Atualmente, tem crescido o número de pesquisas que tem a formação e a prática do professor universitário como objeto de estudos. Nesse cenário, a presente tese, vinculada à linha de pesquisa Didática, teorias do ensino e práticas escolares, teve como objetivo geral contribuir para a reflexão sobre a docência no ensino superior a partir do olhar que o estudante universitário lança aos seus professores. Pretendeu, ainda, identificar o perfil desses estudantes, quais as relações que estabelece com o seu curso, os sentidos atribuídos por ele à sua formação inicial e os processos utilizados nos processos de ensino na Universidade que contribuem para sua aprendizagem. Para tanto, foi aplicado questionário para estudantes ingressantes e concluintes de licenciaturas de todas as áreas do conhecimento - ofertadas no Campus Jataí, da Universidade Federal de Goiás (CAJ/UFG), e realizada entrevista coletiva com alguns estudantes desses cursos. Após a coleta, análise e discussão dos dados, foi possível perceber que o licenciando do CAJ/UFG tem um perfil que se aproxima das informações disponibilizadas pelo Censo do Ensino Superior (2011) e que escolheu a licenciatura como primeira opção com vistas a obter uma formação profissional em uma área de interesse. Esse aluno atribui valor significativo ao seu curso de graduação acreditando que este é a base para a sua futura atuação docente; considera bom professor aquele que domina e garante condições para a transmissão do conteúdo e...
OBJECTIVES. This study examines the individual correlates of college student binge drinking. METHODS. Questionnaires were completed by a representative national sample (n = 17,592) of students on 140 campuses in 1993. Binge drinking was defined as five or more drinks per episode for men and as four or more drinks per episode for women. RESULTS. Overall, 44% of the students (50% of the men and 39% of the women) binged. While demographic factors such as sex and race were significantly related to binge drinking, prior binging in high school was crucial, suggesting that for many students, binge drinking begins before college. The strongest predictors of college binge drinking were residence in a fraternity or sorority, adoption of a party-centered life-style, and engagement in other risky behaviors. CONCLUSIONS. Interventions must be targeted at high school binge drinking as well as at several characteristics of college life--most notably fraternity residence. Legal drinking age fails to predict binge drinking, raising questions about the effectiveness of the legal minimum drinking age of 21 in college alcohol policies.
The present research combined qualitative and quantitative approaches in examining gambling motives among college student gamblers. A comprehensive set of 16 gambling motives was identified by categorizing 762 open-ended reasons for gambling, provided by 184 college student gamblers. Results revealed that most college students gamble to win money, for fun, for social reasons, for excitement, or just to have something to do. Overall, the results suggest the need for an eclectic biopsychosocial approach with regard to etiology of college student gambling.
The unique drinking patterns of college students call for Event-Specific Prevention (ESP) strategies that address college student drinking associated with peak times and events. Despite limited research evaluating ESP, many college campuses are currently implementing programming for specific events. The present paper provides a review of existing literature related to ESP and offers practical guidance for research and practice. The prevention typology proposed by DeJong and Langford (2002) provides a framework for strategic planning, suggesting that programs and policies should address problems at the individual, group, institution, community, state, and society level, and that these interventions should focus on knowledge change, environmental change, health protection, and intervention and treatment services. From this typology, specific examples are provided for comprehensive program planning related to orientation/beginning of school year, homecoming, 21st birthday celebrations, spring break, and graduation. In addition, the University of Connecticut’s efforts to address problems resulting from its annual Spring Weekend are described as an illustration of how advance planning by campus and community partners can produce a successful ESP effort.
Personalized normative feedback approaches focus on correcting overestimated peer drinking norms in order to reduce problematic drinking among college students. Generally, personalized normative feedback utilizes the “typical college student” as a normative referent. Prior research has found these interventions to be less effective for women and has suggested the implementation of the typical student referent as one possible explanation. The current research explored how the typical college student is perceived when estimating peer drinking norms. Participants included 182 (98 women, 84 men) students who reported consuming 5/4 or more drinks for men/ women on at least one occasion in the previous month. Participants completed a battery of questionnaires on computers located in small private rooms assessing their drinking behavior, perceptions of “typical student” drinking behavior, and demographics of the perceived “typical college student.” Overall, the majority of students perceived the typical student to be male. More specifically, the vast majority of men and about half of women perceived the typical student as male when estimating drinking norms. These findings provide empirical corroboration for previous researchers’ suggestions that both men and women tend to think of the typical college student as male when estimating peer drinking norms. Results are discussed in terms of implications for personalized normative feedback interventions.
There is compelling evidence that college student athletes engage in frequent episodes of heavy drinking and are prone to negative consequences resulting from such use. This study sought to identify risk and protective factors associated with student-athlete drinking and determine if student-athlete risk factors differed from those of non-athletes. Athletes compared to non-athletes reported more exaggerated perceptions of peer heavy drinking and lower sensation seeking and coping and enhancement motives for drinking, suggesting a risk profile distinct from non-athletes. In the overall sample, higher sensation seeking, overestimation of peer heavy drinking, non-use of protective behaviors while drinking, and higher enhancement and coping drinking motives were associated with greater frequency of heavy episodic drinking and more negative drinking consequences. In athletes compared to non-athletes, sensation seeking was more strongly associated with heavy episodic drinking and drinking to cope was more strongly associated with negative alcohol-related consequences. Overall, the results suggest that already proven brief intervention strategies, with minor adaptations related to the roles of sensation seeking and drinking to cope, may be helpful for student athletes.
Nationally, college drinkers exhibit the highest rates of alcohol consumption and represent the largest percentage of problem drinkers. Group motivational enhancement therapy (GMET) has been found to catalyze problem drinking reductions among college student samples. While research supporting the use of single-session GMET in college samples (general and mandated) is emergent, no studies have evaluated a comprehensive model of the potential active ingredients of this group intervention. College students (N = 206; 88% Caucasian; 63% male; M age = 18.6) mandated to a university alcohol diversion program were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: the standard-of-care two-session ‘Focus on Alcohol Concerns’ education group (FAC), a single group motivational enhancement therapy (GMET), or a single Alcohol Information-only control group (AI) to evaluate the role of five putative mediators: readiness to change, self-efficacy, perceived risk, norm estimates, and positive drinking expectancies. At three and six month follow-ups, GMET students demonstrated greater reductions in problem drinking outcomes (drinks per drinking day, hazardous drinking symptoms, and alcohol-related problems). Of the five mediators proposed, only self-efficacy emerged as a significant mediator.
We examined the within-person relationships between daily work stressors and alcohol consumption over 14 consecutive days in a sample of 106 employed college students. Using a tension reduction theoretical framework, we predicted that exposure to work stressors would increase alcohol consumption by employed college students, particularly for men and those with stronger daily expectancies about the tension reducing properties of alcohol. After controlling for day of the week, we found that hours worked were positively related to number of drinks consumed. Workload was unrelated to alcohol consumption, and work-school conflict was negatively related to consumption, particularly when students expressed strong beliefs in the tension reducing properties of alcohol. There was no evidence that the effects of work stressors were moderated by gender. The results illustrate that employment during the academic year plays a significant role in college student drinking and suggest that the employment context may be an appropriate intervention site to address the problem of student drinking.
Little attention has been directed toward potential differential effects of the various contexts in which parents model alcohol use. The present study examined college football tailgating as a potential context in which parental modeling may be more or less risky. 290 college freshmen were assessed for perceptions of their parents’ drinking and tailgating behaviors, individual alcohol use and consequences. Hierarchical multiple regressions were performed and results revealed that parental tailgating accounted for a significant increase in the variance explained in each of the student drinking measures. Parental drunkenness at tailgates predicted college student drinking and negative consequences, over and above the influence of typical parental heavy episodic drinking. The specific context in which students perceive their parents as drinking heavily may impact their own drinking. Tailgating at sporting events appears to be one such context where students perceive alcohol behaviors which they later model.
Epidemiological data indicate a robust association between smoking and alcohol use. However, a critical question that is less resolved is the extent to which the smoking event takes place during the time of alcohol consumption. The present study used data from an eight-week prospective web-based study of college student smokers to examine daily associations between smoking and alcohol use, using measures of both likelihood and level of use. Findings indicated that within a person, consumption of alcohol and smoking covaried on a daily basis. In addition, consistent with the idea of smoking as a social activity for college students, light smokers were more likely than heavier smokers to smoke while drinking and to smoke more cigarettes while drinking. Smoking behavior among light smokers may be influenced by external social contextual cues, in contrast to heavier smokers who may be more affected by internal cues. Implications of findings for prevention work suggest the importance of targeting social situations in which smoking and drinking co-occur.
More than ¾ of U.S. college students report a heavy drinking episode (HDE; 5/4 or more drinks during an occasion for a man/woman) in the previous 90 days. This pattern of drinking is associated with various risks and social problems for both the heavy-drinkers and the larger college community. According to behavioral economics, college student drinking is a contextually-bound phenomenon that is impacted by contingencies such as price and competing alternative reinforcers, including next-day responsibilities such as college classes. The current study systematically examined the role of these variables by using hypothetical alcohol purchase tasks to analyze alcohol consumption and expenditures among college students who reported recent heavy drinking (N = 207, 53.1% women). The impact of gender and the personality risk factor sensation-seeking were also assessed. Students were asked how many drinks they would purchase and consume across 17 drink prices and 3 next-day responsibility scenarios (no responsibilities, a 10:00 AM class without a test, and a 10:00 AM class with a test). Mean levels of hypothetical consumption were highly sensitive to both drink price and next-day responsibility, with the lowest drinking levels associated with high drink prices and a next-day test. Men and participants with greater levels of sensation-seeking reported more demand overall (greater consumption and expenditures) than women and students with low sensation-seeking personality. Contrary to our hypotheses women appeared to be less sensitive to increases in price than men. The results suggest that increasing drink prices and morning academic requirements may be useful in preventing heavy drinking among college students.
Alcohol consumption is prevalent among college students and can become problematic for some. Numerous randomized controlled trials have evaluated the efficacy of individual preventive interventions in reducing alcohol use and alcohol-related problems in college student populations. Consistent with earlier reviews, the balance of the evidence from studies conducted during the past 3 years strongly supports the efficacy of brief motivational interventions combined with personalized feedback interventions (PFIs) and personalized normative feedback (PNF), as well as of stand-alone PFI/PNF interventions. Recent analyses also continue to support the efficacy of alcohol expectancy challenge interventions, although the findings are less consistent. In addition, recent analyses offer mixed support for feedback-based interventions focused solely on blood alcohol concentration and for multicomponent, alcohol education–focused interventions that include elements of PFI/PNF. No evidence of efficacy was found for programs that only included alcohol education.
College student alcohol consumption is a major concern, and is known to increase during the celebration of special events. This study examined a student-constructed holiday, State Patty’s Day, at a university with a dominant drinking culture using three sources of data – coded data from Facebook groups, daily web surveys from first-year students (N= 227, 51% male, age 18 to 20; 27.3% Hispanic/Latino; of non-Hispanic/Latino, 26.9% of sample European American/White, 19.4% Asian American/Hawaiian/Pacific Islander, 15.9% African American/Black, 10.6% more than one race), and criminal offense data from police records. Results indicated that messages about State Patty’s Day on Facebook focused on drinking and social aspects of the holiday, such as the social context of drinking, a sense of belonging to a larger community, and the social norms of drinking. These messages were rarely about consequences and rarely negative. On State Patty’s Day, 51% of students consumed alcohol, compared to 29% across other sampled weekend days. Students consumed more drinks (M = 8.2 [SD = 5.3] drinks per State Patty’s Day drinker) and were more likely to engage in heavy drinking on State Patty’s Day, after controlling for gender, drinking motives...
Interventions challenging alcohol expectancies may lead to reductions in alcohol consumption. We conducted a meta-analysis to examine the efficacy of alcohol expectancy challenge (EC) interventions for college alcohol abuse prevention. Included were 14 studies (19 EC interventions) that measured alcohol expectancies and consumption, provided sufficient information to calculate effect sizes, and were available as of June 2010 (N = 1,415; M age = 20; 40% women; 88% White). Independent raters coded participant characteristics, design and methodological features, and intervention content, and calculated weighted mean effect sizes at first follow-up, using both fixed- and random-effects models. Compared to controls, EC participants reported lower positive alcohol expectancies, reduced their alcohol use, and reduced their frequency of heavy drinking (d+s ranged from 0.23 to 0.28). Within-group improvements in alcohol expectancies and consumption emerged for the EC group only; relative to their own baseline, EC participants reported lower positive alcohol expectancies, reduced their alcohol use, and reduced their frequency of heavy drinking (d+s range from 0.13 to 0.36). Supplemental analyses found improvements in specific alcohol expectancies (social...
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of two incentive conditions (a $10 pre-incentive only vs. a $2 pre-incentive and a $10 promised incentive) on response rates, sample composition, substantive data, and cost-efficiency in a survey of college student substance use and related behaviors. Participants were 3000 randomly-selected college students invited to participate in a survey on substance use. Registrar data on all invitees was used to compare response rates and respondents, and web-based data collection on participants was used to compare substantive findings. Participants randomized to the pre-incentive plus promised incentive condition were more likely to complete the survey and less likely to give partial responses. Subgroup differences by sex, class year, and race were evaluated among complete responders, although only sex differences were significant. Men were more likely to respond in the pre-incentive plus promised incentive condition than the pre-incentive only condition. Substantive data did not differ across incentive structure, although the pre-incentive plus promised incentive condition was more cost-efficient. Survey research on college student populations is warranted to support the most scientifically sound and cost-efficient studies possible. Although substantive data did not differ...
Given the increased prevalence of non-daily smoking and changes in smoking patterns, particularly among young adults, we examined correlates of smoking level, specifically motives for smoking, and readiness to quit smoking among 2682 college undergraduates who completed an online survey. Overall, 64.7% (n = 1736) were non-smokers, 11.6% (n = 312) smoked 1–5 days, 10.5% (n = 281) smoked 6–29 days and 13.2% (n = 353) were daily smokers. Ordinal regression analyses modeling smoking level indicated that correlates of higher smoking level included having more friends who smoke (? = 0.63, 95% CI 0.57–0.69) and more frequent other tobacco use (? = 0.04, 95% CI 0.02–0.05), drinking (? = 0.04, 95% CI 0.02–0.07) and binge drinking (? = 0.09, 95% CI 0.06–0.13). Bivariate analyses indicated that daily smokers (versus the subgroups of non-daily smokers) were less likely to smoke for social reasons but more likely to smoke for self-confidence, boredom, and affect regulation. Controlling for sociodemographics, correlates of readiness to quit among current smokers included fewer friends who smoke (P = 0.002), less frequent binge drinking (P = 0.03), being a social smoker (P < 0.001), smoking less for self-confidence (P = 0.04), smoking more for boredom (P = 0.03) and less frequent smoking (P = 0.001). Specific motives for smoking and potential barriers to cessation particularly may be relevant to different groups of college student smokers.
Alcohol use in college students is associated with a number of negative consequences, and specific characteristics of college students’ social networks have been linked to hazardous or harmful alcohol use. College represents a time when social networks are changing significantly, both in terms of composition and relative influence of network members. However, the reliability and validity of one of the most common measures for assessing alcohol-specific social support, the Important People Instrument (IPI; Clifford & Longabaugh, 1991), have not been established in college student samples. The aim of the current study was to examine the psychometric properties of the IPI administered in computerized and paper-and-pencil formats within a non-treatment-seeking sample of college drinkers (N = 197). Test-retest reliability estimates for the overall sample indicated that all indices had acceptable reliability. While the models tested within a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) framework exhibited mediocre fit, a three-factor model appeared to offer the best fit overall. Consistent with previous findings with treatment-seeking samples, negative consequences of drinking were positively associated with network drinking behavior, but not network support for drinking or network general support. The IPI can provide reliable and valid information about network drinking behavior...
Heavy drinking among college students is associated with social, health, and legal problems. One factor that may contribute to heavy drinking is an attentional bias for alcohol-related cues, which can influence drinking automatically and without an individual’s awareness. Using tests of alcohol-related attentional bias, such as the alcohol Stroop task, previous research has shown that alcohol dependent drinkers have greater attentional biases than non-dependent drinkers, but results for college student drinkers have been mixed. The present study examined alcohol Stroop task performance and its relationship to drinking levels and drinking-related problems among 84 college students during the 2009–2010 academic year with at least one binge drinking episode in the previous month. As hypothesized, results indicated that participants had greater attentional interference when alcohol words were presented compared to when neutral words were presented during the Stroop task, suggesting that the students in the sample displayed greater attentional biases for alcohol words compared to neutral words. Results showed that Stroop task responding did not vary by drinking frequency or drinking-related problems, but did vary by drinking intensity. Presentation of alcohol-related cues may cause heavier drinking college students to attend to these stimuli...
Nondaily smoking is becoming common in young adults and there appear to be different characteristics associated with past month smoking frequency among nondaily smokers. The present study examines behavioral and psychosocial correlates of smoking among subgroups of nondaily college student smokers (N = 80; 18–25 years of age) attending a large, public university. Nondaily smokers were categorized based on the frequency of days smoked in the past month and were divided into two subgroups: 1–5 days and 6–29 days. A quarter of nondaily smokers considered themselves as a smoker and significantly more 6–29 nondaily smokers were identified as a smoker and smoked more cigarettes per day (CPD). Almost half (45%) of nondaily smokers have attempted to quit smoking completely and 71% of the 6–29 nondaily smokers reported significantly higher quit attempts. The 6–29 nondaily smokers had significantly higher perceived risk related to smoking. Self-efficacy to abstain from smoking was significantly higher for 1–5 nondaily smokers. These results suggest heterogeneity among subgroups of nondaily college student smokers exists in a number of behavioral and psychosocial factors. Prevention and cessation strategies may be improved by considering frequency of nondaily smoking and targeting subgroups differently.
In this article, we discuss Alan Marlatt’s contributions to the prevention and reduction of alcohol-related harms among college students. We consider Alan’s early research that later led to the development and evaluation of college student drinking programs, and examine Alan’s impact, both directly and indirectly through those he mentored and trained, as a scientist-practitioner. We review the recognition of the efficacy of Alan’s programs, including the Alcohol Skills Training Program (ASTP) and Brief Alcohol Screening and Intervention for College Students (BASICS), in addition to extensions of these interventions in more recent studies. Finally, we discuss how Alan’s work influences interventions with college student drinkers today, and how future directions will continue to be informed by his vision and values.