The analysis of fiscal performance is a hot topic either to policy makers or researchers and fiscal discipline is a key value in public finance management at the national and local levels. This growing attention to discipline may be explained with fiscal crisis and strict resource limitations, since in the three last decades a large part of those governments had high and persistent deficits and public debt.
Fiscal performance may also be an instrument that voters considered at the ballots. Elections are the main accountability instrument, used by voters to evaluate the incumbent’s performance. Voters elected the incumbents if they consider satisfactory their performance; or otherwise they elect opponent candidates. The objective of this paper is to analyze relationship between several dimensions of fiscal performance and the probability of incumbent re-election, focusing on 2005 municipal elections. Based on public finance and public choice literatures we test some well-known hypothesis such as fiscal illusion and fiscal conservatism of voters.
Dissertação de Mestrado em Estudos Americanos apresentada à Universidade Aberta; Resumo - Este trabalho pretende explorar as significações dos diferentes espaços do filme Mulholland Drive, de David Lynch, partindo do espaço físico da cidade de Los Angeles, como espaço aglutinador de factos e de ficções, onde Hollywood assume um papel fulcral. As representações da cidade ao longo da história do cinema, desde os primeiros actuality films, passando por todo a ciclo de filmes categorizados como film noir, até ao nosso filme, têm ditado e desenvolvido novas abordagens e perspectivas sobre a forma como o sujeito se tem relacionado com os espaços da cidade (tanto através da experiência real, como da experiência fílmica) e com o próprio cinema, enquanto arte que inscreve e problematiza espaços que não estão circunscritos ao nosso quotidiano e à nossa realidade imediata, mas antes, são impregnados de outros sentidos, nem sempre compreensíveis ou fáceis de descrever, mas que têm a magia e a consistência necessárias pare se fazerem valer por si mesmos, mesmo quando podem sugerir uma tentativa de mimese da realidade.
Cumprido mais de um século de cinema e, numa época, cada vez mais dominada pelas imagens, impunha-se um filme que questiona e esbate as fronteiras entre o especular e o real...
We justify why a single seat from European members in international fora might be preferable than a multitude of seats. Leech and Leech (2005), Eichengreen (2008) proposed this reform at the IMF. Why? Even though nowadays European Union has an aggregate voting power that is higher than its’ respective (expected) share in world output or population weight; If the single seat is obtained, more coordinated expected outcomes can be achieved. This line of reasoning is compatible with the single mindedness theory created by Mulligan and Sala-I-Martin and further extended by Canegrati. Focusing in one policy gives more political power for the single European seat.
The Portuguese montado is a particular land use system, characterized
by the combination, in the same area, of the forestry and the grazing
components interrelating with each other, in large-scale farm units.
Mostly, this system is acknowledged due to its specific landscape
character, in a savanna-like phisionomy, with changing densities along
a continuous tree cover of holm and cork oaks and grazing in the under
cover. The montado is a production system, and its extensive character
and particular pattern makes it possible to support a multitude of
ecosystem goods and services nowadays valued by society. Nevertheless
the system is threatened and the resulting landscape is under strong
reduction in the last decades. This paper shows the dimension of the
ongoing reduction, for the whole region of Alentejo, since 1960 and up to
now. And furthermore, based on a survey to land managers of montadoin a Natura 2000 site, it shows how the land management options for the
most are still focusing on production and productivist ideals, even when
keeping a multifunctional system. These orientations do not result in a
radical replacement of the system, and therefore the illusion is kept that
the multifunctionality is mantained – but progressively the system loses
its balance and the tree cover decays in such a way that the montado
disappears. This unique landscape is thus under severe threat. The paper
ends with a discussion on the urgent need for integrated policy goals and
tools for the montado as a system...
Literature shows that there are significant associations between health and happiness. Various countries are considering, contemplating or formally incorporating the happiness variable into their public health policies. Moreover, the private sector has shown interest in the topic. Based on that This article examines the biases in the perception of satisfaction with life among young adults in two Brazilian cities. The study explores the associations between aspects of life and perception of happiness because public policies associated with happiness require an improved understanding of the subjectivity of the sense of well-being. A survey conducted among 368 college students enabled analysis through Multivariate Analysis of Covariance (MANCOVA) and linear regression. The results suggest that, although there were no significant differences in general satisfaction with life between the two cities, there were indications of focusing illusion in the perception of happiness caused by expectations arising from the feeling of personal insecurity in a metropolis.
One of the most fundamental properties of human primary visual cortex (V1) is its retinotopic organization, which makes it an ideal candidate for encoding spatial properties of objects such as size. However, three-dimensional (3D) contextual information can lead to size illusions that are reflected in the spatial pattern of activity in V1 . A critical question is how complex 3D contextual information can influence spatial activity patterns in V1. Here we assessed whether changes in the spatial distribution of activity in V1 depend on the focus of attention, which would be suggestive of feedback of 3D contextual information from higher visual areas. We presented two 3D rings at close and far apparent depths in a 3D scene. When fixating its center, the far ring appeared to be larger and occupy a more eccentric portion of the visual field, relative to the close ring. Using fMRI, we found that the spatial distribution of V1 activity induced by the far ring was also shifted towards a more eccentric representation of the visual field, while that induced by the close ring was shifted towards the foveal representation, consistent with their perceptual appearances. This effect was significantly reduced when the focus of spatial attention was narrowed with a demanding central fixation task. We reason that focusing attention on the fixation task resulted in reduced activity in – and therefore reduced feedback from – higher visual areas that process the 3D depth cues.