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Desenvolvimento de órgãos da digestão e rendimento de carcaça de frangos de corte de diversas origens genéticas criados com bebedouros pendular e nipple; Development of digestive organs and carcass yield of broilers from diverse genetic origin raised with regular or nipple drinkers

Fernandes, Lisiane Menezes; Vieira, Sérgio Luiz; Baptista, Cintia Barba
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.13%
O uso de linhas genéticas de diferentes fontes comerciais em programas de reprodução de frangos de corte permite produzir gerações comerciais mais bem adaptadas a realidades diversas e otimizar os potenciais de desempenho do frango de corte com os da reprodutora. Entretanto, a prática predominante no Brasil é o uso de pais e mães de mesma origem. O uso de bebedouros tipo “nipple” vem sendo difundido com a perspectiva de gerar benefícios ainda não comprovados inteiramente na prática. Esse estudo avaliou a evolução dos órgãos da digestão, o desempenho vivo e o rendimento de carcaça e das partes de frangos de corte de diferentes cruzamentos entre reprodutores machos de diversos cruzamentos entre linhagens comerciais (R, I, S, e H) com fêmeas também de origem variável (R, I, e H) em sistemas de produção com bebedouros pendular ou nipple. As aves dos diferentes cruzamentos apresentaram curvas de crescimento com diferentes intensidades em momentos distintos, determinando desempenhos em peso vivo sempre superiores para o cruzamento RR O rendimento de peito, entretanto, foi maior para o cruzamento IH. O cruzamento SH, de mais baixo peso corporal, evidenciou rendimentos de carcaça inferiores a todos os demais. O tipo de bebedouro não influenciou nenhum resultado de desempenho vivo ou de rendimento de carcaça...

Water intake behavior of broiler chickens exposed to heat stress and drinking from bell or and nipple drinkers

Bruno, LDG; Maiorka, A; Macari, Marcos; Furlan, Renato Luis; Givisiez, PEN
Fonte: Fundação APINCO de Ciência e Tecnologia Avícolas Publicador: Fundação APINCO de Ciência e Tecnologia Avícolas
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 147-152
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.24%
The aspects involved in broiler water intake are not well known, despite the importance of water in animal nutrition and physiology. Water intake behavior should be taken into account when deciding on different types of drinkers. Bell and nipple drinkers are the most commonly used in commercial broiler production. Broilers were housed in cages equipped with two different drinker types and raised at two different environmental temperatures (25 and 34 ºC) to evaluate water intake behavior and volume. Broiler water intake behavior was influenced by drinker type. Birds visited bell drinkers less often, but presented higher total water intake per visit to the drinker as compared to those drinking from nipple drinkers. The results of this study suggest that both broilers drinking behavior and water intake volume should be taken into account when deciding on drinker type to equip broiler houses.

Water intake behavior of broiler chickens exposed to heat stress and drinking from bell or and nipple drinkers

Bruno,LDG; Maiorka,A; Macari,M; Furlan,RL; Givisiez,PEN
Fonte: Fundação APINCO de Ciência e Tecnologia Avícolas Publicador: Fundação APINCO de Ciência e Tecnologia Avícolas
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.24%
The aspects involved in broiler water intake are not well known, despite the importance of water in animal nutrition and physiology. Water intake behavior should be taken into account when deciding on different types of drinkers. Bell and nipple drinkers are the most commonly used in commercial broiler production. Broilers were housed in cages equipped with two different drinker types and raised at two different environmental temperatures (25 and 34 ºC) to evaluate water intake behavior and volume. Broiler water intake behavior was influenced by drinker type. Birds visited bell drinkers less often, but presented higher total water intake per visit to the drinker as compared to those drinking from nipple drinkers. The results of this study suggest that both broilers drinking behavior and water intake volume should be taken into account when deciding on drinker type to equip broiler houses.

Improving hypertension control among excessive alcohol drinkers: a randomised controlled trial in France. The WALPA Group.

Lang, T; Nicaud, V; Darné, B; Rueff, B
Tipo: text
Publicado em /12/1995 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.13%
OBJECTIVES--To improve blood pressure control among hypertensive ( > 140/90 mmHg) excessive alcohol drinkers. DESIGN--Fourteen worksite physicians were randomised onto an intervention group and a control group. The intervention was based on training the worksite physicians and follow up of those hypertensive subjects defined as excessive drinkers. Follow up was based on self monitoring of alcohol consumption by the subject, in view of the results of their gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) activity determination. SETTING--Fourteen workplaces in France - mainly in the industrial sector. SUBJECTS--Altogether 15 301 subjects were screened by the 14 physicians: 129 of these were included in the study. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--This was the difference between the initial systolic blood pressure (SBP) and the SBP one year later (delta BP). Secondary criteria were the difference between the initial and final diastolic blood pressure (delta DBP) and delta BP at two years; antihypertensive treatment; state alcohol consumption (delta AC); delta GGT; and body mass index (delta BMI). RESULTS--The decrease in SBP levels was significantly larger in the intervention group than in the control group: at one year, delta SBP values were -11.9 (15.6) mmHg and -4.6 (13.8) respectively (p < 0.05). This benefit was still observed after two years of follow up (-13.8 (17.4) mmHg v -7.5 (14.2) mmHg (p < 0.05)). No difference was observed in DBP. The percentage of treated subjects did not differ between groups. At one year...

Prevalence of excessive or problem drinkers among patients attending somatic outpatient clinics: a study of alcohol related medical care.

Persson, J; Magnusson, P H
Tipo: text
Publicado em 22/08/1987 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.13%
The prevalence of alcohol related morbidity was studied among 2038 patients attending somatic outpatient clinics. A further 76 patients had refused the study, giving an overall drop out rate of 3.6%. Several methods were combined so as to detect as many patients with problem drinking as possible. According to the criteria and definitions employed 17% of men (confidence interval 15% to 19%) and 4% of women (confidence interval 3% to 5%) were excessive consumers of alcohol or problem drinkers. The highest proportion of such patients--that is, 17%--was noted in the emergency rooms (27% of men, 8% of women). At other clinics the proportions varied from 11% to 17% of men and from 2% to 4% of women. The strongest relations between overconsumption of alcohol and consultation at the clinic were among patients attending the medical outpatient clinic and the emergency rooms; in 86% (confidence interval 75% to 97%) and 88% (confidence interval 81% to 95%) of problem drinkers attending these clinics, respectively, alcohol was related to the consultation. Consultations were related to alcohol in 82% of women with excessive or problem drinking and 73% of men defined in this way. There was a tendency to a higher proportion of men with excessive or problem drinking in the age group 40-49 years. These findings show that among patients classified as excessive or problem drinkers attending somatic outpatient clinics there was a close relation between alcohol consumption and utilisation of medical resources...

Problem drinkers: can we identify and help them?

Wilson, D M
Tipo: text
Publicado em 15/03/1995 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.13%
Most people who have a drinking problem are not alcoholics. Even though problem drinkers tend to drink less than alcoholics and to have a shorter history of heavy drinking they are still at increased risk of health problems. To significantly reduce the burden of alcohol-related problems on society, priority should be given to reducing the number of problem drinkers. Because physicians are exposed to a large adult population, and because they have credibility in diagnosing problems, they have an important role to play in encouraging moderation in the use of alcohol. Although the potential for physicians to make a difference is commonly viewed with scepticism, studies have demonstrated that physician interventions can be effective. By working in partnership with other professionals and making use of the community and other resources that are now available, physicians can optimize the effectiveness of their interventions with problem drinkers.

Clustering of atherogenic behaviors in coffee drinkers.

Puccio, E M; McPhillips, J B; Barrett-Connor, E; Ganiats, T G
Tipo: text
Publicado em /11/1990 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.24%
We studied the clustering of coffee consumption and selected atherogenic behaviors in older adults living in a southern California community. Men were somewhat more likely to drink caffeinated coffee while women were more likely to drink decaffeinated coffee. In men, but not women, caffeinated coffee drinking decreased with age and decaffeinated coffee drinking increased. Caffeinated coffee drinkers drank more alcohol, consumed more dietary saturated fats and cholesterol, were more likely to be current smokers and less likely to be current exercisers than were non-coffee drinkers. Smoking and exercise also showed a dose-response relationship to the amount of caffeinated coffee consumed. Risk factor levels among drinkers of decaffeinated coffee were more like those of caffeinated coffee than non-drinkers. These data illustrate the clustering of atherogenic behaviors with coffee drinking and highlight their potential importance in interpreting the growing body of literature about coffee and health.

Empirically based guidelines for moderate drinking: 1-year results from three studies with problem drinkers.

Sanchez-Craig, M; Wilkinson, D A; Davila, R
Tipo: text
Publicado em /06/1995 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.13%
OBJECTIVES. The study was conducted to refine guidelines on moderate drinking for problem drinkers, persons whose alcohol use is hazardous or harmful. Information on levels of alcohol intake unlikely to cause problems is useful for health professionals, educators, and policymakers. METHODS. Based on their reports of alcohol-related problems, participants in three studies assessing interventions to reduce heavy drinking (114 men, 91 women) were categorized as "problem-free" or "problem" drinkers at follow-up. Drinking measures were examined to identify patterns separating these outcome categories. RESULTS. Analyses using 95% confidence intervals for means on drinking measures showed that guidelines should be sex-specific. Based on analyses of positive and negative predictive value, sensitivity, and specificity, it is recommended that men consume no more than 4 standard drinks in any day and 16 drinks in any week, and that women consume no more than 3 drinks in any day and 12 drinks in any week. CONCLUSIONS. These guidelines are consistent with those from several official bodies and should be useful for advising problem drinkers when moderation is a valid treatment goal. Their applicability to the general population is unevaluated.

Psychosocial and behavioral factors differentiating past drinkers and life-long abstainers.

Eward, A M; Wolfe, R; Moll, P; Harburg, E
Tipo: text
Publicado em /01/1986 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.13%
Studies of the health effects associated with alcohol consumption often use a single non-drinker category as a referent. In this community study (N = 1,672) from Tecumseh, Michigan, past drinkers (N = 191) and life-long abstainers (N = 215) differed substantially for certain behavioral and psychosocial factors. In addition, 65 per cent of the male and 36 per cent of the female non-drinkers were past drinkers. Our findings suggest that a single non-drinking category might lead to ambiguous inferences across studies.

Impact of Relative Residence Times in Highly Distinct Environments on the Distribution of Heavy Drinkers

Mubayi, Anuj; Greenwood, Priscilla E.; Castillo-Chávez, Carlos; Gruenewald, Paul; Gorman, Dennis M.
Tipo: text
Publicado em 01/03/2010 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.24%
Alcohol consumption is a function of social dynamics, environmental contexts, individuals’ preferences and family history. Empirical surveys have focused primarily on identification of risk factors for high-level drinking but have done little to clarify the underlying mechanisms at work. Also, there have been few attempts to apply nonlinear dynamics to the study of these mechanisms and processes at the population level. A simple framework where drinking is modeled as a socially contagious process in low- and high-risk connected environments is introduced. Individuals are classified as light, moderate (assumed mobile), and heavy drinkers. Moderate drinkers provide the link between both environments, that is, they are assumed to be the only individuals drinking in both settings. The focus here is on the effect of moderate drinkers, measured by the proportion of their time spent in “low-” versus “high-” risk drinking environments, on the distribution of drinkers.

A preliminary study of functional magnetic resonance imaging response during verbal encoding among adolescent binge drinkers

Schweinsburg, Alecia D.; McQueeny, Tim; Nagel, Bonnie J.; Eyler, Lisa T.; Tapert, Susan F.
Tipo: text
Publicado em /02/2010 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.37%
Binge alcohol use is common among teenagers with 28% of 12th graders reporting getting drunk in the past month. Chronic heavy drinking has been associated with verbal learning and memory deficits in adolescents and adults, yet verbal encoding in less frequently drinking teens has not yet been studied. Here, we examined functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) response during verbal encoding among adolescent binge drinkers. Participants recruited from local high schools were of ages 16–18 and consisted of 12 binge drinkers and 12 demographically similar nondrinkers. Participants were all nonsmokers, and drinkers were abstinent from alcohol for an average of 33 days at the time of scanning. Participants performed a verbal paired associates learning task during fMRI acquisition. Drinkers recalled marginally fewer words than nondrinkers (P = .07). Compared with nondrinkers, bingers showed more response in right superior frontal and bilateral posterior parietal cortices but less response in occipital cortex during novel encoding (Ps < .05, clusters > 1,512 µL). In addition, controls showed significant activation in the left hippocampus during novel encoding, whereas binge drinkers did not. Adolescent binge drinkers demonstrated (1) more response than nondrinkers in frontal and parietal regions...

Acute Tolerance to Alcohol in At-risk Binge Drinkers

Fillmore, Mark T.; Weafer, Jessica
Tipo: text
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.41%
Studies of the impairing effects of alcohol on behavior often show greater tolerance in heavy drinkers compared to light drinkers, suggesting a causal link between heavy consumption and tolerance. Tolerance also develops during the time-course of a single drinking episode, and this “acute tolerance” might play an important role in the escalation to heavy drinking. The present study examined the development of acute tolerance to the impairing effects of alcohol on motor coordination and inhibitory control in a group of at-risk, binge drinkers (N = 20) and a group of non-risk, moderate drinkers (N = 20). Participants performed the testing battery in response to placebo and a moderate dose of alcohol (0.65 g/kg) twice at comparable blood alcohol concentrations (BACs): once on the ascending limb and once on the descending limb of the blood alcohol curve. Results showed marked acute tolerance to the impairing effects of alcohol on motor coordination in the at-risk drinkers. By contrast, no recovery of motor skill was observed in the non-risk drinkers. Regarding inhibitory control, both groups remained impaired on both the ascending and descending limbs, indicating no acute tolerance in either group. The findings suggest that at-risk...

Acute Alcohol Effects on Attentional Bias in Heavy and Moderate Drinkers

Weafer, Jessica; Fillmore, Mark T.
Tipo: text
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.45%
Heavy drinkers show an increased attentional bias to alcohol-related stimuli compared to moderate drinkers, and this bias is thought to promote motivation for alcohol consumption (Field & Cox, 2008). Studies have begun to examine acute alcohol effects on attentional bias, however little is known regarding how these effects might differ based on drinker type. Further, the degree to which attentional bias in response to alcohol is associated with excessive alcohol consumption remains unexplored. For the current study, 20 heavy drinkers and 20 moderate drinkers completed a visual probe task in response to placebo and two active doses of alcohol (0.45 g/kg and 0.65 g/kg). Participants’ eye-movements were monitored and attentional bias was calculated as the difference in time spent focused on alcohol compared to neutral images. Participants’ alcohol consumption was assessed by a timeline follow-back calendar and a laboratory ad lib consumption task. Results showed that heavy drinkers displayed significantly greater attentional bias than did moderate drinkers following placebo. However, heavy drinkers displayed a dose-dependent decrease in attentional bias following alcohol, whereas the drug had no effect in moderate drinkers. Individual differences in attentional bias under placebo were strongly associated with both self-reported and laboratory alcohol consumption...

Altered processing of sweet taste in the brain of diet soda drinkers

Green, Erin; Murphy, Claire
Tipo: text
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.37%
Artificially sweetened beverage consumption has been linked to obesity, and it has been hypothesized that considerable exposure to nonnutritive sweeteners may be associated with impaired energy regulation. The reward system plays an integral role in modulating energy intake, but little is known about whether habitual use of artificial sweetener (i.e., diet soda consumption) may be related to altered reward processing of sweet taste in the brain. To investigate this, we examined fMRI response after a 12-hour fast to sucrose (a nutritive sweetener) and saccharin (a nonnutritive sweetener) during hedonic evaluation in young adult diet soda drinkers and non-diet soda drinkers. Diet soda drinkers demonstrated greater activation to sweet taste in the dopaminergic midbrain (including ventral tegmental area) and right amygdala. Saccharin elicited a greater response in the right orbitofrontal cortex (Brodmann Area 47) relative to sucrose in non-diet soda drinkers. There was no difference in fMRI response to the nutritive or nonnutritive sweetener for diet soda drinkers. Within the diet soda drinkers, fMRI activation of the right caudate head in response to saccharin was negatively associated with the amount of diet sodas consumed per week; individuals who consumed a greater number of diet sodas had reduced caudate head activation. These findings suggest that there are alterations in reward processing of sweet taste in individuals who regularly consume diet soda...

Intercepting Binge Drinkers in Medical Settings: A View from California

Spear, Suzanne E.; Iguchi, Martin Y.
Tipo: text
Publicado em //2012 Português
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27.41%
The argument for universal alcohol screening in primary care is based on the assumption that most heavy drinkers routinely visit a doctor. This study examines whether drinking status is associated with higher or lower odds of visiting a doctor in the past year among California adults. As a point of comparison, the study also examines whether drinking status is associated with the odds of visiting an emergency room. Data came from the 2007 California Health Interview Survey. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the odds of visiting a doctor and an emergency room for abstainers, moderate drinkers, monthly binge drinkers, and weekly binge drinkers. After controlling for demographics, health coverage, and health status, binge drinkers had the same odds of visiting a doctor and the emergency room as moderate drinkers. Among binge drinkers, female gender, health coverage, and high blood pressure were associated with visiting a primary care doctor.

Increased brain uptake and oxidation of acetate in heavy drinkers

Jiang, Lihong; Gulanski, Barbara Irene; De Feyter, Henk M.; Weinzimer, Stuart A.; Pittman, Brian; Guidone, Elizabeth; Koretski, Julia; Harman, Susan; Petrakis, Ismene L.; Krystal, John H.; Mason, Graeme F.
Fonte: American Society for Clinical Investigation Publicador: American Society for Clinical Investigation
Tipo: text
Português
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27.31%
When a person consumes ethanol, the body quickly begins to convert it to acetic acid, which circulates in the blood and can serve as a source of energy for the brain and other organs. This study used 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy to test whether chronic heavy drinking is associated with greater brain uptake and oxidation of acetic acid, providing a potential metabolic reward or adenosinergic effect as a consequence of drinking. Seven heavy drinkers, who regularly consumed at least 8 drinks per week and at least 4 drinks per day at least once per week, and 7 light drinkers, who consumed fewer than 2 drinks per week were recruited. The subjects were administered [2-13C]acetate for 2 hours and scanned throughout that time with magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the brain to observe natural 13C abundance of N-acetylaspartate (NAA) and the appearance of 13C-labeled glutamate, glutamine, and acetate. Heavy drinkers had approximately 2-fold more brain acetate relative to blood and twice as much labeled glutamate and glutamine. The results show that acetate transport and oxidation are faster in heavy drinkers compared with that in light drinkers. Our finding suggests that a new therapeutic approach to supply acetate during alcohol detoxification may be beneficial.

Evaluation of coagulation parameters and liver enzymes among alcohol drinkers in Port Harcourt, Nigeria

Adias, Teddy Charles; Egerton, Everton; Erhabor, Osaro
Fonte: Dove Medical Press Publicador: Dove Medical Press
Tipo: text
Publicado em 14/06/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.24%
Alcohol is a major contributor to the global burden of disease, disability, and death in high, middle, and low-income countries. Harmful use of alcohol is one of the main factors contributing to premature deaths and avoidable disease burden worldwide and has a major impact on public health. The aim of this present cross-sectional study was to investigate the effect of alcohol consumption on coagulation parameters and liver enzymes of subjects in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Two hundred adults consisting of 120 alcohol dependent subjects and 80 age, gender-matched nondrinkers aged 25–65 years (mean age 45.25 ± 11.50 years) were enrolled in this study. Of the 120 chronic alcohol drinkers, 37 were dependent on local dry gin, while 83 were dependent on other alcoholic beverages. The mean values of the liver enzymes, aspartate aminotransferase and gamma glutamyl transferase, were significantly higher (P = 0.002 and P = 0.02 respectively) among the chronic alcohol consumers compared with their nondrinker counterparts. Although the value of alanine aminotransferase was higher in the chronic drinkers, it did not reveal any significant difference (P = 0.11). The coagulation parameters, prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time were investigated among chronic drinkers and nondrinkers. The mean value of prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time was significantly higher in the chronic alcohol drinkers compared to the nondrinkers (P = 0.04 and P = 0.02 respectively). We observed a positive and significant correlation between values of liver enzymes...

Influence of Alcohol Use on Neural Response to Go/No-Go Task in College Drinkers

Ahmadi, Aral; Pearlson, Godfrey D; Meda, Shashwath A; Dager, Alecia; Potenza, Marc N; Rosen, Rivkah; Austad, Carol S; Raskin, Sarah A; Fallahi, Carolyn R; Tennen, Howard; Wood, Rebecca M; Stevens, Michael C
Fonte: Nature Publishing Group Publicador: Nature Publishing Group
Tipo: text
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.41%
Impaired inhibition of prepotent motor response may represent an important risk factor for alcoholism. Alcohol use may also increase impulsive behavior, including impaired response inhibition. Little is known about the brain function underlying response inhibition among college-age drinkers based on their drinking patterns, despite college-age drinkers demonstrating high rates of alcohol-use disorders. Our major objective was to compare behavior and associated brain activity measured with fMRI during a response-inhibition task in matched heavy- and light-alcohol-drinking college students. Participants were light (N=36) and heavy (N=56) drinkers, aged 18–20 years. We characterized blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) responses, while participants performed an fMRI Go/No-Go task to quantify inhibitory behavior and brain activity. Behaviorally, group performance differences were observed for Go correct-hit and No-Go false-alarm reaction times with increased reaction times in heavy compared with light drinkers. During fMRI No-Go correct rejections, light drinkers exhibited greater BOLD response than did heavy drinkers in left supplementary motor area (SMA), bilateral parietal lobule, right hippocampus, bilateral middle frontal gyrus, left superior temporal gyrus...

Effects of Normative Feedback for Drinkers Who Consume Less than the Norm: Dodging the Boomerang

Prince, Mark A.; Reid, Allecia; Carey, Kate B.; Neighbors, Clayton
Tipo: text
Publicado em /06/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.31%
A number of alcohol interventions designed for college students attempt to correct exaggerated perceptions of alcohol use on college campuses through the use of personalized normative feedback. Personalized normative feedback has been shown effective in reducing drinking both as a stand-alone intervention and as a part of a multi-component intervention. Typically, this feedback is targeted to heavier drinkers, in order to create a discrepancy between their personal beliefs and behavior and the actual lower levels of use on campus. However, little is known about how this form of normative feedback might affect lighter drinkers who learn that they are drinking less than the typical student at their school. The risk is a potential boomerang effect, or an increase in drinking among lighter drinkers receiving personalized feedback. The current study examined four samples from three geographic locations, two employing computer delivered personalized normative feedback alone and two delivering personalized feedback in the context of a brief motivational intervention. We found no evidence for a boomerang effect among lighter drinkers receiving personalized normative feedback in any of the four samples. These findings help to assuage fears of increasing drinking among lighter drinkers through widespread implementation of normative interventions for college students in the absence of screening for current drinking status.

Diversity of lactase persistence in African milk drinkers

Jones, Bryony Leigh; Oljira, Tamiru; Liebert, Anke; Zmarz, Pawel; Montalva, Nicolas; Tarekeyn, Ayele; Ekong, Rosemary; Thomas, Mark G.; Bekele, Endashaw; Bradman, Neil; Swallow, Dallas M.
Fonte: Springer Berlin Heidelberg Publicador: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Tipo: text
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.31%
The genetic trait of lactase persistence is attributable to allelic variants in an enhancer region upstream of the lactase gene, LCT. To date, five different functional alleles, ?13910*T, ?13907*G, ?13915*G, ?14009*G and ?14010*C, have been identified. The co-occurrence of several of these alleles in Ethiopian lactose digesters leads to a pattern of sequence diversity characteristic of a ‘soft selective sweep’. Here we hypothesise that throughout Africa, where multiple functional alleles co-exist, the enhancer diversity will be greater in groups who are traditional milk drinkers than in non-milk drinkers, as the result of this sort of parallel selection. Samples from 23 distinct groups from 10 different countries were examined. Each group was classified ‘Yes ‘or ‘No’ for milk-drinking, and ethnicity, language spoken and geographic location were recorded. Predicted lactase persistence frequency and enhancer diversity were, as hypothesised, higher in the milk drinkers than the non-milk-drinkers, but this was almost entirely accounted for by the Afro-Asiatic language speaking peoples of east Africa. The other groups, including the ‘Nilo-Saharan language speaking’ milk-drinkers, show lower frequencies of LP and lower diversity...