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Occupational airborne contamination in South Brazil: 2. Oxidative stress detected in the blood of workers of incineration of hospital residues

POSSAMAI, F. P.; AVILA JR., S.; BUDNI, P.; BACKES, P.; PARISOTTO, E. B.; RIZELIO, V. M.; TORRES, M. A.; COLEPICOLO, P.; WILHELM FILHO, D.
Fonte: SPRINGER Publicador: SPRINGER
Tipo: article; proceedings paper; publishedversion
Português
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36.1%
One of the most useful methods for elimination of solid residues of health services (SRHS) is incineration. However, it also provokes the emission of several hazardous air pollutants such as heavy metals, furans and dioxins, which produce reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress. The present study, which is parallel to an accompanied paper (Avila Jr. et al., this issue), investigated several enzymatic and non-enzymatic biomarkers of oxidative stress in the blood (contents of vitamin E, lipoperoxidation = TBARS, reduced glutathione = GSH, oxidized glutathione = GSSG, and activities of glutathione S-transferase = GST, glutathione reductase = GR, glutathione peroxidase = GPx, catalase = CAT and superoxide dismutase = SOD), in three different groups (n = 20 each) exposed to airborne contamination associated with incineration of SRHS: workers directly (ca. 100 m from the incinerator) and indirectly exposed (residents living ca. 5 km the incineration site), and controls (non-exposed subjects). TBARS and GSSG levels were increased whilst GSH, TG and alpha-tocopherol contents were decreased in workers and residents compared to controls. Increased GST and CAT activities and decreased GPx activities were detected in exposed subjects compared to controls...

Antioxidant therapy attenuates oxidative stress in the blood of subjects exposed to occupational airborne contamination from coal mining extraction and incineration of hospital residues

WILHELM FILHO, D.; AVILA JUNIOR, S.; POSSAMAI, F. P.; PARISOTTO, E. B.; MORATELLI, A. M.; GARLET, T. R.; INACIO, D. B.; TORRES, M. A.; COLEPICOLO, P.; DAL-PIZZOL, F.
Fonte: SPRINGER Publicador: SPRINGER
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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46.13%
Coal mining and incineration of solid residues of health services (SRHS) generate several contaminants that are delivered into the environment, such as heavy metals and dioxins. These xenobiotics can lead to oxidative stress overgeneration in organisms and cause different kinds of pathologies, including cancer. In the present study the concentrations of heavy metals such as lead, copper, iron, manganese and zinc in the urine, as well as several enzymatic and non-enzymatic biomarkers of oxidative stress in the blood (contents of lipoperoxidation = TBARS, protein carbonyls = PC, protein thiols = PT, alpha-tocopherol = AT, reduced glutathione = GSH, and the activities of glutathione S-transferase = GST, glutathione reductase = GR, glutathione peroxidase = GPx, catalase = CAT and superoxide dismutase = SOD), in the blood of six different groups (n = 20 each) of subjects exposed to airborne contamination related to coal mining as well as incineration of solid residues of health services (SRHS) after vitamin E (800 mg/day) and vitamin C (500 mg/day) supplementation during 6 months, which were compared to the situation before the antioxidant intervention (Avila et al., Ecotoxicology 18:1150-1157, 2009; Possamai et al., Ecotoxicology 18:1158-1164...

Occupational airborne contamination in south Brazil: 1. Oxidative stress detected in the blood of coal miners

AVILA JUNIOR, S.; POSSAMAI, F. P.; BUDNI, P.; BACKES, P.; PARISOTTO, E. B.; RIZELIO, V. M.; TORRES, M. A.; COLEPICOLO, P.; WILHELM FILHO, D.
Fonte: SPRINGER Publicador: SPRINGER
Tipo: article; proceedings paper; publishedversion
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.13%
Reactive oxygen species and nitrogen species have been implicated in the pathogenesis of coal dust-induced toxicity. The present study investigated several oxidative stress biomarkers (Contents of lipoperoxidation = TBARS, reduced = GSH, oxidized = GSSG and total glutathione = TG, alpha-tocopherol, and the activities of glutathione S-transferase = GST, glutathione reductase = GR, glutathione peroxidase = GPx, catalase = CAT and superoxide dismutase = SOD), in the blood of three different groups (n = 20 each) exposed to airborne contamination associated with coal mining activities: underground workers directly exposed, surface workers indirectly exposed, residents indirectly exposed (subjects living near the mines), and controls (non-exposed subjects). Plasma TBARS were increased and whole blood TG and GSH levels were decreased in all groups compared to controls. Plasma alpha-tocopherol contents showed approximately half the values in underground workers compared to controls. GST activity was induced in workers and also in residents at the vicinity of the mining plant, whilst CAT activity was induced only in mine workers. SOD activity was decreased in all groups examined, while GPx activity showed decreased values only in underground miners...

INFLUENCE OF DIABETES-MELLITUS ON THE GLUTATHIONE REDOX SYSTEM OF HUMAN RED-BLOOD-CELLS

Matsubara, L. S.; Ferreira, ALA; Tornero, MTT; Machado, PEA
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica (ABRADIC) Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica (ABRADIC)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 331-335
Português
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56.26%
Several components of the erythrocyte-dependent glutathione redox system (reduced glutathione, GSH; oxidized glutathione, GSSG; glutathione peroxidase, GSH-Px; glutathione reductase, GSH-Red) were determined in patients with types I and II diabetes mellitus (DM). All groups studied were male subjects: G1, 20 young healthy individuals (aged 23.7 +/- 4.2 years); G2, 15 young insulin-treated type I DM patients; G3, 20 older insulin-treated type II DM patients; 04, 21 older oral hypoglycemic agent-treated type II DM patients; G5, 28 aged healthy individuals (aged 68.9 +/- 11.5 years). There were no differences between G1 and G2, G3 or G4 regarding erythrocyte GSH, GSSG, and GSH-Red (without FAD) levels. GSH-Px activity was significantly lower in G2 when compared to G1 (15.2 +/- 4.9 vs 20.6 +/- 6.6 IU/g Hb). The GSH-Red and GSH-Px activities and GSH levels were significantly higher in 03 (4.6 +/- 1.7 IU/g Hb, 20.2 +/- 8.7 IU/g Hb and 3.5 +/- 1.3-mu-M/g Hb) and G4 (5.0 +/- 2.2 IU/g Hb, 16.9 +/- 6.1 IU/g Hb and 5.0 +/- 2.3-mu-M/g Hb) when compared to G5 (3.4 +/- 0.9 IU/g Hb, 12.0 +/- 3.6 IU/g Hb and 2.3 +/- 0.9-mu-M/g Hb). The findings suggest that treatment of DM can stimulate the redox activity of red blood cells in aged subjects.

Evaluation of a protein deficient diet in rats through blood oxidative stress biomarkers

Prada, F. J A; Macedo, D. V.; De Mello, Maria Alice Rostom
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 213-228
Português
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76.37%
Protein malnutrition leads to functional impairment in several organs, which is not fully restored with nutritional recovery. Little is known about the role of oxidative stress in the genesis of these alterations. This study was designed to assess the sensitivity of blood oxidative stress biomarkers to a dietary protein restriction. Male Wistar rats were divided into two groups, according to the diet fed from weaning (21 days) to 60 day old: normal protein (17% protein) and low protein (6% protein). Serum protein, albumin, free fatty acid and liver glycogen and lipids were evaluated to assess the nutritional status. Blood glutathione reductase (GR) and catalase (CAT) activities, plasma total sulfhydryl groups concentration (TSG) as well as plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs) and reactive carbonyl derivatives (RCD) were measured as biomarkers of the antioxidant system and oxidative damage, respectively. The glucose metabolism in soleus muscle was also evaluated as an index of stress severity imposed to muscular mass by protein malnutrition. No difference was observed in muscle glucose metabolism or plasma RCD concentration between both groups. However, our results showed that the low protein group had higher plasma TBARs (62%) concentration and lower TSG (44%) concentration than control group...

Increase nitric oxide and oxidative stress in dogs experimentally infected by Ehrlichia canis: Effect on the pathogenesis of the disease

Da Silva, Aleksandro S.; Munhoz, Thiago D.; Faria, Joice L.M.; Vargas-Hérnandez, Giovanni; Machado, Rosangela Z.; Almeida, Taís C.; Moresco, Rafael N.; Stefani, Lenita M.; Tinucci-Costa, Mirela
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 366-369
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.21%
The aim of this study was to evaluate nitric oxide levels, lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation and glutathione reductase activity in serum of dogs experimentally infected by Ehrlichia canis. Banked serum samples of dogs divided into two groups were used: negative control (n=5) and infected by E. canis (n=5). The concentration of nitrite/nitrate (NOx), lipid peroxidation (TBARS), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), and glutathione reductase (GR) activity in sera were evaluated. Samples were collected on days 0, 3, 6, 18 and 30 post-infection (PI). NOx and TBARS levels were significantly (P

Glutathione redox cycle in small intestinal mucosa and peripheral blood of pediatric celiac disease patients

Stojiljkovi?,Vesna?; Peji?,Sne?Ana; Kasapovi?,Jelena; Gavrilovi?,Ljubica?; Stojiljkovi?,Stanimir?; Nikoli?,Dragan?; Pajovi?,Sne?Ana B.
Fonte: Academia Brasileira de Ciências Publicador: Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.12%
The celiac disease is an autoimmune gastrointestinal disorder caused by gluten from wheat, rye or barley. In genetically predisposed persons, gluten induces the immune-mediated inflammation of small intestinal mucosa. Histological lesions include intraepithelial lymphocytosis, crypt hypertrophy and villous atrophy, resulting in malabsorption of micro- and macronutrients. The only treatment for celiac patients is a permanent gluten-free diet (GFD). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress are strongly associated with the celiac disease. Glutathione (GSH) is a main detoxifier of endogenous and exogenous ROS in the intestine. In order to explain the role of glutathione redox cycle in celiac patients, we examined the activities of GSH-related antioxidant (AO) enzymes glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR), as well as the concentration of GSH in small intestinal biopsies and peripheral blood of children affected by the celiac disease. The concentration of lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH) as markers of oxidative damage was measured in the same samples. The results clearly demonstrate a significant malfunction of GSH redox cycle with a concomitant decrease in the capacity to regenerate GSH and detoxify LOOH in celiac patients...

Conversion of glutathione to glutathione disulfide by cell membrane-bound oxidase activity.

Tate, S S; Grau, E M; Meister, A
Tipo: text
Publicado em /06/1979 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.11%
An apparently specific glutathione oxidase activity is present in renal cortex, epididymal caput, jejunal villus tip cells, choroid plexus, and retina (but not in liver). The activity is membrane-bound and is localized on the luminal surface of the brush border membranes of the kidney and jejunum. The distribution and localization of the oxidase are similar to those of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, suggesting that there is a significant relationship among the translocation of intracellular glutathione, the extracellular oxidation of glutathione to glutathione disulfide, and the reactions of the gamma-glutamyl cycle. Thus, both glutathione present in the blood plasma and intracellular glutathione translocated to the cell surface are accessible to oxidation and transpeptidation. Acceptor substrates of the transpeptidase (e.g., L amino acids) promote transpeptidation and decrease oxidation of glutathione. Conversion of glutathione to glutathione disulfide is followed by utilization of the latter compound by gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase and dipeptidase. Although intracellular oxidation of glutathione to glutathione disulfide is readily reversed by the action of glutathione reductase, glutathione disulfide formed extracellularly cannot be reduced; instead...

The erythrocyte glutathione reductase activity (E.C. 1.6.4.2) of healthy blood donors

Salkie, M. L.; Simpson, E.
Tipo: text
Publicado em /11/1970 Português
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46.09%
The erythrocyte glutathione reductase activity was measured in 199 healthy blood donors. The normal range was found to be 6·3 to 39·0 IU/109 erythrocytes. There was no variation related to either age or sex.

Glutathione redox cycle enzymes and selenium in severe rheumatoid arthritis: lack of antioxidative response to selenium supplementation in polymorphonuclear leucocytes.

Tarp, U; Stengaard-Pedersen, K; Hansen, J C; Thorling, E B
Tipo: text
Publicado em /09/1992 Português
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36.22%
The antioxidant capacity of the glutathione redox cycle and the concentrations of selenium in serum, red blood cells or whole blood, and polymorphonuclear leucocytes was evaluated in nine patients with severe rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and eight healthy controls receiving daily supplementation with 250 micrograms selenomethionine for six months. Serum and whole blood concentrations of selenium and the activity of the selenium dependent enzyme glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were low in the serum, red blood cells, and polymorphonuclear leucocytes of patients with RA before selenium supplementation. During supplementation serum and whole blood concentrations of selenium and the activity of GSH-Px in serum and red blood cells of patients with RA and serum GSH-Px in controls increased. Selenium and GSH-Px in polymorphonuclear leucocytes were unaffected in patients with RA in contrast with the controls where both were augmented. Glutathione reductase activity in the red blood cells and polymorphonuclear leucocytes of patients with RA was low but increased during selenium supplementation. Whole blood concentrations of glutathione were slightly lower in patients with RA than controls and no difference in the content in polymorphonuclear leucocytes was found between the groups. The activity in red blood cells of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase was high in patients with RA...

Comparison of in vivo effect of inorganic lead and cadmium on glutathione reductase system and delta-aminolevulinate dehydratase in human erythrocytes.

Roels, H A; Buchet, J P; Lauwerys, R R; Sonnet, J
Tipo: text
Publicado em /08/1975 Português
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46.19%
The activity of delta-aminolevulinate dehydratase (ALAD) of erythrocytes, the lead (Pb-B) and cadmium (Cd-B) concentration in whole blood, the content of reduced glutathion (GSH) in erythrocytes, and the regeneration rate of GSH by intact erythrocytes were measured during an epidemiological survey of 84 men employed in a Belgian cadmium and lead producing plant. A control group of 26 persons (students and laboratory staff) was also examined. The logarithm of the ALAD activity is highly inversely correlated with log Pb-B (r = -0.760) but no correlation was found with log Cd-B. There exists a significant negative correlation between GSH and log Pb-B (r = -0.423) but not between GSH AND LOG Cd-B. The apparently good relationship between log ALAD and GSH disappeared completely by holding log Pb-B constant, but log ALAD remained highly inversely correlated with log Pb-B when standardized for GSH concentration (r = -0.748). In vivo investigation of the GSH regeneration rate of intact erythrocytes demonstrated clearly that the overall activity of the glutathione oxidation-reduction pathways is not impaired in Pb and Cd-exposed workers with significantly increased Pb-B and Cd-B, since their initial GSH regeneration rate (first 15 minutes) was identical with that of the control group. Results of similar in vitro experiments in which control whole blood was incubated before-hand with Pb2+ or Cd2+...

Influence of mouse age and erythrocyte age on glutathione metabolism.

Abraham, E C; Taylor, J F; Lang, C A
Tipo: text
Publicado em 15/09/1978 Português
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36.16%
In order to determine whether the biological age of a mouse influences erythrocyte metabolism and erythrocyte aging in vivo, blood samples were collected from male C57/BL6J mice of different biological ages ranging from mature (10 months) to "very old" (37 months). In the very old mouse, compared with the mature mouse, the erythrocyte survival time was decreased, erythrocyte densities were increased, the concentrations of total free thiol and reduced glutathione, and glutathione reductase activity were decreased. Erythrocytes were separated into different density (age) groups by phthalate ester two-phase centrifugation or by albumin density-gradient centrifugation. The density-age relationship of erythrocytes was established by pulse-labelling with 59Fe in vivo and by subsequent determinations of specific radioactivity of erythrocyte fractions of different densities prepared during a chase period of 60 days. The age of erythrocytes in mice of all ages was directly related to density. Also, in older erythrocytes compared with younger erythrocytes, decreased concentrations of total free thiol and reduced glutathione, and decreased glutathione reductase activity were observed. These were the lowest in the old erythrocytes of very old mice. These results in aging erythrocytes from aging mice suggest that the glutathione status the erythrocyte may be an index of aging...

Inherited Glutathione Reductase Deficiency and Plasmodium falciparum Malaria—A Case Study

Gallo, Valentina; Schwarzer, Evelin; Rahlfs, Stefan; Schirmer, R. Heiner; van Zwieten, Rob; Roos, Dirk; Arese, Paolo; Becker, Katja
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: text
Publicado em 06/10/2009 Português
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46.08%
In Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells (RBCs), the flavoenzyme glutathione reductase (GR) regenerates reduced glutathione, which is essential for antioxidant defense. GR utilizes NADPH produced in the pentose phosphate shunt by glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD). Thus, conditions affecting host G6PD or GR induce increased sensitivity to oxidants. Hereditary G6PD deficiency is frequent in malaria endemic areas and provides protection against severe malaria. Furthermore, GR deficiency resulting from insufficient saturation of the enzyme with its prosthetic group FAD is common. Based on these naturally occurring phenomena, GR of malaria parasites and their host cells represent attractive antimalarial drug targets. Recently we were given the opportunity to examine invasion, growth, and drug sensitivity of three P. falciparum strains (3D7, K1, and Palo Alto) in the RBCs from three homozygous individuals with total GR deficiency resulting from mutations in the apoprotein. Invasion or growth in the GR-deficient RBCs was not impaired for any of the parasite strains tested. Drug sensitivity to chloroquine, artemisinin, and methylene blue was comparable to parasites grown in GR-sufficient RBCs and sensitivity towards paraquat and sodium nitroprusside was only slightly enhanced. In contrast...

Glutathione Reductase and Thioredoxin Reductase: Novel Antioxidant Enzymes from Plasmodium berghei

Kapoor, Gaurav; Banyal, Harjeet Singh
Fonte: The Korean Society for Parasitology Publicador: The Korean Society for Parasitology
Tipo: text
Português
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46.3%
Malaria parasites adapt to the oxidative stress during their erythrocytic stages with the help of vital thioredoxin redox system and glutathione redox system. Glutathione reductase and thioredoxin reductase are important enzymes of these redox systems that help parasites to maintain an adequate intracellular redox environment. In the present study, activities of glutathione reductase and thioredoxin reductase were investigated in normal and Plasmodium berghei-infected mice red blood cells and their fractions. Activities of glutathione reductase and thioredoxin reductase in P. berghei-infected host erythrocytes were found to be higher than those in normal host cells. These enzymes were mainly confined to the cytosolic part of cell-free P. berghei. Full characterization and understanding of these enzymes may promise advances in chemotherapy of malaria.

Glutathione-Related Antioxidant Defense System in Elderly Patients Treated for Hypertension

Rybka, J.; Kupczyk, D.; K?dziora-Kornatowska, K.; Motyl, J.; Czuczejko, J.; Szewczyk-Golec, K.; Kozakiewicz, M.; Pawluk, H.; Carvalho, L. A.; K?dziora, J.
Fonte: Humana Press Inc Publicador: Humana Press Inc
Tipo: text
Português
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36.17%
The purpose of this study was to analyze glutathione antioxidant defense system in elderly patients treated for hypertension. Studies were carried out in the blood collected from 18 hypertensive and 15 age- and sex-matched controls, all subjects age over 60. Hypertensives were on their usual antihypertensive treatment at the time of blood collection. The concentration of glutathione (GSH) in whole blood and activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx-1), glutathione transferase (GST), and glutathione reductase (GR) in erythrocytes were measured. The data from patients and controls were compared using independent-samples t test. P value of 0.05 and less was considered statistically significant. We observed increased glutathione-related antioxidant defense in treated hypertensive elderly patients (HT) when compared with healthy controls (C). Mean GSH concentration was significantly higher in HT when compared with C: 3.1 ± 0.29 and 2.6 ± 0.25 mmol/L, respectively, P 

Differential Responses to Blood Pressure and Oxidative Stress in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Wistar-Kyoto Rats and Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats: Effects of Antioxidant (Honey) Treatment

Erejuwa, Omotayo O.; Sulaiman, Siti A.; Wahab, Mohd Suhaimi Ab; Sirajudeen, Kuttulebbai N. S.; Salleh, Md Salzihan Md; Gurtu, Sunil
Fonte: Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI) Publicador: Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI)
Tipo: text
Publicado em 16/03/2011 Português
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36.13%
Oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis and/or complications of hypertension and/or diabetes mellitus. A combination of these disorders increases the risk of developing cardiovascular events. This study investigated the effects of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg; ip)-induced diabetes on blood pressure, oxidative stress and effects of honey on these parameters in the kidneys of streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Diabetic WKY and SHR were randomized into four groups and received distilled water (0.5 mL) and honey (1.0 g/kg) orally once daily for three weeks. Control SHR had reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) and increased systolic blood pressure (SBP), catalase (CAT) activity, and total antioxidant status (TAS). SBP, activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR) were elevated while TAS was reduced in diabetic WKY. In contrast, SBP, TAS, activities of GPx and GR were reduced in diabetic SHR. Antioxidant (honey) treatment further reduced SBP in diabetic SHR but not in diabetic WKY. It also increased TAS, GSH, reduced glutathione (GSH)/oxidized glutathione (GSSG) ratio, activities of GPx and GR in diabetic SHR. These data suggest that differences in types...

N-Biotinyl-S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine Sulfoxide as a Potential Model for S-(1,2-Dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine Sulfoxide: Characterization of Stability and Reactivity with Glutathione and Kidney Proteins In Vitro

Irving, Roy M.; Brownfield, Mark S.; Elfarra, Adnan A.
Tipo: text
Português
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36.15%
S-(1,2-Dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine sulfoxide (DCVCS) is a reactive and potent nephrotoxic metabolite of the human trichloroethylene metabolite S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine (DCVC). Because DCVCS covalent binding to kidney proteins likely plays a role in its nephrotoxicity, in this study biotin-tagged DCVCS, N-Biotinyl-DCVCS (NB-DCVCS), was synthesized and its stability in buffer alone and in the presence of rat blood or plasma was characterized in vitro. In addition, reactivity toward GSH and covalent binding to selected model enzymes and isolated kidney proteins were characterized. The half-lives of NB-DCVCS (39.6 min) and the DCVCS (diastereomer 1: 14.4 min, diastereomer 2: 6 min) in the presence of GSH were comparable. Incubating the model enzymes glutathione reductase and malate dehydrogenase with 10 µM NB-DCVCS for 3 h at 37°C followed by immunoblotting using anti-biotin antibodies demonstrated that glutathione reductase and malate dehydrogenase were extensively modified by NB-DCVCS. When rat kidney cytosol (6 µg/µL) was incubated with NB-DCVCS (312.5 nM to 5 µM) for 3 h at 37°C followed by immunoblotting, a concentration-dependent increase in signal with multiple proteins with different molecular weights was observed, suggesting NB-DCVCS binds to multiple kidney proteins with different selectivity. Incubating rat kidney cytosol with DCVCS (10 – 100 µM) prior to addition of NB-DCVCS (2.5 µM) reduced the immunoblotting signal...

1,4-Naphthoquinones and Others NADPH-Dependent Glutathione Reductase-Catalyzed Redox Cyclers as Antimalarial Agents

Belorgey, Didier; Lanfranchi, Don Antoine; Davioud-Charvet, Elisabeth
Tipo: text
Publicado em //2013 Português
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46.28%
The homodimeric flavoenzyme glutathione reductase catalyzes NADPH-dependent glutathione disulfide reduction. This reaction is important for keeping the redox homeostasis in human cells and in the human pathogen Plasmodium falciparum. Different types of NADPH-dependent disulfide reductase inhibitors were designed in various chemical series to evaluate the impact of each inhibition mode on the propagation of the parasites. Against malaria parasites in cultures the most potent and specific effects were observed for redox-active agents acting as subversive substrates for both glutathione reductases of the Plasmodium-infected red blood cells. In their oxidized form, these redox-active compounds are reduced by NADPH-dependent flavoenzyme-catalyzed reactions in the cytosol of infected erythrocytes. In their reduced forms, these compounds can reduce molecular oxygen to reactive oxygen species, or reduce oxidants like methemoglobin, the major nutrient of the parasite, to indigestible hemoglobin. Furthermore, studies on a fluorinated suicide-substrate of the human glutathione reductase indicate that the glutathione reductase-catalyzed bioactivation of 3-benzylnaphthoquinones to the corresponding reduced 3-benzoyl metabolites is essential for the observed antimalarial activity. In conclusion...

Endurance Training and Glutathione-Dependent Antioxidant Defense Mechanism in Heart of the Diabetic Rats

Gül, Mustafa; Atalay, Mustafa; Hänninen, Osmo
Fonte: Asist Group Publicador: Asist Group
Tipo: text
Publicado em 01/06/2003 Português
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36.14%
Regular physical exercise beneficially influences cardiac antioxidant defenses in normal rats. The aim of this study was to test whether endurance training can strengthen glutathione-dependent antioxidant defense mechanism and decrease lipid peroxidation in heart of the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Redox status of glutathione in blood of diabetic rats in response to training and acute exercise was also examined. Eight weeks of treadmill training increased the endurance in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. It did not affect glutathione level in heart tissue at rest and also after exercise. On the other hand, endurance training decreased glutathione peroxidase activity in heart, while glutathione reductase and glutathione S-transferase activities were not affected either by acute exhaustive exercise or endurance training. Reduced and oxidized glutathione levels in blood were not affected by either training or acute exercise. Conjugated dienes levels in heart tissue were increased by acute exhaustive exercise and also 8 weeks treadmill training. Longer duration of exhaustion in trained group may have contributed to the increased conjugated dienes levels in heart after acute exercise. Our results suggest that endurance type exercise may make heart more susceptible to oxidative stress. Therefore it may be wise to combine aerobic exercise with insulin treatment to prevent its adverse effects on antioxidant defense in heart in patients with diabetes mellitus.

The Effect of Melaxen on the Activity of Caspases and the Glutathione Antioxidant System in Toxic Liver Injury

Popov, S. S.; Shulgin, K. K.; Pashkov, A. N.; Agarkov, A. A.
Fonte: A.I. Gordeyev Publicador: A.I. Gordeyev
Tipo: text
Publicado em //2014 Português
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36.27%
A comparative study of the activity of caspase-1 and caspase-3, the glutathione antioxidant system and NADPH-generating enzymes (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and NADP-isocitrate dehydrogenase) and a study of DNA fragmentation in the blood serum of patients with chronic alcoholic hepatitis during basic treatment and combination therapy including melaxen have been carried out. It was found that the blood serum level of reduced glutathione, which decreases in pathology, increased more significantly in patients receiving melaxen as compared to the group of patients receiving the standard treatment. More significant changes in the activity of caspase-1 and caspase-3, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and NADP-isocitrate dehydrogenase toward the control values were observed during the combination therapy. The correction in the melatonin level under the influence of melaxen apparently had a positive effect on the free-radical homeostasis in patients, which resulted in more pronounced changes in the investigated parameters towards the normal values as compared to the basic treatment. KEY WORD S chronic alcoholic hepatitis; glutathione peroxidase; glutathione reductase; reduced glutathione; glutathione-S-transferase; caspases; melaxen.