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Influência de programas de prevenção da doença cardiovascular na concepção e prática de docentes em escolas públicas de ensino fundamental do ciclo II; The influence of cardiovascular disease prevention programs in the conception and practices of teachers from public elementary schools of cicle II

Bortolozzo, Maria Silvia Sanchez
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 30/03/2009 Português
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56.02%
Trata-se de investigação qualitativa para conhecer a Concepção e Prática de Docentes, da cidade de São Paulo, sob a Influência de Programas de Prevenção da Doença Cardiovascular. Foram comparados grupos de professores que passaram pela formação e outros que não passaram, para verificar o que sabiam e como ensinavam o tema transversal saúde, quanto aos fatores de risco à doença cardiovascular, nos aspectos, alimentação, sedentarismo, tabagismo e uso do álcool. A entrevista como diagnóstico inicial demonstrou que existiam professores receptivos a participações inovadoras e outros resistentes a mudanças de qualquer natureza. O grupo focal confirmou esse resultado, pois, mesmo não tendo participado dos Programas, um número significativo de professores destacou-se como inovador e preocupado com as questões de saúde. A vantagem desta técnica sobre a anterior é ter permitido evidenciar na reflexão conjunta, os professores que passaram pela formação demonstraram avanço nas formas de intervenção em relação à prática de saúde em sala de aula e em todos os espaços escolares. A análise documental reforçou os resultados e identificou obstáculos internos e externos apresentados pelos professores. Os dois grupos apresentaram diferentes níveis de informações conceituais e de práticas em prevenção de doenças crônico-degenerativas...

Análise da percepção e registro das medidas de prevenção de doenças por profissionais da atenção primária; Analysis of the Perception among and Documentation of Disease Prevention Measures by Healthcare Workers in Primary Care.

Santos, Luciane Loures dos
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 26/11/2010 Português
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A aplicação das medidas preventivas, principalmente das doenças crônicas não transmissíveis (DCNT), tem sido debatida mundialmente, já que poucos fatores de risco respondem pela maioria das mortes por DCNT, como o tabagismo, alcoolismo, obesidade e dislipidemias. A sistematização das medidas de promoção de saúde e prevenção de doenças (PSPD) pode contribuir para o trabalho das equipes de Saúde da Família, potencializando as suas ações e fortalecendo a Atenção Primária à Saúde (APS). Face ao baixo registro das medidas de prevenção das DCNTs no Brasil e à ausência de parâmetros na literatura nacional, comparamos a percepção dos profissionais e o registro das medidas de PSPD dos centros de saúde brasileiros com os serviços espanhóis, considerados referência no assunto. Realizamos um estudo descritivo e quantitativo, por meio da aplicação de um questionário aos profissionais e da análise dos prontuários dos serviços de APS de municípios de pequeno, médio e grande porte do Brasil e da Espanha. Entrevistamos 82 profissionais entre médicos (50%) e enfermeiros (50%), com elevado grau de especialização (77,5%). A maioria dos espanhóis tinha mais de 10 anos de formado (73%), e 54% atuavam na APS há mais de 10 anos...

Chagas disease prevention through improved housing using an ecosystem approach to health

Rojas-de-Arias,Antonieta
Fonte: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz Publicador: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2001 Português
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55.88%
This Chagas disease prevention project via housing improvement aims to determine the efficiencyof different interventions in vector control. The following study describes the target communities, disease magnitude, and housing improvements. Transmission levels are analysed from an ecological and socioeconomic perspective. Special interest was focused on the peridomicile as the origin of domiciliary reinfestation. In the original project, three intervention programs were proposed, one for each of the three communities: (a) an insecticide spraying program; (b) a housing improvement program; and (c) a combined program of spraying and housing improvement. The three communities currently have different risks of exposure to triatominae reinfestation as a consequence of the type of intervention carried out. A new multidisciplinary approach which integrates participatory, community-based research and socioeconomic dimensions will allow to determine the efficiency of models for territorial ordering, community education, and environmental interventions in Chagas disease control.

Dengue in Southeast Asia: epidemiological characteristics and strategic challenges in disease prevention

Ooi,Eng-Eong; Gubler,Duane J.
Fonte: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz Publicador: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2009 Português
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65.99%
Dengue emerged as a public health burden in Southeast Asia during and following the Second World War and has become increasingly important, with progressively longer and more frequent cyclical epidemics of dengue fever/dengue hemorrhagic fever. Despite this trend, surveillance for this vector-borne viral disease remains largely passive in most Southeast Asian countries, without adequate laboratory support. We review here the factors that may have contributed to the changing epidemiology of dengue in Southeast Asia as well as challenges of disease prevention. We also discuss a regional approach to active dengue virus surveillance, focusing on urban areas where the viruses are maintained, which may be a solution to limited financial resources since most of the countries in the region have developing economies. A regional approach would also result in a greater likelihood of success in disease prevention since the large volume of human travel is a major factor contributing to the geographical spread of dengue viruses.

From genes to public health: the applications of genetic technology in disease prevention. Genetics Working Group.

Khoury, M J
Tipo: text
Publicado em /12/1996 Português
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OBJECTIVES: With advances in the Human Genome Project, the implications of genetic technology in disease prevention should be assessed. METHODS: The paradigm suggested in The Future of Public Health--assessment, policy development, and assurance--was used to examine the continuum from genetic technology to public health practice. RESULTS: First, important public health functions are to (1) assess the impact of genes and their interactions with modifiable disease risk factors on the health status of the population and (2) assess the impact and safety of genetic testing on the population. Second, given the many implications of genetic testing, the public health community should participate in policy development related to the timing and use of genetic testing in disease prevention. Third, whenever appropriate, the public health community needs to ensure the development of public health genetics programs (e.g. newborn screening) and evaluate the quality and effectiveness of the use of genetic testing in disease prevention. CONCLUSIONS: Although most current genetic tests are not ready for disease prevention, there is an important role for the public health community in translating genetic technology into disease prevention.

Do health service organizations and community health centres have higher disease prevention and health promotion levels than fee-for-service practices?

Abelson, J; Lomas, J
Tipo: text
Publicado em 15/03/1990 Português
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We interviewed health care providers representing 23 fee-for-service (FFS) practices, 19 health service organizations (HSOs) and 11 community health centres (CHCs) in Ontario to compare self-reported approaches to disease prevention and health promotion. Few significant differences were found across practice types in the presence of recall systems for screening or in knowledge of, compliance with or estimated coverage for selected preventive maneuvers recommended by the Canadian Task Force on the Periodic Health Examination. CHCs reported a significantly greater variety of formal health promotion programs and a greater tendency to use nonphysician health care personnel to carry out both prevention and health promotion activities. The results must be interpreted with caution because of the use of self-reported data, the low response rate for FFS practices and the use of a restrictive definition of disease prevention tied to evidence from the reports of the task force. Thus, the results cast some doubt on the common assumption that increasing the population served by alternative modes of delivery such as HSOs and CHCs necessarily increases the level of disease prevention and health promotion activity.

The role of state public health agencies in genetics and disease prevention: results of a national survey.

Piper, M. A.; Lindenmayer, J. M.; Lengerich, E. J.; Pass, K. A.; Brown, W. G.; Crowder, W. B.; Khoury, M. J.; Baker, T. G.; Lloyd-Puryear, M. A.; Bryan, J. L.
Fonte: Association of Schools of Public Health Publicador: Association of Schools of Public Health
Tipo: text
Publicado em //2001 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.99%
OBJECTIVES: The onset and severity of the clinical expression of most diseases that are of public health importance are influenced by genetic predisposition. The ability to assess human genetic predisposition for many diseases is increasing rapidly. Therefore, state public health agencies should be incorporating new developments in genetics and disease prevention into their core functions of assessment, policy development, and assurance. The authors assessed the status of this process. METHODS: The Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE) surveyed states about projects and concerns related to genetics and public health activities. Respondents were the Health Officer, the Maternal and Child Health/Genetics Program Director, the Chronic Disease Program Director, and the Laboratory Director. Where applicable, responses were categorized into assessment, policy development, and assurance functions. RESULTS: Thirty-eight (76%) state health departments responded. Ongoing genetics activities were assurance (82%), assessment (17%), and policy development (2%). In contrast, Health Officers responded that future genetics activities would be distributed differently: assurance, 41%; assessment, 36%; and policy development, 23%. Future assurance activities would be largely educational. Topics of interest and recently initiated activities in genetics were primarily assessment functions. Funding was the greatest concern...

Local Health Departments and the Challenge of Chronic Disease: Lessons From California

Prentice, Bob; Flores, George
Fonte: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Publicador: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Tipo: text
Publicado em 15/12/2006 Português
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45.97%
The essential role local health departments have played in the control of infectious diseases has not been matched with an equivalent contribution in prevention of chronic diseases. Local health departments have attempted to define and build that capacity, but they have been confronted with budget cuts and competing public health priorities, most notably bioterrorism preparedness. This article is based on interviews with local health officials and describes some of the common ways local health departments in California have forged ahead to develop the capacity to engage in comprehensive approaches to chronic disease prevention in spite of the challenges. Additionally, the article highlights future considerations that need to be addressed if these promising trends in chronic disease prevention are to become more widespread.

Oral health information systems--towards measuring progress in oral health promotion and disease prevention.

Petersen, Poul Erik; Bourgeois, Denis; Bratthall, Douglas; Ogawa, Hiroshi
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: text
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.97%
This article describes the essential components of oral health information systems for the analysis of trends in oral disease and the evaluation of oral health programmes at the country, regional and global levels. Standard methodology for the collection of epidemiological data on oral health has been designed by WHO and used by countries worldwide for the surveillance of oral disease and health. Global, regional and national oral health databanks have highlighted the changing patterns of oral disease which primarily reflect changing risk profiles and the implementation of oral health programmes oriented towards disease prevention and health promotion. The WHO Oral Health Country/Area Profile Programme (CAPP) provides data on oral health from countries, as well as programme experiences and ideas targeted to oral health professionals, policy-makers, health planners, researchers and the general public. WHO has developed global and regional oral health databanks for surveillance, and international projects have designed oral health indicators for use in oral health information systems for assessing the quality of oral health care and surveillance systems. Modern oral health information systems are being developed within the framework of the WHO STEPwise approach to surveillance of noncommunicable...

Association of Acculturation Status With Beliefs, Barriers, and Perceptions Related to Cardiovascular Disease Prevention Among Racial and Ethnic Minorities

Edelman, Dana; Christian, Allison; Mosca, Lori
Tipo: text
Português
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45.97%
Acculturation has been correlated with traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between acculturation and health beliefs, barriers, and perceptions related to cardiovascular disease prevention. Racial/ethnic minority participants in the Family Intervention Trial for Heart Health were included in this analysis. Less acculturated minorities were more likely to have health beliefs that may impede prevention, have greater perceived susceptibility to disease, and believe in an external locus of control. Evaluating acculturation in clinical practice may be an opportunity to promote awareness, healthy behaviors, and prevention among immigrants.

The Evolution of the Steps Program, 2003-2010: Transforming the Federal Public Health Practice of Chronic Disease Prevention

Nichols, Phyllis; Ussery-Hall, Ann; Griffin-Blake, Shannon; Easton, Alyssa
Fonte: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Publicador: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Tipo: text
Publicado em 02/02/2012 Português
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56.02%
The Steps program, formerly known as Steps to a HealthierUS, was the first Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) program to support a community-based, integrated approach to chronic disease prevention. Steps interventions addressed both diseases and risk factors, focusing on the 3 leading causes of preventable deaths in the United States — tobacco use, poor nutrition, and physical inactivity — and the associated chronic conditions of asthma, diabetes, and obesity. When Steps shifted from interventions focused on individual health-risk behaviors to the implementation of policy, systems, and environmental changes, the program became an integral part of changing the way CDC addressed chronic disease prevention. In this article, we describe the shift in intervention strategies that occurred among Steps communities, the model that was developed as Steps evolved, common interventions implemented before and after the shift in approach, challenges experienced by Steps communities, and CDC programs that were modeled after Steps.

Magnesium in Disease Prevention and Overall Health12

Volpe, Stella Lucia
Fonte: American Society for Nutrition Publicador: American Society for Nutrition
Tipo: text
Publicado em 06/05/2013 Português
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Magnesium is the fourth most abundant mineral and the second most abundant intracellular divalent cation and has been recognized as a cofactor for >300 metabolic reactions in the body. Some of the processes in which magnesium is a cofactor include, but are not limited to, protein synthesis, cellular energy production and storage, reproduction, DNA and RNA synthesis, and stabilizing mitochondrial membranes. Magnesium also plays a critical role in nerve transmission, cardiac excitability, neuromuscular conduction, muscular contraction, vasomotor tone, blood pressure, and glucose and insulin metabolism. Because of magnesium’s many functions within the body, it plays a major role in disease prevention and overall health. Low levels of magnesium have been associated with a number of chronic diseases including migraine headaches, Alzheimer’s disease, cerebrovascular accident (stroke), hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Good food sources of magnesium include unrefined (whole) grains, spinach, nuts, legumes, and white potatoes (tubers). This review presents recent research in the areas of magnesium and chronic disease, with the goal of emphasizing magnesium’s role in disease prevention and overall health.

Role of Garlic Usage in Cardiovascular Disease Prevention: An Evidence-Based Approach

Qidwai, Waris; Ashfaq, Tabinda
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: text
Português
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Introduction. Rapidly growing prevalence of cardiovascular disease is a major threat for the developed as well as developing world warranting urgent need of intervention. Complementary and alternative medicines are gaining popularity among general population because of their safety profile and easy administration. Garlic, in particular, is considered to be one of the best disease-preventive foods because of its potent and widespread effects. This study was done to find out the role of garlic usage in cardiovascular disease prevention. Methodology. Major databases including Google, PubMed, MEDLINE, and Cochrane library view were used for the literature search. Clinical trials conducted on humans assessing role of garlic usage in cardiovascular disease prevention and the possible mechanisms responsible for such therapeutic actions were assessed. Results. Various clinical trials and meta-analyses conducted have shown positive impact of garlic in cardiovascular-disease prevention especially its effects on lipid levels; however, some contradictory results are also reported. Similarly, its effects on hypertension control, and platelet are also mild with limited data availability. The possible reason for these inconsistent results is the difference in preparations with diverse composition...

Implementing Clinical Practice Guidelines About Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Through Shared Decision Making

Politi, Mary C.; Wolin, Kathleen Y.; Légaré, France
Fonte: Springer-Verlag Publicador: Springer-Verlag
Tipo: text
Português
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45.98%
Clinical practice guidelines aim to improve the health of patients by guiding individual care in clinical settings. Many guidelines specifically about health promotion or primary disease prevention are beginning to support informed patient choice, and suggest that clinicians and patients engage in shared discussions to determine how best to tailor guidelines to individuals. However, guidelines generally do not address how to translate evidence from the population to the individual in clinical practice, or how to engage patients in these discussions. In addition, they often fail to reconcile patients’ preferences and social norms with best evidence. Shared decision making (SDM) is one solution to bridge guidelines about health promotion and disease prevention with clinical practice. SDM describes a collaborative process between patients and their clinicians to reach agreement about a health decision involving multiple medically appropriate treatment options. This paper discusses: 1) a brief overview of SDM; 2) the potential role of SDM in facilitating the implementation of prevention-focused practice guidelines for both preference-sensitive and effective care decisions; and 3) avenues for future empirical research to test how best to engage individual patients and clinicians in these complex discussions about prevention guidelines. We suggest that SDM can provide a structure for clinicians to discuss clinical practice guidelines with patients in a way that is evidence-based...

Strengthening Chronic Disease Prevention Programming: The Toward Evidence-Informed Practice (TEIP) Program Evidence Tool

Albert, Dayna; Fortin, Rebecca; Herrera, Christine; Riley, Barbara; Hanning, Rhona; Lessio, Anne; Rush, Brian
Fonte: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Publicador: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Tipo: text
Publicado em 30/05/2013 Português
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56.02%
In public health and chronic disease prevention there is increasing priority for effective use of evidence in practice. In Ontario, Canada, despite various models being advanced, public health practitioners are seeking ways to identify and apply evidence in their work in practical and meaningful ways. In a companion article, “Strengthening Chronic Disease Prevention Programming: The Toward Evidence-Informed Practice (TEIP) Program Assessment Tool,” we describe use of a tool to assess and strengthen program planning and implementation processes using 19 criteria derived from best and promising practices literature. In this article, we describe use of a complementary Program Evidence Tool to identify, synthesize, and apply a range of evidence sources to strengthen the content of chronic disease prevention programming.

Strengthening Chronic Disease Prevention Programming: the Toward Evidence-Informed Practice (TEIP) Program Assessment Tool

Albert, Dayna; Fortin, Rebecca; Lessio, Anne; Herrera, Christine; Riley, Barbara; Hanning, Rhona; Rush, Brian
Fonte: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Publicador: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Tipo: text
Publicado em 30/05/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.02%
Best practices identified solely on the strength of research evidence may not be entirely relevant or practical for use in community-based public health and the practice of chronic disease prevention. Aiming to bridge the gap between best practices literature and local knowledge and expertise, the Ontario Public Health Association, through the Toward Evidence-Informed Practice initiative, developed a set of resources to strengthen evidence-informed decision making in chronic disease prevention programs. A Program Assessment Tool, described in this article, emphasizes better processes by incorporating review criteria into the program planning and implementation process. In a companion paper, “Strengthening Chronic Disease Prevention Programming: The Toward Evidence-Informed Practice (TEIP) Program Evidence Tool,” we describe another tool, which emphasizes better evidence by providing guidelines and worksheets to identify, synthesize, and incorporate evidence from a range of sources (eg, peer-reviewed literature, gray literature, local expertise) to strengthen local programs.

Rural Residents’ Perspectives on Multiple Morbidity Management and Disease Prevention

Bardach, Shoshana H.; Schoenberg, Nancy E.; Tarasenko, Yelena N.; Fleming, Steven T.
Tipo: text
Publicado em /12/2011 Português
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46.04%
Middle-aged and older adults often experience several simultaneously occurring chronic conditions or “multiple morbidity” (MM). The task of both managing MM and preventing chronic conditions can be overwhelming, particularly in populations with high disease burdens, low socioeconomic status, and health care provider shortages. This article sought to understand Appalachian residents’ perspectives on MM management and prevention. Forty-one rural Appalachian residents aged 50 and above with MM were interviewed about disease management and colorectal cancer (CRC) prevention. Transcripts were examined for overall analytic categories and coded using techniques to enhance transferability and rigor. Participants indicate facing various challenges to prevention due, in part, to conditions within their rural environment. Patients and providers spend significant time and energy on MM management, often precluding prevention activities. This article discusses implications of MM management for CRC prevention and strategies to increase disease prevention among this rural, vulnerable population burdened by MM.

The Role and Place of Medicinal Plants in the Strategies for Disease Prevention

Sofowora, Abayomi; Ogunbodede, Eyitope; Onayade, Adedeji
Fonte: African Networks on Ethnomedicines Publicador: African Networks on Ethnomedicines
Tipo: text
Publicado em 12/08/2013 Português
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Medicinal plants have been used in healthcare since time immemorial. Studies have been carried out globally to verify their efficacy and some of the findings have led to the production of plant-based medicines. The global market value of medicinal plant products exceeds $100 billion per annum. This paper discusses the role, contributions and usefulness of medicinal plants in tackling the diseases of public health importance, with particular emphasis on the current strategic approaches to disease prevention. A comparison is drawn between the ‘whole population’ and ‘high-risk’ strategies. The usefulness of the common-factor approach as a method of engaging other health promoters in propagating the ideals of medicinal plants is highlighted. The place of medicinal plants in preventing common diseases is further examined under the five core principles of the Primary Health Care (PHC) approach. Medicinal plants play vital roles in disease prevention and their promotion and use fit into all existing prevention strategies. However, conscious efforts need to be made to properly identify, recognise and position medicinal plants in the design and implementation of these strategies. These approaches present interesting and emerging perspectives in the field of medicinal plants. Recommendations are proposed for strategising the future role and place for medicinal plants in disease prevention.

Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Strategies in Older Adults with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

Carmeli, Eli; Imam, Bita
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: text
Publicado em 14/04/2014 Português
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The rapid growth in the number of individuals living with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) along with their increased longevity present challenges to those concerned about health and well-being of this unique population. While much is known about health promotion and disease prevention in the general geriatric population, far less is known about those in older adults with IDD. Effective and efficient health promotion and disease prevention strategies need to be developed and implemented for improving the health and quality of life of older adults living with IDD. This is considered to be challenging given the continued shrinkage in the overall health care and welfare system services due to the cut in the governmental budget in some of the western countries. The ideal health promotion and disease prevention strategies for older adults with IDD should be tailored to the individuals’ health risks, address primary and secondary disease prevention, and prevent avoidable impairments that cause premature institutionalization. Domains of intervention should include cognitive, mental and physical health, accommodations, workplace considerations, assistive technology, recreational activities, and nutrition.

Information–Seeking Among Chronic Disease Prevention Staff in State Health Departments: Use of Academic Journals

Harris, Jenine K.; Allen, Peg; Jacob, Rebekah R.; Elliott, Lindsay; Brownson, Ross C.
Fonte: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Publicador: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Tipo: text
Publicado em 14/08/2014 Português
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55.9%
Use of scientific evidence aids in ensuring that public health interventions have the best possible health and economic return on investment. We describe use of academic journals by state health department chronic disease prevention staff to find public health evidence. We surveyed more than 900 state health department staff from all states and the District of Columbia. Participants identified top journals or barriers to journal use. We used descriptive statistics to examine individual and aggregate state health department responses. On average, 45.7% of staff per state health department use journals. Common barriers to use included lack of time, lack of access, and expense. Strategies for increasing journal use are provided.