Aim: The aim of this paper was to compare the quantity and frequency of alcohol use and its associated negative consequences between two groups of college students who were identified as being ""risky drinkers."" Subjects were randomly allocated in a clinical trial to intervention or control groups. Methods: Risky drinking use was defined as Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) >= 8 and/or Rutgers Alcohol Problem Index (RAPI) >= 5 problems in the previous year. Students who had undergone the Brief Alcohol Screening and Intervention for College Students (BASICS) (N = 145 at baseline; 142 at 12 months, and 103 at 24 months, loss of 29.7%) were compared with a control group (N = 121 at baseline; 121 at 12 months and 113 at 24 months, loss of 9.3%), the nonintervention group. Variables included drinking frequency, quantity and peak consumption, dependence assessment, and family and friends` abuse assessment. Results: Treated students at a 24-month follow-up decreased quantity of alcohol use per occasion and lowered AUDIT and RAPI scores. Conclusions: This is the first brief intervention work on risky drinking with college students in Brazil and the results are encouraging. However, it is difficult to conduct individual prevention strategies in a country where culture fosters heavy drinking through poor public policy on alcohol and lack of law enforcement.
A preocupação com o uso do álcool entre universitários é evidente em várias partes do mundo. Diversos estudos mostram que o uso e abuso dessa substância vêm aumentando em ritmo acelerado. Nesse contexto, o presente estudo tem como objetivo identificar o padrão de consumo de álcool e suas conseqüências entre universitários da área de saúde de uma Faculdade privada do interior do estado de São Paulo. Trata-se de um estudo descritivo e exploratório com uma amostra de 1007 estudantes universitários. Para a coleta de dados, utilizou-se um questionário auto-aplicável, contendo três partes: a primeira referente aos dados sóciodemográficos, a segunda refere-se ao padrão de consumo de álcool e a terceira refere-se aos problemas vivenciados por essa população após beber. Entre os resultados estão que a maioria dos estudantes pertence ao sexo feminino 84%, estado civil solteiro 85,1%, com idade entre 18 e 25 anos 79%, provenientes de outras cidades 62,6% e 60,0% referiram não trabalhar. A maioria dos estudantes pertence ao curso de enfermagem 24,2% e em relação ao ano do curso, 30,3% são calouros. Quanto à moradia, 75,1% referiram morar com a família. No que se refere ao tipo de religião 64% afirmaram ser católicos e 67% referem que a religião é muito importante em suas vidas. Em relação ao consumo de álcool...
Esse trabalho teve como objetivo verificar se haveria ocorrência de ineficácia adaptativa de alunos de primeiro ano de curso de Enfermagem e em quais setores adaptativos apresentariam inadequações e se haveria estudantes em crise adaptativa. O estudo abrangeu os alunos do primeiro ano do curso de Enfermagem de uma determinada faculdade de Minas Gerais. Os instrumentos utilizados para essa pesquisa foram: o Questionário da Escola Paulista de Medicina, como instrumento de triagem; a entrevista clínica preventiva; e a Escala Diagnóstica Adaptativa Operacionalizada EDAO. O estudo mostrou que para uma pesquisa de prevenção é essencial que o estudo ocorra na fase mais precoce, no caso, no início do primeiro ano. Como o mesmo foi realizado ao final do primeiro ano de uma turma de Enfermagem, verificou-se que já havia ocorrido uma pré-seleção, causada pela evasão de 18% de alunos da turma iniciada em 2013, gerando, com isso, a hipótese de que esses alunos poderiam ter continuado no curso se identificados precocemente e, a partir disso, ajudados no que necessitavam; This study aimed to verify if there would be occurrences of ineffective adaptation of first-year students of a Nursing program, and in which adaptive sections there would be inadequateness and if there would be students in adaptive crisis. The participants included all first-year students of a Nursing program in Minas Gerais. The instruments used for this research were: the Questionnaire from Escola Paulista de Medicina...
This paper analyses the impact of learning strategies, gender, academic field attended and students’ entrance classification to the university on academic achievement at the end of the first academic year. The study, developed with 445 first-year college students (68.5% female), ages between 17 and 57 years old (M = 18.3; SD = 2.17), from the University of Minho (Portugal), implicated answering a questionnaire on learning strategies, which concerned five dimensions (comprehensive approach, surface approach, personal competency perceptions, intrinsc motivation and organization of study activities). Regression analyses showed that academic achievement was more related to students’ entrance classifications to the university than to their learning strategies, independently of the academic field attended. Despite the significance of the other variables, these results seem to highlight the relationship between students’ academic preparation and their achievement at the end of the first-year.; Cet article analyse le rôle de la préparation académique et des stratégies d’apprentissage dans la prediction des resultats académiques des étudiants collegiens portugais de premiere année, considerant le sexe des
étudiants et le champ d’etudes poursuivies. Un échantillon de 445 etudiants collegiens de première annee (68...
This study conducted a follow-up telephone survey of a probability sample of college students who did not respond to a Web survey to determine correlates of and reasons for nonresponse. A stratified random sample of 2 502 full-time first-year undergraduate students was invited to participate in a Web-based survey. A random sample of 221 students who did not respond to the original Web survey completed an abbreviated version of the original survey by telephone. Nonresponse did not vary by gender, but nonresponse was higher among Blacks and Hispanics compared to Whites, and Blacks compared to Asians. Nonresponders reported lower frequency of past 28 days drinking, lower levels of past-year and past 28-days heavy episodic drinking, and more time spent preparing for classes than responders. The most common reasons for nonresponse were “too busy” (45.7%), “not interested” (18.1%), and “forgot to complete survey” (18.1%). Reasons for nonresponse to Web surveys among college students are similar to reasons for nonresponse to mail and telephone surveys, and some nonresponse reasons vary as a function of alcohol involvement.
This study reports the prevalence of cannabis use disorders (CUD) and other cannabis-related problems in a large cohort (n=1253) of first-year college students, 17 to 20 years old, at one large public university in the mid-Atlantic region of the U.S. Interviewers assessed past-year cannabis use, other drug use, and cannabis-related problems (including DSM-IV criteria for CUD). The prevalence of CUD was 9.4%wt among all first-year students and 24.6% among past-year cannabis users (n=739). Of those endorsing any CUD criteria, 33.8% could be classified as diagnostic orphans. Among 474 “at-risk” cannabis users (?5 times in the past year), concentration problems (40.1%), driving while high (18.6%) and missing class (13.9%) were among the most prevalent cannabis-related problems, even among those who endorsed no CUD criteria. Placing oneself at risk for physical injury was also commonly reported (24.3%). A significant proportion of cannabis-using college students meet diagnostic criteria for disorder. Even in the absence of disorder, users appear to be at risk for potentially serious cannabis-related problems. Implications for prevention, service delivery, and future research are discussed.
The first year of college is a unique transition period, in which the student establishes a college identity and social network. Alcohol use is often part of this process, and many first-year college students develop a pattern of heavy drinking that puts them at risk for adverse consequences during their college years and into young adulthood. To better understand the development of risky alcohol use during this transition, we reviewed the literature on influences on college drinking and identified moderators and mediators that were particularly relevant for first-year alcohol use. As the transition from high school to college presents a unique opportunity for intervention, we discuss how these moderators and mediators can inform alcohol abuse prevention programs. We also identify approaches aimed at changing the culture of alcohol use on campus. Limitations of the reviewed research are highlighted in the context of promising directions for future research.
The present study sought to evaluate the day-to-day patterns of tobacco, alcohol and marijuana use among first year college students in the U.S. Using 210 days of weekly time-line follow-back diary data collected in 2002-2003, the authors examined within-person patterns of use. The sample was 48% female and 90% Caucasian. Sixty eight percent of the participants were permanent residents of Indiana. Univariate time series analysis was employed to evaluate behavioral trends for each substance across the academic year and to determine the predictive value of day-to-day substance use. Some of the most common trends included higher levels of substance use at the beginning and/or end of the academic year. Use on any given day could be predicted best from the amount of corresponding substance use one day prior.
Most research on the links between alcohol use and sexual behavior has used cross-sectional and between-subjects designs. However, a pivotal question is whether sexual behavior is more likely when the same persons drink more heavily than when they do not. A within-person approach was used in the current study to model the links between alcohol use and sex. Participants (51.4% male) were traditionally-aged first-year college students. Multilevel models were conducted for up to 14 days of sexual behavior data for each person with occasions (Level 1, N=2879 days) nested within people (Level 2, N=218 people). Between-persons (Level 2) effects were gender, relationship status, person means of alcohol use (aggregated across days), and alcohol-sex expectancies for sexual affect and sexual drive. Within-person (Level 1) effects were weekend days, the number of drinks of alcohol consumed on a given day, and the interaction between drinks consumed and alcohol-sex expectancies. Independent of average alcohol use, consuming more drinks on a given day was associated with a greater likelihood of oral sex and with experiencing more short-term positive (but not negative) consequences of sex on that day. Significant Alcohol Use × Alcohol-Sex Expectancies interactions were found for oral sex and total sex behaviors...
The transition to college has been identified as a critical period for increases in overweight status. Overweight college students are at-risk of becoming obese adults, and, thus prevention efforts targeting college age individuals are key to reducing adult obesity rates. The current study evaluated an Internet intervention with first year college students (N = 170) randomly assigned to one of four treatment conditions: 1) no treatment, 2) 6-week online intervention 3) 6-week weight and caloric feedback only (via email), and 4) 6-week combined feedback and online intervention. The combined intervention group had lower BMIs at post-testing than the other three groups. This study demonstrated the effectiveness and feasibility of an online intervention to prevent weight gain among college students.
The current study explored secondary effects of a multi-site randomized alcohol prevention trial on tobacco, marijuana and other illicit drug use among a sample of incoming college students who participated in high school athletics. Students (N = 1275) completed a series of web-administered measures at baseline during the summer before starting college and ten months later. Students were randomized to one of four conditions: a parent-delivered intervention, a brief motivation enhancement intervention (BASICS), a condition combining the parent intervention and BASICS, and assessment only control. A series of ANOVAs evaluating drug use outcomes at the 10-month follow up assessment revealed significant reductions in marijuana use among students who received the combined intervention compared to the BASICS-only and control groups. No other significant differences between treatment conditions were found for tobacco or other illicit drug use. Our findings suggest the potential utility of targeting both alcohol and marijuana use when developing peer and parent-based interventions for students transitioning to college. Clinical implications and future research directions are considered.
Given the dynamic fluctuating nature of alcohol use among emerging adults (Del Boca, Darkes, Greenbaum, & Goldman, 2004), patterns of alcohol use were modeled across 70 days in an intensive repeated-measures diary design. Two hundred first-year college students provided 10 weekly reports of their daily alcohol consumption via computer-assisted telephone interviews. Multi-level models demonstrated large within-person variability across days in drinks consumed, binge drinking, and days exceeding self-reported limits for stumbling around and passing out; these outcome variables were predicted by weekdays vs. weekend days (within-person) and gender, age of drinking initiation, fraternity/sorority membership, and alcohol motivations (between-persons). Repeated measurement of alternate indicators of alcohol use permits the examination of novel and important questions about alcohol use and abuse particularly in young adult and other erratically drinking populations.
Recent studies have examined alcohol-related consequences in college students as an independent outcome variable, rather than as a result of heavy drinking. The present study examined the patterns of consequences experienced by first-year college students (n = 169). Specifically, the number of distinct consequences and the frequency of repeated consequences were evaluated as well as the combination of the two. Results revealed that 80% of participants reported experiencing multiple consequences, with over 34% of students reporting 6 or more unique consequences over the course of their freshmen year. In addition, nearly 50% of the sample reported experiencing 3 or more consequences repeatedly. Further, 23% of the sample reported experiencing 5 or more repeated consequences and 6 or more multiple consequences. These individuals experienced 38% of the multiple consequences and 54% of the repeated consequences reported by the entire sample, suggesting individuals who endorsed experiencing multiple consequences repeatedly also experienced a disproportionate number of the total consequences reported by the sample. The findings suggest there are specific high-risk patterns of alcohol-related consequences and demonstrate a need for further examination of additional variables that predict consequences.
Because sexual behavior may be associated with a broader range of outcomes than physical consequences like sexually transmitted infections and pregnancy, it is important to understand consequences of sex that may influence mental and social well-being in emerging adulthood. This article describes the short-term intrapersonal and interpersonal consequences reported by college students on days they engage in vaginal sex and what factors predict experiencing particular consequences. Data are from first-year college students who reported vaginal sex on at least 1 of 28 sampled days (M age=18.5 years; 53% female; 30% Hispanic/Latino (HL); of non-HL, 30% African American, 22% Asian American, 35% European American and 12% Multiracial; N=209 people; N=679 person days). Participants reported positive consequences more frequently than negative consequences. Non-use of contraception and sex with a non-dating partner were associated with greater odds of reporting negative consequences. These findings have implications for messages about casual sex and use of contraception in sex education and sexual health programming.
Hookah tobacco smoking has become increasingly prevalent among American college students over the past decade. Hookah smoking is associated with poor health outcomes and exposes users to high levels of nicotine, carbon monoxide, and smoke. Research on the correlates of hookah use has begun to emerge, but all studies thus far have been cross-sectional. Little is known about hookah use during the transition to college, psychosocial factors related to hookah smoking, or prospective predictors of hookah initiation and frequency of use. This longitudinal cohort study examined risk and protective factors predicting initiation of hookah tobacco smoking during the first year of college. First-year female college students (N = 483; 64% White) provided data on demographic, behavioral, and psychosocial variables and pre-college hookah use at baseline; they then completed 12 monthly online surveys about their hookah use from September 2009 to August 2010. Among the 343 participants who did not report pre-college use, 79 (23%) initiated hookah tobacco smoking during the year after college entry. Zero-inflated negative binomial regression showed that alcohol use predicted the likelihood of initiating hookah use; impulsivity, social comparison orientation...
Depression and alcohol use are often found in college students, particularly during their first year. The current study assessed the interrelationship of alcohol use and specific depression symptoms. A large sample (n = 869) of first year students were invited to participate via the Internet Results indicated that specific depression symptoms correlated with alcohol consumption. Self-reported heavy, problem drinkers experienced significantly higher Beck Depression Inventory scores than all other groups. Our findings higlight the importance of screening for both alcohol use and depressed mood in college students.
Hooking up, or engaging in sexual interactions outside of committed relationships, has become increasingly common among college students. This study sought to identify predictors of sexual hookup behavior among first-year college women using a prospective longitudinal design. We used problem behavior theory (Jessor, 1991) as an organizing conceptual framework and examined risk and protective factors for hooking up from three domains: personality, behavior, and perceived environment. Participants (N = 483, 67% White) completed an initial baseline survey that assessed risk and protective factors, and nine monthly follow-up surveys that assessed the number of hookups involving performing oral sex, receiving oral sex, and vaginal sex. Over the course of the school year, 20% of women engaged in at least one hookup involving receiving oral sex, 25% engaged in at least one hookup involving performing oral sex, and 25% engaged in at least one hookup involving vaginal sex. Using two-part modeling with logistic and negative binomial regression, we identified predictors of hooking up. Risk factors for sexual hookups included hookup intentions, impulsivity, sensation-seeking, pre-college hookups, alcohol use, marijuana use, social comparison orientation...
This study presents the results of an efficacy evaluation of a Web-based
brief motivational alcohol prevention/intervention program called
Michigan Prevention and Alcohol Safety for Students
(M-PASS). Four on-line sessions providing individually-tailored feedback were
delivered to first-year college students over nine weeks. Non- and low-risk
drinking participants received risk prevention, while high-risk drinking
participants received a risk-reduction intervention. Both intervention and
control groups were surveyed at baseline and at a three-month follow-up.
Analysis showed positive effects for both men and women on stage of change,
drinking behavior, drinking motivation and attitudes, and use of risk-reduction
strategies. These results provided evidence of efficacy, and found that M-PASS
had both intervention and prevention effects, making it unique among currently
developed brief alcohol interventions for college students.
The low success rate of first-year college students in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) programs has spurred many academic achievement studies in which explanatory factors are studied. In this study, we investigated from a person-oriented perspective whether different motivational and academic self-concept profiles could be discerned between male and female first-year college students in STEM and whether differences in early academic achievement were associated with these student groups. Data on autonomous motivation, academic self-concept, and early academic achievement of 1,400 first-year STEM college students were collected. Cluster analyses were used to distinguish motivational profiles based on the relative levels of autonomous motivation and academic self-concept for male and female students. Differences in early academic achievement of the various profiles were studied by means of ANCOVA. Four different motivational profiles were discerned based on the dimensions of autonomous motivation (A) and academic self-concept (S): students scoring high and respectively low on both dimensions (HA-HS or LA-LS), and students scoring high on one dimension and low on the other (HA-LS or LA-HS). Also gender differences were found in this study: male students with high levels of academic self-concept and autonomous motivation had higher academic achievement compared to male students with low levels on both motivational dimensions. For female students...
Prepartying and drinking game playing are associated with excessive alcohol consumption and alcohol-related negative consequences in college populations; however, research exploring the prevalence of these high risk drinking contexts among high school students, and how such engagement may impact both high school and subsequent college drinking risk, is lacking. The current study, which is the first study to assess prepartying during high school, examined how engaging in either prepartying or drinking game playing during high school was associated with risky high school drinking as well asalcohol use and consequences during the transitional first month of college. The study involved 477 first-year college students, the majority of whom were 18 years old (94%), female (66%), and Caucasian (59%). Prepartying was found to be highly prevalent in high school (45%). Further, students who prepartied or played drinking games during high school drank significantly more in high school than students who did not engage in these high risk activities. Finally, prepartying and game playing during high school were associated with greater collegiate alcohol consumption (controlling for high school drinking) and consequences (controlling for both high school and college drinking). This study establishes prepartying and drinking games as common high risk activities among both high school and incoming first-year college students...