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Ethnicity as a risk factor for obstructive sleep apnea: comparison of Japanese descendants and white males in São Paulo, Brazil

GENTA, P.R.; MARCONDES, B.F.; DANZI, N.J.; LORENZI-FILHO, G.
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.94%
Some studies showed that Asians with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are thinner than Caucasians. Because obesity is a major risk factor for OSA, it was concluded that Asians are predisposed to OSA. However, body fat composition varies for a same body mass index (BMI) according to ethnicity. We firstly compared anthropometric characteristics, symptoms and associated disorders in all consecutive male Japanese descendants and white males with OSA referred for polysomnography. In a second analysis, all Japanese descendants were compared to a subgroup of white males, matched for apnea/hypopnea index and age. In the first analysis, age, symptoms, OSA severity and co-morbidities were similar among Japanese descendants (N = 54) and white patients (N = 466). However, Japanese descendants had a lower BMI than white patients: 27.1 (25.5-28.4) vs 29.4 (26.5-33.0) kg/m², respectively (P < 0.001). In the second analysis, Japanese descendants had a lower BMI than white patients (P < 0.001). Multiple linear regression considering the entire group revealed that age, BMI, neck circumference, Epworth sleepiness scale, ethnicity and %REM sleep were independent predictors for apnea/hypopnea index (P < 0.001). Ethnicity was no longer significantly associated with OSA severity when we adopted the World Health Organization criteria for obesity (?25 and 30 kg/m² among Japanese descendants and white males...

Ethnicity and Arterial Stiffness in Brazil

SANTOS, Paulo Caleb Junior de Lima; ALVIM, Rafael de Oliveira; FERREIRA, Noely Evangelista; CUNHA, Roberto de Sa; KRIEGER, Jose Eduardo; MILL, Jose Geraldo; PEREIRA, Alexandre Costa
Fonte: NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP Publicador: NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.94%
BACKGROUND The impact of increased central arterial stiffness as a predictor of morbidity and mortality, independently of other cardiovascular (CV) risk factors, has been established. The main aim of the present work was to investigate the association of ethnicity on arterial stiffness in different ethnic groups from the Brazilian population. METHODS A total of 1,427 individuals from the general population were randomly selected from the Vitoria City metropolitan area and 588 Amerindians from a native community in Brazil. The ethnicity of the general population was classified by a standard questionnaire as Caucasian descent, African descent, or Mulattos (considered racially mixed subjects). Pulse wave velocity (PWV) was measured with a noninvasive automatic device (Complior, Colson; Garges les Gonesses, France). RESULTS Hemodynamic data of PWV, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and mean blood pressure (MBP) was higher in African descent individuals than in the other groups (P < 0.001). These results were still observed after adjustment for age and mean arterial pressure (P < 0.001). In addition, studying only normotensive individuals, PWV adjusted levels were higher in African descent individuals, and lower in Amerindians when compared with other ethnic groups (P < 0.01)...

Race, crime, and criminal justice in Portugal

Cunha, Manuela Ivone P. da
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/bookpart
Publicado em //2010 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.94%
How is ‘difference’ reflected on crime and the criminal justice system in Portugal? The answers obtained depend on which notions we can translate ‘difference’ into: ‘race’, ‘ethnicity’, ‘foreigners’, ‘immigrants’, ‘minorities’. This, in turn, depends also on whether we focus on statistics, rates, or, from another angle, experiences of crime and of the criminal justice system. Quantitative and qualitative data highlight different but complementary aspects of a same landscape. This paper focuses on both. It first uses Portuguese official statistics, which allow for grasping ‘difference’ only in terms of the pair: foreigners/citizens, regardless of race or ethnicity. Second, it draws on an ethnographic study in a women’s prison, which allowed for the highlighting of the way categories of race and ethnicity may be at play in crime, law enforcement, and the experience of imprisonment. In all three domains class and the nature of residential areas emerge as important conditions for the relevance of race and ethnicity. The changing intersection between ethnicity and class, mediated by conditions such as the neighbourhood and the workings of the drug economy contributes to prevent, in prison, strong expressions of race and ethnicity as categories of identity and social organization.

Reviews : gender matters [to] Natividad Gutiérrez Chong, ed., Women, ethnicity and nationalisms in Latin America. Aldershot : Ashgate, 2007...

Cabecinhas, Rosa
Fonte: SAGE Publicador: SAGE
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2008 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.88%
Gutierrez Chong, Natividad (ed. lit.) "Women, ethnicity and nationalisms in Latin America". Aldershot : Ashgate, 2007. 235 p. ISBN 978-075-464-925-0; Nationalism is a multifaceted phenomenon that has recently become a focus of redefinition through new multidisciplinary and multi-method approaches. The complex links among gender, ethnicity and nationalism, neglected for a long time in academic research, are increasingly receiving coverage in the scholarly literature. The book "Women, Ethnicity and Nationalisms in Latin America”, edited by Natividad Gutiérrez Chong, systematically explores these links in the context of Latin America, with case studies covering Argentina, Ecuador, Bolivia and Mexico. Contributions are by leading Latin American scholars from diverse academic fields who share the aim of overcoming the limitations of the Eurocentric and androcentric framework that characterizes the main approaches to nationalism.

Alcohol drinking patterns by gender, ethnicity, and social class in Bahia, Brazil

Almeida-Filho,Naomar; Lessa,Ines; Magalhães,Lucélia; Araújo,Maria Jenny; Aquino,Estela; Kawachi,Ichiro; James,Sherman A
Fonte: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/02/2004 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.88%
OBJECTIVE: To study patterns of alcohol consumption and prevalence of high-risk drinking. METHODS: A household survey was carried out in a sample of 2,302 adults in Salvador, Brazil. Cases of High-Risk Drinking (HRD) were defined as those subjects who referred daily or weekly binge drinking plus episodes of drunkenness and those who reported any use of alcoholic beverages but with frequent drunkenness (at least once a week). RESULTS: Fifty-six per cent of the sample acknowledged drinking alcoholic beverages. Overall consumption was significantly related with gender (male), marital status (single), migration (non-migrant), better educated (college level), and social class (upper). No significant differences were found regarding ethnicity, except for cachaça (Brazilian sugarcane liquor) and other distilled beverages. Overall 12-month prevalence of high-risk drinking was 7%, six times more prevalent among males than females (almost 13% compared to 2.4%). A positive association of HRD prevalence with education and social class was found. No overall relationship was found between ethnicity and HRD. Male gender and higher socioeconomic status were associated with increased odds of HRD. Two-way stratified analyses yielded consistent gender effects throughout all strata of independent variables. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that social and cultural elements determine local patterns of alcohol-drinking behavior. Additional research on long-term and differential effects of gender...

Persisting problems related to race and ethnicity in public health and epidemiology research

Moubarac,Jean-Claude
Fonte: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/02/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.06%
A recent and comprehensive review of the use of race and ethnicity in research that address health disparities in epidemiology and public health is provided. First it is described the theoretical basis upon which race and ethnicity differ drawing from previous work in anthropology, social science and public health. Second, it is presented a review of 280 articles published in high impacts factor journals in regards to public health and epidemiology from 2009-2011. An analytical grid enabled the examination of conceptual, theoretical and methodological questions related to the use of both concepts. The majority of articles reviewed were grounded in a theoretical framework and provided interpretations from various models. However, key problems identified include a) a failure from researchers to differentiate between the concepts of race and ethnicity; b) an inappropriate use of racial categories to ascribe ethnicity; c) a lack of transparency in the methods used to assess both concepts; and d) failure to address limits associated with the construction of racial or ethnic taxonomies and their use. In conclusion, future studies examining health disparities should clearly establish the distinction between race and ethnicity, develop theoretically driven research and address specific questions about the relationships between race...

Ethnicity and glutathione S-transferase (GSTM1/GSTT1) polymorphisms in a Brazilian population

Gattás,G.J.F.; Kato,M.; Soares-Vieira,J.A.; Siraque,M.S.; Kohler,P.; Gomes,L.; Rego,M.A.V.; Bydlowski,S.P.
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2004 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.66%
The distribution of polymorphisms related to glutathione S-transferases (GST) has been described in different populations, mainly for white individuals. We evaluated the distribution of GST mu (GSTM1) and theta (GSTT1) genotypes in 594 individuals, by multiplex PCR-based methods, using amplification of the exon 7 of CYP1A1 gene as an internal control. In São Paulo, 233 whites, 87 mulattos, and 137 blacks, all healthy blood-donor volunteers, were tested. In Bahia, where black and mulatto populations are more numerous, 137 subjects were evaluated. The frequency of the GSTM1 null genotype was significantly higher among whites (55.4%) than among mulattos (41.4%; P = 0.03) and blacks (32.8%; P < 0.0001) from São Paulo, or Bahian subjects in general (35.7%; P = 0.0003). There was no statistically different distribution among any non-white groups. The distribution of GSTT1 null genotype among groups did not differ significantly. The agreement between self-reported and interviewer classification of skin color in the Bahian group was low. The interviewer classification indicated a gradient of distribution of the GSTM1 null genotype from whites (55.6%) to light mulattos (40.4%), dark mulattos (32.0%) and blacks (28.6%). However, any information about race or ethnicity should be considered with caution regarding the bias introduced by different data collection techniques...

Ethnicity as a risk factor for obstructive sleep apnea: comparison of Japanese descendants and white males in São Paulo, Brazil

Genta,P.R.; Marcondes,B.F.; Danzi,N.J.; Lorenzi-Filho,G.
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2008 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.94%
Some studies showed that Asians with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are thinner than Caucasians. Because obesity is a major risk factor for OSA, it was concluded that Asians are predisposed to OSA. However, body fat composition varies for a same body mass index (BMI) according to ethnicity. We firstly compared anthropometric characteristics, symptoms and associated disorders in all consecutive male Japanese descendants and white males with OSA referred for polysomnography. In a second analysis, all Japanese descendants were compared to a subgroup of white males, matched for apnea/hypopnea index and age. In the first analysis, age, symptoms, OSA severity and co-morbidities were similar among Japanese descendants (N = 54) and white patients (N = 466). However, Japanese descendants had a lower BMI than white patients: 27.1 (25.5-28.4) vs 29.4 (26.5-33.0) kg/m², respectively (P < 0.001). In the second analysis, Japanese descendants had a lower BMI than white patients (P < 0.001). Multiple linear regression considering the entire group revealed that age, BMI, neck circumference, Epworth sleepiness scale, ethnicity and %REM sleep were independent predictors for apnea/hypopnea index (P < 0.001). Ethnicity was no longer significantly associated with OSA severity when we adopted the World Health Organization criteria for obesity (?25 and 30 kg/m² among Japanese descendants and white males...

Ethnicity as a risk factor for obstructive sleep apnea: comparison of Japanese descendants and white males in São Paulo, Brazil

Genta,P.R.; Marcondes,B.F.; Danzi,N.J.; Lorenzi-Filho,G.
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2008 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.94%
Some studies showed that Asians with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are thinner than Caucasians. Because obesity is a major risk factor for OSA, it was concluded that Asians are predisposed to OSA. However, body fat composition varies for a same body mass index (BMI) according to ethnicity. We firstly compared anthropometric characteristics, symptoms and associated disorders in all consecutive male Japanese descendants and white males with OSA referred for polysomnography. In a second analysis, all Japanese descendants were compared to a subgroup of white males, matched for apnea/hypopnea index and age. In the first analysis, age, symptoms, OSA severity and co-morbidities were similar among Japanese descendants (N = 54) and white patients (N = 466). However, Japanese descendants had a lower BMI than white patients: 27.1 (25.5-28.4) vs 29.4 (26.5-33.0) kg/m², respectively (P < 0.001). In the second analysis, Japanese descendants had a lower BMI than white patients (P < 0.001). Multiple linear regression considering the entire group revealed that age, BMI, neck circumference, Epworth sleepiness scale, ethnicity and %REM sleep were independent predictors for apnea/hypopnea index (P < 0.001). Ethnicity was no longer significantly associated with OSA severity when we adopted the World Health Organization criteria for obesity (?25 and 30 kg/m² among Japanese descendants and white males...

Genetic Structure, Self-Identified Race/Ethnicity, and Confounding in Case-Control Association Studies

Tang, Hua; Quertermous, Tom; Rodriguez, Beatriz; Kardia, Sharon L. R.; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Brown, Andrew; Pankow, James S.; Province, Michael A.; Hunt, Steven C.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Schork, Nicholas J.; Risch, Neil J.
Fonte: The American Society of Human Genetics Publicador: The American Society of Human Genetics
Tipo: text
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.94%
We have analyzed genetic data for 326 microsatellite markers that were typed uniformly in a large multiethnic population-based sample of individuals as part of a study of the genetics of hypertension (Family Blood Pressure Program). Subjects identified themselves as belonging to one of four major racial/ethnic groups (white, African American, East Asian, and Hispanic) and were recruited from 15 different geographic locales within the United States and Taiwan. Genetic cluster analysis of the microsatellite markers produced four major clusters, which showed near-perfect correspondence with the four self-reported race/ethnicity categories. Of 3,636 subjects of varying race/ethnicity, only 5 (0.14%) showed genetic cluster membership different from their self-identified race/ethnicity. On the other hand, we detected only modest genetic differentiation between different current geographic locales within each race/ethnicity group. Thus, ancient geographic ancestry, which is highly correlated with self-identified race/ethnicity—as opposed to current residence—is the major determinant of genetic structure in the U.S. population. Implications of this genetic structure for case-control association studies are discussed.

Disparities in cognitive functioning by race/ethnicity in the Baltimore Memory Study.

Schwartz, Brian S; Glass, Thomas A; Bolla, Karen I; Stewart, Walter F; Glass, Gregory; Rasmussen, Meghan; Bressler, Joseph; Shi, Weiping; Bandeen-Roche, Karen
Tipo: text
Publicado em /03/2004 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.94%
The Baltimore Memory Study is a cohort study of the multilevel determinants of cognitive decline in 50-70-year-old randomly selected residents of specific city neighborhoods. Prior studies have demonstrated that cognitive function differs by race/ethnicity, with lower scores in minorities than in whites, but the underlying basis for these differences is not understood. Studies have differed in the rigor with which they evaluated and controlled for such important confounding variables as socioeconomic status (SES), health-related behaviors, comorbid illnesses, and factors in the physical environment. The goal of this study was to describe differences in neurobehavioral test scores by race/ethnicity, before and after control for a four-dimensional measure of SES and health-related behaviors and health conditions, in a cross-sectional analysis of first visit data. Random samples of households in the study area were selected until enrollment goals were reached. Among the 2,351 persons on whom eligibility was determined, 60.8% were scheduled for an enrollment visit; of these, 1,140 (81.3%) were enrolled and tested. These study participants were 34.3% male and 65.7% female and were from 65 Baltimore, Maryland, neighborhoods. After adjustment for age...

Race and ethnicity in public health surveillance: criteria for the scientific use of social categories.

Hahn, R A; Stroup, D F
Tipo: text
Publicado em //1994 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.99%
Public health surveillance is the cornerstone of public health practice. The uses of surveillance include the identification of patterns of health among population subgroups. The assessment of race and ethnicity in public health surveillance is fundamental to the reduction of preventable excesses in poor health among racial and ethnic populations. We review the use of race and ethnic variables in national public health surveillance systems in the United States. One barrier to the use of race and ethnicity in public health surveillance is the lack of scientific consensus on the nature of race and ethnicity and the measurement of these variables. Differences in terminology, data collection procedures, perceptions of group identity, and changing demographics of the U.S. population present particular challenges for surveillance. We propose criteria for any useful variables collected through surveillance. Application of these criteria to race and ethnicity suggests that race as assessed in surveillance is not primarily associated with biological characteristics, but it is more like ethnicity--a matter of self-perceived membership in population groups. Regular evaluation of surveillance systems will contribute to the usefulness of information on race and ethnicity in the improvement of the health of minority populations.

Return rates and outcomes from ethnicity-specific mental health programs in Los Angeles.

Takeuchi, D T; Sue, S; Yeh, M
Tipo: text
Publicado em /05/1995 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.99%
OBJECTIVES. The present study compared the return rate, length of treatment, and treatment outcome of ethnic minority adults who received services from ethnicity-specific or mainstream programs. METHODS. The sample consisted of 1516 African Americans, 1888 Asian Americans, and 1306 Mexican Americans who used 1 of 36 predominantly White (mainstream) or 18 ethnicity-specific mental health centers in Los Angeles County over a 6-year period. Predictor variables included type of program (ethnicity specific vs mainstream), disorder, ethnic match (whether or not clients had a therapist of the same ethnicity), gender, age, and Medi-Cal eligibility. The criterion variables were return after one session, total number of sessions, and treatment outcome. RESULTS. The study indicated that ethnic clients who attended ethnicity-specific programs had a higher return rate and stayed in the treatment longer than those using mainstream services. The data analyses were less clear cut when treatment outcome was examined. CONCLUSIONS. The findings support the notion that ethnicity-specific programs seem to increase the continued use of mental health services among ethnic minority groups.

Race and Ethnicity in Genetic Research

Sankar, Pamela; Cho, Mildred K.; Mountain, Joanna
Tipo: text
Publicado em 01/05/2007 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.99%
Use of race and ethnicity terms in genetic research continues to generate controversy. Despite differing opinions about their basis or relevance, there is some agreement that investigators using these terms should: explain why the terms or categories were used, define them carefully, and apply them consistently. An important question is whether these recommendations are reflected in practice. Here we addressed this question based on 330 randomly selected articles published between 2001 and 2004 that reported on genetic research and used one or more words from a defined list of race, ethnicity, or population terms. The recommendation that authors using race or ethnicity terms explain the basis for assigning them to study populations was met infrequently (9.1%), and articles that used race and ethnicity as variables were no more likely than those that used them only to label a sample to provide these details. No article defined or discussed the concepts of race or ethnicity. With limited exceptions, current practice does not reflect repeated recommendations for using race or ethnicity terms in genetic research. This study provides a baseline against which to measure future trends.

Ethnicity, alcohol drinking and changes in transaminase activity among heavy drinkers.

Stewart, Scott H.; Connors, Gerard J.
Fonte: National Medical Association Publicador: National Medical Association
Tipo: text
Publicado em /05/2007 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.99%
BACKGROUND: Liver cirrhosis mortality differs by ethnicity in the United States. Some studies suggest alcohol sensitivity may contribute to this finding. This analysis evaluated if alcohol-associated changes in aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) differed by ethnicity among heavy drinkers. METHODS: Subjects included 1691 subjects from Project MATCH, a multicenter alcohol use disorders treatment trial. Changes in AST and ALT over 15 months were modeled as functions of ethnicity, age, gender, time, study site and alcohol use. The main focus was on ethnic differences in changes in transaminase activity occurring with changes in alcohol use. RESULTS: At all levels of alcohol consumption AST was lower in non-Hispanic whites relative to African Americans and Mexican Americans. Changes in AST associated with changes in alcohol use did not vary by ethnicity. ALT significantly differed only between Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic whites. Similar to AST, alcohol-associated ALT change did not differ by ethnicity. CONCLUSIONS: Among individuals with alcohol use disorders participating in a treatment trial, the effect of alcohol drinking on transaminase activity did not vary by ethnicity. However, in the general population...

Ethnicity/race, ethics, and epidemiology.

Whaley, Arthur L.
Fonte: National Medical Association Publicador: National Medical Association
Tipo: text
Publicado em /08/2003 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.99%
Ethnicity/race is a much-studied variable in epidemiology. There has been little consensus about what self-reported ethnicity/race represents, but it is a measure of some combination of genetic, socioeconomic, and cultural factors. The present article will attempt to: 1.) Elucidate the limitations of contemporary discourse on ethnicity/race that emphasizes the genetic and socioeconomic dimensions as competing explanatory frameworks; 2.) Demonstrate how considerable attention to the cultural dimension facilitates understanding of race differences in health-related outcomes; and 3.) Discuss interpretations of disparities in health status of African Americans versus European Americans from an ethical perspective. A major challenge to the discourse on ethnicity/race and health being limited to socioeconomic and genetic considerations is the lack of attention to the third alternative of a cultural perspective. The combined cultural ideologies of individualism and racism undermine the utility of epidemiologic research in health promotion and disease prevention campaigns aimed at reducing the racial gaps in health status. An ethical analysis supplements the cultural perspective. Ethics converge with culture on the notion of values influencing the study of ethnicity/race in epidemiology. A cultural approach to the use of ethnicity/race in epidemiologic research addresses methodological limitations...

"A NEW CONCEPTUALIZATION OF ETHNICITY FOR SOCIAL EPIDEMIOLOGIC AND HEALTH EQUITY RESEARCH"

Ford, Chandra; Harawa, Nina T
Tipo: text
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.1%
Although social stratification persists in the US, differentially influencing the well-being of ethnically defined groups, ethnicity concepts and their implications for health disparities remain under-examined. Ethnicity is a complex social construct that influences personal identity and group social relations. Ethnic identity, ethnic classification systems, the groupings that compose each system and the implications of assignment to one or another ethnic category are place-, time- and context-specific. In the US, racial stratification uniquely shapes expressions of and understandings about ethnicity. Ethnicity is typically invoked via the term, ‘race/ethnicity’; however, it is unclear whether this heralds a shift away from racialization or merely extends flawed racial taxonomies to populations whose cultural and phenotypic diversity challenge traditional racial classification. We propose that ethnicity be conceptualized as a two-dimensional, context-specific, social construct with an attributional dimension that describes group characteristics (e.g., culture, nativity) and a relational dimension that indexes a group’s location within a social hierarchy (e.g., minority vs. majority status). This new conceptualization extends prior definitions in ways that facilitate research on ethnicization...

Ethnicity Specific Norms and Alcohol Consumption Among Hispanic/Latino/a and Caucasian Students

LaBrie, Joseph W.; Atkins, David C.; Neighbors, Clayton; Mirza, Tehniat; Larimer, Mary E.
Tipo: text
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.99%
Previous research has shown that social norms are among the strongest predictors of college student drinking and that normative misperceptions of more similar groups’ drinking behavior may be more influential on individual drinking than those groups perceived to be more different. However, limited research has explored the moderating role of ethnicity in this context. The current study examined the differential impact that Hispanic/Latino/a and Caucasian students’ normative perceptions of both typical and same-ethnicity college students’ drinking behavior had on their own drinking. Participants (N = 5,369 students; 60.4% female; 81.4% Caucasian; mean age 19.9 years) from two colleges completed web-based surveys assessing their alcohol consumption, and their perceptions of the drinking behaviors of both the typical college student and the typical same-ethnicity college student at their campus. Results demonstrated that perceived norms were significantly associated with likelihood of drinking regardless of race or ethnicity specificity, but that Hispanics/Latinos/as typically had weaker relationships between ethnicity-specific norms and drinking than general student norms and drinking. The opposite was true for Caucasians such that the relationship between same-ethnicity norms and drinking was stronger than the relationship between general student norms and drinking. Further...

Attitudes of general practitioners and midwives towards ethnicity-based haemoglobinopathy-carrier screening

Jans, Suze MPJ; de Jonge, Ank; Henneman, Lidewij; Cornel, Martina C; Lagro-Janssen, Antoinette LM
Fonte: Nature Publishing Group Publicador: Nature Publishing Group
Tipo: text
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.03%
Haemoglobinopathies (HbP) are severe autosomal recessive disorders with high prevalence among certain ethnic groups. World Health Organisation (WHO) advises implementing screening programmes for risk groups. Research in the Netherlands has shown that general practitioners and midwives do not perceive ethnicity as a risk factor for HbP. Moreover, registration of ethnicity is a controversial societal issue, which may complicate the introduction of a national preconception or antenatal carrier screening programme. This study investigates attitudes, intention and behaviour of general practitioners and midwives towards ethnicity-based HbP-carrier screening in general. A structured questionnaire based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour was sent by mail to a random selection of 2100 general practitioners and 1800 primary care midwives. Response was 35% (midwives 44.2% GPs 27.6%). Although 45% of respondents thought that offering a carrier test on the basis of ethnicity alone should become national policy, it is currently not carried out. The main factor explaining lack of intention towards ethnicity-based HbP-carrier screening was subjective norm, the perception that their peers do not think they should offer screening (52.2% variance explained). If ethnicity-based HbP-carrier screening would become national policy...

Self-reported race/ethnicity in the age of genomic research: its potential impact on understanding health disparities

Mersha, Tesfaye B; Abebe, Tilahun
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: text
Publicado em 07/01/2015 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.99%
This review explores the limitations of self-reported race, ethnicity, and genetic ancestry in biomedical research. Various terminologies are used to classify human differences in genomic research including race, ethnicity, and ancestry. Although race and ethnicity are related, race refers to a person’s physical appearance, such as skin color and eye color. Ethnicity, on the other hand, refers to communality in cultural heritage, language, social practice, traditions, and geopolitical factors. Genetic ancestry inferred using ancestry informative markers (AIMs) is based on genetic/genomic data. Phenotype-based race/ethnicity information and data computed using AIMs often disagree. For example, self-reporting African Americans can have drastically different levels of African or European ancestry. Genetic analysis of individual ancestry shows that some self-identified African Americans have up to 99% of European ancestry, whereas some self-identified European Americans have substantial admixture from African ancestry. Similarly, African ancestry in the Latino population varies between 3% in Mexican Americans to 16% in Puerto Ricans. The implication of this is that, in African American or Latino populations, self-reported ancestry may not be as accurate as direct assessment of individual genomic information in predicting treatment outcomes. To better understand human genetic variation in the context of health disparities...