Adipose Tissue-Derived Progenitor Cells Before and After Cryopreservation

MAMBELLI, Lisley I.; SANTOS, Enrico J. C.; FRAZAO, Paulo J. R.; CHAPARRO, Mariana B.; KERKIS, Alexandre; ZOPPA, Andre L. V.; KERKIS, Irina
Fonte: MARY ANN LIEBERT INC Publicador: MARY ANN LIEBERT INC
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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In horses, stem cell therapies are a promising tool to the treatment of many injuries, which are common consequences of athletic endeavor, resulting in high morbidity and often compromising the performance. In spite of many advantages, the isolation of stem cells similar to human, from equine adipose tissue, occurred only recently. The aim of this study was to isolate equine adipose tissue-derived progenitor cells (eAT-PC), to characterize their proliferative potential, and to study their differentiation capacity before and after cryopreservation. The cells, isolated from horse adipose tissue, presented similar fibroblast-like cell morphology in vitro. Their proliferation rate was evaluated during 63 days (23 passages) before and after cryopreservation. After the induction of osteogenic differentiation, von Kossa staining and positive immunostaining studies revealed the formation of calcified extracellular matrix confirming the osteogenic potential of these cells. Adipogenic differentiation was induced using two protocols: routine and other one developed by us, while our protocol requires a shorter time (Oil Red O staining revealed significant accumulation of lipid droplets after 7 days). Chondrogenic differentiation was observed after 21 days of induced pellet culture...

Characterization of the Phenol Monooxygenase Gene from Chromobacterium violaceum: Potential Use for Phenol Biodegradation

PERPETUO, Elen Aquino; MARQUES, Regina Celia Pereira; MENDES, Maria Anita; LIMA, Wanessa Cristina de; MENCK, Carlos Frederico Martins; NASCIMENTO, Claudio Augusto Oller do
Fonte: KOREAN SOC BIOTECHNOLOGY & BIOENGINEERING Publicador: KOREAN SOC BIOTECHNOLOGY & BIOENGINEERING
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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In this work, the biodegradation mechanism of phenol and sub products (such as catechol and hydroquinone) in Chromobacterium violaceum was investigated by cloning and molecular characterization of a phenol monooxygenase gene in Escherichia coli. This gene (Cvmp) is very similar (74 and 59% of similarity and identity, respectively) to the ortholog from Ralstonia eutropha, bacteria capable of utilizing phenol as the sole carbon source. The phenol biodegradation ability of E. coli recombinant strains was tested by cell-growth in a minimal medium containing phenol as the sole source of carbon and release of intermediary metabolites (catechol and hydroquinone). Interestingly, during the growth of these strains on phenol, catechol, and hydroquinone accumulated transiently in the medium. These metabolites were further analyzed by HPLC. These results indicated that phenol can be initially orto or para hydroxylated to produce cathecol or hydroquinone, respectively, followed by meta-cleavage of aromatic rings. To verify this information, the metabolites obtained from HPLC were submitted to LC/MS to confirm their chemical structure, thereby indicating that the recombinant strains utilize two different routes simultaneously, leading to different ring-fission substrates for the metabolism of phenol. (C) KSBB; Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq); CNPq (Brasilia...

Purification, and Biochemical and Biophysical Characterization of Cellobiohydrolase I from Trichoderma harzianum IOC 3844

COLUSSI, Francieli; SERPA, Viviane; DELABONA, Priscila da Silva; MANZINE, Livia Regina; VOLTATODIO, Maria Luiza; ALVES, Renata; MELLO, Bruno Luan; PEREIRA JR., Nei; FARINAS, Cristiane Sanches; GOLUBEV, Alexander M.; SANTOS, Maria Auxiliadora Morim; POLIKA
Fonte: KOREAN SOC MICROBIOLOGY & BIOTECHNOLOGY Publicador: KOREAN SOC MICROBIOLOGY & BIOTECHNOLOGY
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Because of its elevated cellulolytic activity, the filamentous fungus Trichoderma harzianum has a considerable potential in biomass hydrolysis applications. Trichoderma harzianum cellobiohydrolase I (ThCBHI), an exoglucanase, is an important enzyme in the process of cellulose degradation. Here, we report an easy single-step ion-exchange chromatographic method for purification of ThCBHI and its initial biophysical and biochemical characterization. The ThCBHI produced by induction with microcrystalline cellulose under submerged fermentation was purified on DEAE-Sephadex A-50 media and its identity was confirmed by mass spectrometry. The ThCBHI biochemical characterization showed that the protein has a molecular mass of 66 kDa and pi of 5.23. As confirmed by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), both full-length ThCBHI and its catalytic core domain (CCD) obtained by digestion with papain are monomeric in solution. Secondary structure analysis of ThCBHI by circular dichroism revealed alpha-helices and beta-strands contents in the 28% and 38% range, respectively. The intrinsic fluorescence emission maximum of 337 nm was accounted for as different degrees of exposure of ThCBHI tryptophan residues to water. Moreover, ThCBHI displayed maximum activity at pH 5.0 and temperature of 50 degrees C with specific activities against Avicel and p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-cellobioside of 1.25 U/mg and 1.53 U/mg...

RNA Isolation method for polysaccharide rich algae: agar producing Gracilaria tenuistipitata (Rhodophyta)

FALCAO, Vanessa Dos Reis; TONON, Angela Pedroso; OLIVEIRA, Mariana Cabral; COLEPICOLO, Pio
Fonte: SPRINGER Publicador: SPRINGER
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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RNA isolation is essential to study gene expression at the molecular level. However, RNA isolation is difficult in organisms (plants and algae) that contain large amounts of polysaccharides, which co-precipitate with RNA. Currently, there is no commercial kit available, specifically for the isolation of high-quality RNA from these organisms. Furthermore, because of the large amounts of polysaccharides, the common protocols for RNA isolation usually result in poor yields when applied to algae. Here we describe a simple method for RNA isolation from the marine red macroalga Gracilaria tenuistipitata var. liui Zhang et Xia (Rhodophyta), which can be applied to other plants and algae.

Production of Fructooligosaccharides by Aspergillus phoenicis Biofilm on Polyethylene as Inert Support

Aziani, Guilherme; Terenzi, Hector Francisco; Jorge, Joao Atilio; Guimarães, Luis Henrique Souza
Fonte: FACULTY FOOD TECHNOLOGY BIOTECHNOLOGY; ZAGREB Publicador: FACULTY FOOD TECHNOLOGY BIOTECHNOLOGY; ZAGREB
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Aspergillus phoenicis biofilms on polyethylene as inert support were used to produce fructooligosaccharides (FOS) in media containing 25% (m/V) of sucrose as a carbon source. The maximum production of total FOS (122 mg/mL), with 68% of 1-kestose and 32% of nystose, was obtained in Khanna medium maintained at 30 degrees C for 48 h under orbital agitation (100 rpm). At high concentrations of sucrose (30%, m/V), the recovery of FOS was higher than that observed at a low concentration (5%, m/V). High levels of FOS (242 mg/mL) were also recovered when using the biofilm in sodium acetate buffer with high sucrose concentration (50%, m/V) for 10 h. When the dried biofilm was reused in a fresh culture medium, there was a recovery of approx. 13.7% of total FOS after 72 h of cultivation at 30 C, and 10% corresponded to 1-kestose. The biofilm morphology, analyzed by scanning electron microscope, revealed a noncompact mycelium structure, with unfilled spaces and channels present among the hyphae. The results obtained in this study show that A. phoenicis biofilms may find application for FOS production in a single-step fermentation process, which is cost-effective in terms of reusability, downstream processing and efficiency.; Foundation for Research Support from Sao Paulo State (FAPESP)...

Effect of Feed Strategy on Methane Production and Performance of an AnSBBR Treating Effluent from Biodiesel Production

Lovato, Giovanna; Bezerra, Roberto A.; Rodrigues, Jose A. D.; Ratusznei, Suzana M.; Zaiat, Marcelo
Fonte: HUMANA PRESS INC; TOTOWA Publicador: HUMANA PRESS INC; TOTOWA
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of different feeding times (2, 4 and 6 h) and applied volumetric organic loads (4.5, 6.0 and 7.5 gCOD L-1 day(-1)) on the performance of an anaerobic sequencing batch biofilm reactor (AnSBBR) treating effluent from biodiesel production. Polyurethane foam cubes were used as inert support in the reactor, and mixing was accomplished by recirculating the liquid phase. The effect of feeding time on reactor performance showed to be more pronounced at higher values of applied volumetric organic loads (AVOLs). Highest organic material removal efficiencies achieved at AVOL of 4.5 gCOD L-1 day(-1) were 87 % at 4-h feeding against 84 % at 2-h and 6-h feeding. At AVOL of 6.0 gCOD L-1 day(-1), highest organic material removal efficiencies achieved with 4-h and 6-h feeding were 84 %, against 71 % at 2-h feeding. At AVOL of 7.5 gCOD L-1 day(-1), organic material removal efficiency achieved with 4-h feeding was 77 %. Hence, longer feeding times favored minimization of total volatile acids concentration during the cycle as well as in the effluent, guaranteeing process stability and safety.; Fundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de Sao PauloFAPESP (Sao Paulo, Brasil); Fundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de Sao Paulo-FAPESP (Sao Paulo...

Lactobacillus sakei 2a and its Concentrated Acid Extract on Inhibition of Food-Borne Salmonella strains

Lafayette Neves Gelinski, Jane Mary; Baratto, Cesar Milton; Sacaratti, Dirceu; Gombossy de Melo Franco, Bernadette Dora
Fonte: DR M N KHAN; BHOPAL Publicador: DR M N KHAN; BHOPAL
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Lactic acid bacteria are used in food production to provide desirable organoleptic characteristics, and can also act as biopreservatives, controlling the growth of undesirable microorganisms. In this study, we examined the antimicrobial action of Lactobacillus sakei 2a and its concentrated acid extract against food-borne Salmonella spp. The extract was obtained by acid extraction from culture broth of L. sakei 2a and was designated extract 2a. We determined that extract 2a had significant activity (approximately 500 AU ml(-1)). We used different antimicrobial substances alone or in combination with extract 2a to evaluate the inhibitory activity of the various treatments on a pool of five Salmonella strains. The pathogen Listeria monocytogenes Scott A Cm-r Em(r) was used as an indicator strain of inhibitory activity. In summary, all antimicrobials substances that were tested showed an inhibitory effect against the growth of Salmonella, andthis action was enhanced in the presence of extract 2a. Moreover, among the treatments applied, the combination of extract 2a and 0.1% lactic acid exhibited the most potent inhibitory effect towards the pool of Salmonella strains. Our findings indicate that L. sakei 2a and extract 2a, especially in combination with other antimicrobials...

Bioremediation Approaches in a Laboratory Activity for the Industrial Biotechnology and Applied Microbiology (IBAM) Course†

Iustman, L. Raiger; López, N. I.; Ruzal, S. M.; Vullo, D. L.
Fonte: American Society of Microbiology Publicador: American Society of Microbiology
Tipo: text
Publicado em 06/05/2013 Português
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