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Somatotype is more interactive with strength than fat mass and physical activity in peripubertal children

Marta, Carlos; Marinho, D.A.; Costa, A.M.; Barbosa, Tiago M.; Marques, M.C.
Fonte: ACAD Physical Education-Katowice Publicador: ACAD Physical Education-Katowice
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.59%
The purpose of this study was to analyse the interaction between somatotype, body fat and physical activity in prepubescent children. This was a cross!sectional study design involving 312 children (160 girls, 152 boys) aged between 10 and 11.5 years old (10.8 ± 0.4 years old). Evaluation of body composition was done determining body mass index and body fat by means of skin!fold measurements, using the method described by Slaughter. Somatotype was computed according to the Carter’s method. Physical activity was assessed with the Baecke questionnaire. The physical activity assessment employed sets of curl!ups, push!ups, standing broad jump, medicine ball throw, handgrip strength and Margaria!Kalamen power stair. There were negative associations for body fat, endomorphy and mesomorphy with curl!ups, push!ups and broad jump tests and positive associations with ball throw, handgrip strength and Margaria! Kalamen power tests. The associations for ectomorphy were the inverse of those for endomorphy and mesomorphy. Non obese children presented higher values for curl!ups, push!ups and standing broad jump. In medicine ball throw, handgrip strength and Margaria!Kalamen power test obese children presented higher scores...

The reduced modulus in the analysis of sharp instrumented indentation tests

Rodriguez, Sara A.; Alcala, Jorge; Souza, Roberto M.
Fonte: CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS; NEW YORK Publicador: CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS; NEW YORK
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.62%
In the analysis of instrumented indentation data, it is common practice to incorporate the combined moduli of the indenter (E-i) and the specimen (E) in the so-called reduced modulus (E-r) to account for indenter deformation. Although indenter systems with rigid or elastic tips are considered as equivalent if E-r is the same, the validity of this practice has been questioned over the years. The present work uses systematic finite element simulations to examine the role of the elastic deformation of the indenter tip in instrumented indentation measurements and the validity of the concept of the reduced modulus in conical and pyramidal (Berkovich) indentations. It is found that the apical angle increases as a result of the indenter deformation, which influences in the analysis of the results. Based upon the inaccuracies introduced by the reduced modulus approximation in the analysis of the unloading segment of instrumented indentation applied load (P)-penetration depth (delta) curves, a detailed examination is then conducted on the role of indenter deformation upon the dimensionless functions describing the loading stages of such curves. Consequences of the present results in the extraction of the uniaxial stress-strain characteristics of the indented material through such dimensional analyses are finally illustrated. It is found that large overestimations in the assessment of the strain hardening behavior result by neglecting tip compliance. Guidelines are given in the paper to reduce such overestimations.; CNPq [141259/2007-8]; CNPq; Spanish Ministry of Education and Science [MAT2008-01647/MAT]; Spanish Ministry of Education and Science

"Efeitos da visita médica nos pacientes da enfermaria da clínica geral do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo"; Effects of the medical visit in patients of the infirmary of the general clinic of the Hospital of the Clinics of the College of Medicine of the University of São Paulo

Sancovski, Ana Rosa Kisielewski
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 29/05/2002 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.56%
A forma de tratar os pacientes pode ser ensinada não somente pela teoria e prática formais, mas principalmente pelas atitudes do mestre e pela relação médico paciente que ele estabelece. O principal objetivo deste trabalho é avaliar os efeitos positivos ou deletérios da visita médica em grupo ao leito dos pacientes da Enfermaria da Clínica Médica Geral pois ela pode melhorar ou piorar a ansiedade e a depressão já contidas e instaladas no paciente e testar um modelo de visita médica hospitalar que priorize o paciente enquanto sujeito. Estudaram-se 95 pacientes com idades entre 16 e 65 anos, divididos em três grupos: um com 36 pacientes chamado G0 que passa visita na enfermaria mas não discute à beira do leito; outro com 34 pacientes chamado G1 que passa visita na enfermaria e discute à beira do leito e um novo, experimental, com 25 pacientes chamado G2, com visita na enfermaria e nova forma de discutir ao leito, com participação ativa do paciente em seu processo de recuperação . O Método utilizado foi: todos os pacientes, na véspera da visita, foram submetidos à escala HAD para medir ansiedade e depressão e à parte pré-visita do Questionário de Avaliação da Internação do Paciente da Clínica Médica Geral (QAIPCMG). No dia da visita...

A preferência pela prática de atividades físicas e esportivas: uma abordagem psicofísica; The preference for the practice of physical and sporting activities: an psychophysical analysis

Ferraz, Marcelo Antonio
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 21/11/2005 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.65%
A preferência pela prática de atividades físicas e esportivas é um atributo subjetivo de difícil mensuração e que tem sido um dos critérios fundamentais, na escolha e na decisão para a sua prática, nos dias atuais. Deste modo, a preferência pela prática de atividades físicas e esportivas foi investigada por meio de métodos psicofísicos escalares diretos e indiretos e, conseqüentemente, escalas de razão, escalas intervalares e escalas ordinais foram comparadas. Os objetivos secundários foram verificar se este contínuo subjetivo possui características protéticas ou metatéticas, verificar se os princípios da Lei de Ekman é valida também para este contínuo subjetivo e identificar diferenças no julgamento da preferência de homens e mulheres. Três experimentos foram realizados. No primeiro experimento participaram vinte sujeitos, dez homens e dez mulheres entre 20 e 25 anos de idade, graduandos que não pertencem ao curso superior de Educação Física. Todos os sujeitos foram submetidos a uma avaliação prévia, que constou do julgamento em testes psicofísicos: a) Teste de estimação de magnitudes (com módulo) e b) Teste de estimação em categorias 1-7. No segundo experimento participaram outros vinte sujeitos...

Adaptação cultural e validação para a língua portuguesa do Family Questionnaire (FQ) para avaliação do ambiente familiar de pacientes com esquizofrenia; Cultural Adaptation and validation for Portuguese of Family Questionnaire to evaluate the family environment of schizophrenic patients

Zanetti, Ana Carolina Guidorizzi
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 14/06/2010 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.56%
Os principais estudos sobre o ambiente familiar de pacientes com esquizofrenia são aqueles relacionados ao conceito de Emoção Expressa (EE), que trata da qualidade de interação social entre os membros da família. Existem poucos estudos que investigam o ambiente familiar do paciente com esquizofrenia no Brasil e nenhum instrumento de fácil aplicação para avaliar esse conceito. Trata-se de um estudo metodológico com o objetivo de adaptar e validar o Family Questionnaire (FQ) para língua portuguesa. O FQ contém 20 itens distribuídos em dois domínios, 10 itens para comentários críticos (CC) e 10 itens para super envolvimento emocional (SEE), com respostas de um (1) muito raramente a quatro (4) sempre, com um intervalo possível para o total da medida de cada domínio de 10 a 40, no qual maiores valores para os dois domínios refletem maior EE. O processo de adaptação cultural seguiu os passos preconizados pela literatura: tradução do FQ para língua portuguesa; obtenção do consenso das versões em português; avaliação pelo comitê de especialistas; Back-translation; obtenção do consenso das versões em alemão e comparação com versão original em alemão; avaliação semântica dos itens e pré-teste. Participaram do estudo 100 familiares de pacientes com esquizofrenia. Os dados foram coletados por meio de entrevistas...

Prevenção da obesidade em crianças e adolescentes por meio da atividade física e educação nutrocional: meta-análise de ensaios randomizados desenvolvidos em ambiente escolar"; Obesity prevention in children and teenagers through physical activity and nutrition education: Meta-analysis of randomized trials in the school environment

Guerra, Paulo Henrique de Araujo
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 15/04/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.65%
INTRODUÇÃO: A alta prevalência da obesidade infantil em diferentes partes do planeta a posiciona como um dos principais focos de atenção da saúde pública, conhecida a associação dos seus agravos às doenças cardiovasculares e à morte prematura. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar as intervenções escolares que se utilizam das práticas em atividade física e educação nutricional na antropometria e na pressão arterial de crianças e adolescentes. MÉTODOS: Os artigos foram recuperados por buscas sistemáticas em quatorze bases de dados eletrônicas e por busca manual em listas de referências, com atualização até 30 de setembro de 2012. Dois revisores independentes avaliaram os trabalhos e extraíram os dados. Os trabalhos deveriam atender adequadamente aos seguintes critérios de elegibilidade: população dos 6 aos 18 anos de idade; intervenções comunitárias randomizadas no ambiente escolar, fundamentadas nas práticas em atividade física ou educação nutricional, ou nas duas formas combinadas; presença de grupo controle em paralelo, com seguimento concomitante; descrição de pelo menos um dos desfechos: índice de massa corporal, peso corporal e pressão arterial. A meta-análise foi desenvolvida pelo modelo de efeito randômico...

Suporte social como prevenção em saude mental e obesidade : intervenções atraves de atividades ludicas no cenario escolar; Social support as mental health and obesity prevention : interventions through school setting play activities

James Jose de Novaes
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 13/02/2006 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.66%
Várias pesquisas mostram que nos próximos 20 anos metade da população mundial terá sobrepeso em função da crescente prevalência deste distúrbio e da carência de medidas preventivas eficazes para a coletividade. Este contínuo aumento da obesidade tem levado a um crescimento de problemas orgânicos na população, além de problemas na esfera psíquica relacionados a auto-estima e a imagem corporal. Alguns pesquisadores indicam como principal fator do aumento da obesidade, a compulsão alimentar em decorrência de ansiedade. Por outro lado, a ausência de medidas preventivas na área de saúde mental, tem levado os distúrbios mentais a tornarem-se o maior problema em saúde coletiva atualmente nos países desenvolvidos. Foi verificado que intervenções através de atividades lúdicas como suporte social, possibilitam uma diminuição no risco de desenvolvimento de psicopatologia e um aumento dos fatores de proteção em um período curto de aplicação, o que aumenta a possibilidade desta intervenção promover resultados preventivos ao longo prazo. Foram escolhidas 2 categorias de atividades lúdicas como programa de prevenção primária para este estudo: a Arte Terapia e a Arte Capoeira. As crianças foram dividas em 3 grupos de intervenção...

Avaliação nutricional, mastigatória e da qualidade de vida de crianças com sobrepeso e obesas; Quality of life evaluation and the nutritional and masticatory characteristics of overweight and obese children

Darlle Santos Araujo
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: dissertação de mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 27/02/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.56%
A prevalência da obesidade em crianças cresceu substancialmente em todo o mundo e, devido ao impacto que acarreta na saúde geral dos indivíduos, percebe-se a necessidade de determinar os fatores associados a esta condição. Sendo assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar uma avaliação nutricional, mastigatória e da qualidade de vida de escolares da rede pública do município de Piracicaba (SP), de ambos os gêneros, com idades entre 8-10 anos, classificados em magreza, eutrofia, sobrepeso e obesidade, de acordo com o referencial IMC-para-idade e sexo (5-19 anos) da Organização Mundial de Saúde. Para tanto, foram desenvolvidos dois estudos. O objetivo do primeiro estudo (Avaliação da qualidade de vida, fatores socioeconômicos e experiência de cárie em crianças com sobrepeso e obesas de Piracicaba (SP, Brasil) ¿ estudo transversal) foi avaliar a associação entre sobrepeso e obesidade com a qualidade de vida, ansiedade, experiência de cárie e fatores socioeconômicos de escolares. A avaliação antropométrica consistiu na mensuração das dobras cutâneas tricipital e subescapular, circunferência do braço e circunferência abdominal. A qualidade de vida e a ansiedade foram avaliadas por dois instrumentos validados: AUQUEI (Autoquestionnaire Qualité de Vie Enfant Imagé) e Escala Multidimensional de Ansiedade para Crianças (MASC). A experiência de cárie foi avaliada determinando-se os índices CPOD e ceo-d (total de dentes cariados...

Optic Nerve Sheath Diameter Measurements by CT Scan in Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt Obstruction

Zaidi, Syed Javed H; Yamamoto, Loren G
Fonte: University Clinical, Education & Research Associate (UCERA) Publicador: University Clinical, Education & Research Associate (UCERA)
Tipo: text
Publicado em /08/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.61%
The objective of the study was to determine differences in optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) measurements taken from computed tomography (CT) scans of patients with ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS) obstruction versus controls. Inpatients 0–15 years with confirmed VPS obstruction requiring neurosurgical intervention were identified using ICD9 codes. ONSDs, orbit, cranium, and foramen magnum sizes were measured on their pre-surgical CT. Controls included cases at times when their VPS was not obstructed and age and gender matched patients with a CT scan done in the emergency room for head trauma (normal CT findings). Paired T-tests were used for both case-control comparisons. In order to compare the optic nerve sheath size more accurately, the ONSD width was divided by the width of the orbit and by the foramen magnum (antero-posterior) length. Twenty patients were identified with 25 events of VPS obstruction. The right ONSD (RON) was chosen to study. RON/orbit width and RON/foramen magnum diameter for the VPS obstruction versus self-controls, were 0.22 and 0.22, compared to 0.19 and 0.18, respectively, for the non-obstructed self-controls (P = .044 and P = .008, respectively). The same measurements for the VPS obstruction versus age and gender matched controls were 0.22 and 0.21 for the VPS obstruction cases...

School-Based Data Teams Ask the Darnedest Questions About Statistics: Three Essays in the Epistemology of Statistical Consulting and Teaching

Parker, Sean Stanley
Tipo: thesis or dissertation; text Formato: application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.56%
The essays in this thesis attempt to answer the most difficult questions that I have faced as a teacher and consultant for school-based data teams. When we report statistics to our fellow educators, what do we say and what do we leave unsaid? What do averages mean when no student is average? Why do we treat our population of students as infinite when we test for statistical significance? I treat these as important philosophical questions. In the first essay, I use Paul Grice’s philosophical analysis of conversational logic to understand how data teams can accidentally mislead with true statistics, and I use Bernard Williams’s philosophical analysis of truthfulness to understand the value, for data teams, of not misleading with statistics. In short, statistical reports can be misleading when they violate the Gricean maxims of conversation (e.g., “be relevant,” “be orderly”). I argue that, for data teams, adhering to the Gricean maxims is an intrinsic value, alongside Williams’s intrinsic values of Sincerity and Accuracy. I conclude with some recommendations for school-based data teams. In the second essay, I build on Nelson Goodman and Catherine Z. Elgin’s analyses of exemplification to argue that averages (i.e., medians and means) are attenuated...

Tipping the Scales: Social Justice and Educational Measurement

Stein, Zachary
Tipo: thesis or dissertation; text Formato: application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.6%
In this work I address foundational concerns at the interface of educational measurement and social justice. Following John Rawls’s philosophical methods, I build and justify an ethical framework for guiding practices involving educational measurement. This framework demonstrates that educational measurement is critical to insuring, or inhibiting, just educational arrangements. It also clarifies a principled distinction between efficiency-oriented testing and justice-oriented testing. In order to explore the feasibility and utility of this proposed framework, I employ it to analyze several historical case studies that exemplify the ethical issues related to testing: (1) the widespread use of IQ-style testing in schools during the early decades of the 20th century; (2) the founding of the Educational Testing Service; and (3) the recent history of test-based accountability associated with No Child Left Behind. I conclude with a set of speculative design principles and arguments in favor of radically democratic school reforms, which address how the future of testing might be shaped to ensure justice for all.

Personalization Through the Application of Inverse Bayes to Student Modeling

Lang, Charles WM
Tipo: thesis or dissertation; text Formato: application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.63%
Personalization, the idea that teaching can be tailored to each students’ needs, has been a goal for the educational enterprise for at least 2,500 years (Regian, Shute, & Shute, 2013, p.2). Recently personalization has picked up speed with the advent of mobile computing, the Internet and increases in computer processing power. These changes have begun to generate more and more information about individual students that could theoretically be used to power personalized education. The following dissertation discusses a novel algorithm for processing this data to generate estimates of individual level attributes, the Inverse Bayes Filter (IBFi). A brief introduction to the use of Bayes Theorem is followed by a theoretical chapter and then two empirical chapters that describe alternately how the model is constructed, and how it performs on real student data. The theoretical chapter presents both the theory behind Inverse Bayes, including subjective probability, and then relates this theory to student performance. The first empirical chapter describes the prediction accuracy of IBFi on two proxies for students’ subjective probability, partial credit and cumulative average. This prediction performance is compared to the prediction accuracy of a modified Bayesian Knowledge Tracing model (KTPC) with IBFi performing reasonably...

Separating the Signal From the Noise: An Examination of Student and Teacher Scores Based on Student Learning Objectives (SLOs) in One State

Buckley, Katie Hills
Tipo: thesis or dissertation; text Formato: application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.56%
Despite the prevalence of student learning objectives (SLOs) in teacher evaluation systems throughout the United States, research on the validity of student and teacher SLO scores used for high-stakes decisions is lacking. For this reason, this dissertation is comprised of two chapters that examine student and teacher-level SLO performance data from select districts in one Race to the Top state. In Chapter 1, I describe the quality of student assessment data and the comparability of student scores across alternative growth targets. I find that in the first year of implementation, assessments from half of the courses in the sample contained indicators of poor data quality, including anomalous score distributions and small to negative correlations between student prescores and postscores. However, in the second year of implementation, when student SLO performance is incorporated into final teacher evaluation scores, far fewer assessments contained anomalous score distributions, and there is no evidence to suggest manipulation of student scores. In addition to the assessments, the choice of student growth target does have an impact on the comparability of student and teacher scores across districts and years. Chapter 2 describes the validity and reliability of teacher SLO scores. I find that while teacher SLO scores are moderately stable across courses...

Beyond the Fourth Grade Glass Ceiling: Understanding Reading Comprehension Among Bilingual/Bimodal Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students

Scott, Jessica A.
Tipo: thesis or dissertation; text Formato: application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.62%
Research has found that, on average, deaf and hard of hearing (DHH) students graduate from high school reading at the fourth grade level (Allen, 1986). Additionally, DHH children of deaf parents (Charrow & Fletcher, 1974) and those with strong American Sign Language (ASL) proficiency (Strong & Prinz, 1997) tend to outperform DHH students without parents who are proficient in ASL. The Simple View of Reading (SVR; Gough & Tunmer, 1986) suggests that reading comprehension is a product of decoding and language proficiency. Many DHH students have limited auditory access, and may struggle to acquire English, especially the more demanding academic English characteristics of school texts (Mayer & Wells, 1996). Academic English has been identified as a strong predictor of reading comprehension among hearing children (Uccelli et al., 2015). Guided by a modified SVR model, in this study I investigate DHH secondary school students’ reading comprehension as predicted by receptive ASL proficiency, word reading fluency/decoding, and academic English proficiency. Guided by prior research on DHH and hearing students, I investigate the hypothesis that for secondary school DHH students enrolled in ASL/English bilingual/bimodal schools for the deaf...

Measuring and Modeling Intercultural Attitudes Among Adolescents Across Europe: A Multi-Level, Multiple-Group Analysis Examining Student Attitudes, Intergroup Contact, and School Climate

Higdon, Julia Dianne
Tipo: thesis or dissertation; text Formato: application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.63%
European nations, built on democratic foundations, rely on participation that is inclusive of all groups. Among efforts to support social cohesion in Europe, investigating the development of intercultural attitudes—attitudes toward others on the basis of their intersecting group memberships—is a crucial area of research. Further, examining attitudes among adolescents is useful because of their growing capacity to understand complex systems, while still being engaged in formal education in which interventions aimed at developing positive attitudes are often applied. In this dissertation, I used data from the 2009 IEA ICCS (International Civic and Citizenship Education Study) to examine determinants of intercultural attitudes among adolescents (n=16,847) in seven countries across Europe—the United Kingdom (England only), Sweden, Switzerland, Spain, Bulgaria, Poland, and Greece—focusing on cultural contexts and school climates. First, I established the measurement invariance of a variety of measures of intercultural attitudes to support the validity of cross-cultural comparison, using a novel approach in the Bayesian framework. Using this method, I was able to validly compare intercultural attitudes across contexts in Europe, and these findings are interpreted and discussed. Then...

Personalization Through the Application of Inverse Bayes to Student Modeling

Lang, Charles WM
Tipo: thesis or dissertation; text Formato: application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.63%
Personalization, the idea that teaching can be tailored to each students’ needs, has been a goal for the educational enterprise for at least 2,500 years (Regian, Shute, & Shute, 2013, p.2). Recently personalization has picked up speed with the advent of mobile computing, the Internet and increases in computer processing power. These changes have begun to generate more and more information about individual students that could theoretically be used to power personalized education. The following dissertation discusses a novel algorithm for processing this data to generate estimates of individual level attributes, the Inverse Bayes Filter (IBFi). A brief introduction to the use of Bayes Theorem is followed by a theoretical chapter and then two empirical chapters that describe alternately how the model is constructed, and how it performs on real student data. The theoretical chapter presents both the theory behind Inverse Bayes, including subjective probability, and then relates this theory to student performance. The first empirical chapter describes the prediction accuracy of IBFi on two proxies for students’ subjective probability, partial credit and cumulative average. This prediction performance is compared to the prediction accuracy of a modified Bayesian Knowledge Tracing model (KTPC) with IBFi performing reasonably...

Separating the Signal From the Noise: An Examination of Student and Teacher Scores Based on Student Learning Objectives (SLOs) in One State

Buckley, Katie Hills
Tipo: thesis or dissertation; text Formato: application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.56%
Despite the prevalence of student learning objectives (SLOs) in teacher evaluation systems throughout the United States, research on the validity of student and teacher SLO scores used for high-stakes decisions is lacking. For this reason, this dissertation is comprised of two chapters that examine student and teacher-level SLO performance data from select districts in one Race to the Top state. In Chapter 1, I describe the quality of student assessment data and the comparability of student scores across alternative growth targets. I find that in the first year of implementation, assessments from half of the courses in the sample contained indicators of poor data quality, including anomalous score distributions and small to negative correlations between student prescores and postscores. However, in the second year of implementation, when student SLO performance is incorporated into final teacher evaluation scores, far fewer assessments contained anomalous score distributions, and there is no evidence to suggest manipulation of student scores. In addition to the assessments, the choice of student growth target does have an impact on the comparability of student and teacher scores across districts and years. Chapter 2 describes the validity and reliability of teacher SLO scores. I find that while teacher SLO scores are moderately stable across courses...

Beyond the Fourth Grade Glass Ceiling: Understanding Reading Comprehension Among Bilingual/Bimodal Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students

Scott, Jessica A.
Tipo: thesis or dissertation; text Formato: application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.62%
Research has found that, on average, deaf and hard of hearing (DHH) students graduate from high school reading at the fourth grade level (Allen, 1986). Additionally, DHH children of deaf parents (Charrow & Fletcher, 1974) and those with strong American Sign Language (ASL) proficiency (Strong & Prinz, 1997) tend to outperform DHH students without parents who are proficient in ASL. The Simple View of Reading (SVR; Gough & Tunmer, 1986) suggests that reading comprehension is a product of decoding and language proficiency. Many DHH students have limited auditory access, and may struggle to acquire English, especially the more demanding academic English characteristics of school texts (Mayer & Wells, 1996). Academic English has been identified as a strong predictor of reading comprehension among hearing children (Uccelli et al., 2015). Guided by a modified SVR model, in this study I investigate DHH secondary school students’ reading comprehension as predicted by receptive ASL proficiency, word reading fluency/decoding, and academic English proficiency. Guided by prior research on DHH and hearing students, I investigate the hypothesis that for secondary school DHH students enrolled in ASL/English bilingual/bimodal schools for the deaf...

Measuring and Modeling Intercultural Attitudes Among Adolescents Across Europe: A Multi-Level, Multiple-Group Analysis Examining Student Attitudes, Intergroup Contact, and School Climate

Higdon, Julia Dianne
Tipo: thesis or dissertation; text Formato: application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.63%
European nations, built on democratic foundations, rely on participation that is inclusive of all groups. Among efforts to support social cohesion in Europe, investigating the development of intercultural attitudes—attitudes toward others on the basis of their intersecting group memberships—is a crucial area of research. Further, examining attitudes among adolescents is useful because of their growing capacity to understand complex systems, while still being engaged in formal education in which interventions aimed at developing positive attitudes are often applied. In this dissertation, I used data from the 2009 IEA ICCS (International Civic and Citizenship Education Study) to examine determinants of intercultural attitudes among adolescents (n=16,847) in seven countries across Europe—the United Kingdom (England only), Sweden, Switzerland, Spain, Bulgaria, Poland, and Greece—focusing on cultural contexts and school climates. First, I established the measurement invariance of a variety of measures of intercultural attitudes to support the validity of cross-cultural comparison, using a novel approach in the Bayesian framework. Using this method, I was able to validly compare intercultural attitudes across contexts in Europe, and these findings are interpreted and discussed. Then...

Using Student and Teacher Survey Data to Improve Schools

Seeskin, Alexander
Tipo: thesis or dissertation; text Formato: application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.6%
Amid a growing debate over the use of standardized test scores, states and districts across the country have begun using alternative measures of school quality, including surveys of students and teachers. As a result, many schools now have access to troves of diagnostic data on student and teacher perception. However, with few established practices for analyzing or planning with survey data, there has been wide variation in how schools actually use their results. I completed my residency at UChicago Impact, a non-profit connected to the University of Chicago’s Urban Education Institute. UChicago Impact administers the 5Essentials Survey, based on the research in Organizing Schools for Improvement (Bryk et al, 2010), in nearly 5,000 schools nationwide. My strategic project was to design and pilot a series of workshops to help teams of teachers and administrators use their 5Essentials data to improve the organization of their schools and, ultimately, student outcomes. My research identified two core problems that often prevent practitioners from using survey data effectively: (1) the complex social problems rooted in survey data require brave conversations, unintuitive planning, and collective action, making the data hard to influence; (2) the infrequent administration and release of survey data make it difficult for schools to collect new data and adjust their actions accordingly. I found that as a result of attending the workshops...