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Health surveys and use of maternal and child health care services in three municipalities within the Sao Paulo metropolitan area

CARVALHO, Wladithe Organ de; CESAR, Chester Luiz Galvao; CARANDINA, Luana; BARROS, Marilisa Berti de Azevedo; ALVES, Maria Cecilia Goi Porto; GOLDBAUM, Moises
Fonte: PAN AMER HEALTH ORGANIZATION Publicador: PAN AMER HEALTH ORGANIZATION
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.04%
Objectives. To describe the changes in the use of maternal and child health care services by residents of three municipalities-Embu, Itapecerica da Serra, and Taboao da Serra-in the Sao Paulo metropolitan area, 12 years after the implementation of the Unified Health System (SUS) in Brazil, and to analyze the potential of population-based health care surveys as sources of data to evaluate these changes. Methods. Two population-based, cross-sectional surveys were carried out in 1990 and 2002 in municipalities located within the Sao Paulo metropolitan area. For children under 1 year of age, the two periods were compared in terms of outpatient services utilization and hospital admission; for the mothers, the periods were compared in terms of prenatal care and deliveries. In both surveys, stratified and multiple-stage conglomerate sampling was employed, with standardization of interview questions. Results. The most important changes observed were regarding the location of services used for prenatal care, deliveries, and hospitalization of children less than 1 year of age. There was a significant increase in the use of services in the surrounding region or hometown, and decrease in the utilization of services in the city of Sao Paulo (in 1990...

Barriers to interventions aimed at promoting the health of health care workers in Brazil

REINHARDT, Erica Lui; FISCHER, Frida Marina
Fonte: PAN AMER HEALTH ORGANIZATION Publicador: PAN AMER HEALTH ORGANIZATION
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.06%
Objective. To search the literature for circumstances that impede injury and disease prevention and other activities intended to improve the health of the health care worker. Methods. The SciELO database was searched for articles published in 1967-2008. This was supplemented by a PubMed search for the period 1950-2008. The following key words were used to identify articles in English, Portuguese, and Spanish: work, health personnel, occupational, risks, diseases, ergonomics, work ability, quality of life, organization, accidents, work conditions, intervention, and administration. Articles on injury and disease prevention and occupational health in a health care setting in Latin America were selected, along with articles focused on health promotion in the health sector. Results. The following shortcomings were identified: activities lacked a sound theoretical foundation and were not integrated with the health services management; a failure to evaluate the effectiveness of the activity; health surveillance focused solely on a specific disease or injury; management not committed to the proposed activity; miscommunication; inability of workers to participate, or control the work environment; and, programs or efforts that were limited to changing the workers` behaviors. Conclusions. The literature shows that all the barriers identified by this study affect both the health care workers` health as well as their productivity.

Health surveys and use of maternal and child health care services in three municipalities within the São Paulo metropolitan area

de Carvalho, Wladithe Organ; Galvao Cesar, Chester Luiz; Carandina, Luana; de Azevedo Barros, Marilisa Berti; Goi Porto Alves, Maria Cecilia; Goldbaum, Moises
Fonte: Pan Amer Health Organization Publicador: Pan Amer Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 314-323
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.03%
Objectives. To describe the changes in the use of maternal and child health care services by residents of three municipalities-Embu, Itapecerica da Serra, and Taboao da Serra-in the São Paulo metropolitan area, 12 years after the implementation of the Unified Health System (SUS) in Brazil, and to analyze the potential of population-based health care surveys as sources of data to evaluate these changes.Methods. Two population-based, cross-sectional surveys were carried out in 1990 and 2002 in municipalities located within the São Paulo metropolitan area. For children under 1 year of age, the two periods were compared in terms of outpatient services utilization and hospital admission; for the mothers, the periods were compared in terms of prenatal care and deliveries. In both surveys, stratified and multiple-stage conglomerate sampling was employed, with standardization of interview questions.Results. The most important changes observed were regarding the location of services used for prenatal care, deliveries, and hospitalization of children less than 1 year of age. There was a significant increase in the use of services in the surrounding region or hometown, and decrease in the utilization of services in the city of São Paulo (in 1990...

Health surveys and use of maternal and child health care services in three municipalities within the Sao Paulo metropolitan area

CARVALHO, Wladithe Organ de; CESAR, Chester Luiz Galvao; CARANDINA, Luana; BARROS, Marilisa Berti de Azevedo; ALVES, Maria Cecilia Goi Porto; GOLDBAUM, Moises
Fonte: PAN AMER HEALTH ORGANIZATION Publicador: PAN AMER HEALTH ORGANIZATION
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.03%
Objectives. To describe the changes in the use of maternal and child health care services by residents of three municipalities-Embu, Itapecerica da Serra, and Taboao da Serra-in the Sao Paulo metropolitan area, 12 years after the implementation of the Unified Health System (SUS) in Brazil, and to analyze the potential of population-based health care surveys as sources of data to evaluate these changes. Methods. Two population-based, cross-sectional surveys were carried out in 1990 and 2002 in municipalities located within the Sao Paulo metropolitan area. For children under 1 year of age, the two periods were compared in terms of outpatient services utilization and hospital admission; for the mothers, the periods were compared in terms of prenatal care and deliveries. In both surveys, stratified and multiple-stage conglomerate sampling was employed, with standardization of interview questions. Results. The most important changes observed were regarding the location of services used for prenatal care, deliveries, and hospitalization of children less than 1 year of age. There was a significant increase in the use of services in the surrounding region or hometown, and decrease in the utilization of services in the city of Sao Paulo (in 1990...

Health promotion and health education conceptions of future nurses and other university students : influence of the initial training

Carvalho, Graça Simões de; Carvalho, Amâncio
Fonte: International Union of Health Promotion and Education (IUHPE) Publicador: International Union of Health Promotion and Education (IUHPE)
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/conferenceobject
Publicado em 09/09/2008 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.04%
The general aim of the present study was to compare the system of values in HP/HE conveyed in courses in the area of health, pre-school teaching, basic teaching and social service, in order to understand the relation between the conceptions to be taught and the taught conceptions. For this purpose, we first carried out a content analysis of HP/HE models in national and international publications and developed a descriptive, comparative and cross-sectional study. For the latter an auto-filling questionnaire was applied to a sample of 709 students of seven university courses. The mental representation of the health concept by the total of the students’ sample was expressed in five key words (by decreasing order): Well-being, Hospital, Disease, Doctors and Nurses. The predominance of these key words is connected to a reductionist vision of the health determinants, centred in the system of health, excluding the other ones. When looking at the evolution of the concept of health from the 1st to the 4th year of university training, the Braga Nursing course (BR-N) was the one with higher decrease in the key words associated to the reductionist vision of the term and, similarly, the course of Basic Teaching Teachers (BTT) was the one with more increases associated to the wide concept of health. In contrast...

Teacher training in the field of health promotion : a proposal for International collaboration and preparation of a symposium for the 20th IUHPE World Conference

Jourdan, Didier; Simovska, V.; Valiama, R.; Pakkarár, L.; Simar, C.; Mannix-McNamara, P.; Samdal, O.; Viig, N.G.; Carvalho, Graça Simões de; Diagne, F.; Guével, M-R.; Buijs, G.; Young, I.
Fonte: IUHPE - International Union for Health Promotion and Education Publicador: IUHPE - International Union for Health Promotion and Education
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/conferenceobject
Publicado em 09/09/2008 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.03%
Schools are considered to be settings for both health education and health promotion. But the core business of schools is actually focussed on educational outcomes, not reducing health problems. In most countries, schools give low priority to health promotion and school staffs, mainly teachers, are not aware of their role in health promotion. Studies show that teachers who have received health promotion training tend to be involved more frequently in health promotion projects and have a more comprehensive approach to health education. Pre-service and In-service staff training is then a main challenge. That’s the reason why we have launched an initiative to join international forces to strengthen and advocate for teacher training in health promotion. The main goals are: develop research, affirm and reinforce the work done in teacher training in health promotion, support the institutes/colleges/universities in the provision of initial and in-service teacher training and stimulate international partnership work.; LIBEC/CIFPEC - unidade de investigação 16/644 da FCT.

Teachers’ views about health and health education in 15 countries

Carvalho, Graça Simões de; Pironom, J.; Jourdan, Didier; Berger, Dominique
Fonte: European Public Health Association Publicador: European Public Health Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/2010 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.04%
Health education in schools has been implemented through a diversity of strategies, depending on the concept of health and of health education. Classically, health education has provided mainly factual knowledge about diseases and their prevention, assuming the person as being healthy if the body components are working properly. In contrast to this biomedical (B-M) view of health, the biopsychosocial model (BPS-M) embraces a holistic view of health. This work intends to analyse and compare teachers’ conceptions about health and health education from 15 countries. These countries differ in their geographical distribution and their historical, political and socio-cultural development: 3 in North Europe (Finland, Estonia, Hungary), 5 in South Europe (Portugal, France, Italy, Romania, Cyprus), 3 in North Africa (Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia), 2 in Sub-Saharan Africa (Senegal, Burkina Faso), 1 one in the Middle East (Lebanon) and 1 in South America (Brazil). In each country the BIOHEAD-CITIZEN questionnaire (Munoz et al. 2009) was applied to six subsamples: in-service and pre-service teachers of primary and of secondary schools in biology and national language. The overall sample included 6001 respondents. Multivariate analyses were performed. Results showed differences among countries. Tunisian teachers are those closest to the B-M view of health whereas Finish teachers are the most BPS-M. Logistic regressions showed preferential association of classes within groups (countries...

National Environmental Public Health Tracking Program: Bridging the Information Gap

McGeehin, Michael A.; Qualters, Judith R.; Niskar, Amanda Sue
Fonte: National Institue of Environmental Health Sciences Publicador: National Institue of Environmental Health Sciences
Tipo: text
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.04%
In January 2001 the Pew Environmental Health Commission called for the creation of a coordinated public health system to prevent disease in the United States by tracking and combating environmental health threats. In response, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention initiated the Environmental Public Health Tracking (EPHT) Program to integrate three distinct components of hazard monitoring and exposure and health effects surveillance into a cohesive tracking network. Uniform and acceptable data standards, easily understood case definitions, and improved communication between health and environmental agencies are just a few of the challenges that must be addressed for this network to be effective. The nascent EPHT program is attempting to respond to these challenges by drawing on a wide range of expertise from federal agencies, state health and environmental agencies, nongovernmental organizations, and the program’s academic Centers of Excellence. In this mini-monograph, we present innovative strategies and methods that are being applied to the broad scope of important and complex environmental public health problems by developing EPHT programs. The data resulting from this program can be used to identify areas and populations most likely to be affected by environmental contamination and to provide important information on the health and environmental status of communities. EPHT will develop valuable data on possible associations between the environment and the risk of noninfectious health effects. These data can be used to reduce the burden of adverse health effects on the American public.

Identifying Priority Health Conditions, Environmental Data, and Infrastructure Needs: A Synopsis of the Pew Environmental Health Tracking Project

Litt, Jill; Tran, Nga; Malecki, Kristen Chossek; Neff, Roni; Resnick, Beth; Burke, Thomas
Fonte: National Institue of Environmental Health Sciences Publicador: National Institue of Environmental Health Sciences
Tipo: text
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.06%
In this article we describe the methodologic approaches of the Pew Environmental Health Commission at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health used to identify priority environmental health conditions and develop recommendations to establish a national environmental public health tracking network. We present the results of a survey of public health and environmental practitioners to uncover state and local health tracking needs and priorities. We describe the steps that combined the findings from the state and local health tracking survey and a review of the state of the science on environmental impacts on health to identify priority health end points. Through an examination of national health and health care databases, we then describe trends and public health effects of those diseases that may be linked to the environment. Based on this analysis, respiratory diseases and neurologic diseases are recommended as priorities for tracking. Specific end points recommended for tracking include asthma and chronic respiratory diseases, and chronic neurodegenerative diseases such as multiple sclerosis. Based on trends in reported prevalence, consideration should also be given to developmental disabilities, reproductive disorders...

“Health for Three-Thirds of the Nation”: Public Health Advocacy of Universal Access to Medical Care in the United States

Derickson, Alan
Fonte: © American Journal of Public Health 2002 Publicador: © American Journal of Public Health 2002
Tipo: text
Publicado em /02/2002 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.03%
The public health community has made important, original contributions to the debate over universal access to health services in the United States. Well before the decision of the American Public Health Association in 1944 to endorse a health plan encompassing virtually the entire populace, prominent public health practitioners and scholars embraced universality as an essential principle of health policy. Influenced by Arthur Newsholme, C.-E. A. Winslow began to promote this principle in the 1920s. Many others came to justify universal medical care as a corollary of the traditional ideal of all-inclusive public health services. By the 1940s, most leaders in the field saw national health insurance as the best way to attain universal access. For the past 30 years, advocates of universalism have asserted a social right to health services.

Housing and Health: Time Again for Public Health Action

Krieger, James; Higgins, Donna L.
Fonte: © American Journal of Public Health 2002 Publicador: © American Journal of Public Health 2002
Tipo: text
Publicado em /05/2002 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.02%
Poor housing conditions are associated with a wide range of health conditions, including respiratory infections, asthma, lead poisoning, injuries, and mental health. Addressing housing issues offers public health practitioners an opportunity to address an important social determinant of health. Public health has long been involved in housing issues. In the 19th century, health officials targeted poor sanitation, crowding, and inadequate ventilation to reduce infectious diseases as well as fire hazards to decrease injuries. Today, public health departments can employ multiple strategies to improve housing, such as developing and enforcing housing guidelines and codes, implementing “Healthy Homes” programs to improve indoor environmental quality, assessing housing conditions, and advocating for healthy, affordable housing. Now is the time for public health to create healthier homes by confronting substandard housing.

The Contribution of the World Health Organization to a New Public Health and Health Promotion

Kickbusch, Ilona
Fonte: © American Journal of Public Health 2003 Publicador: © American Journal of Public Health 2003
Tipo: text
Publicado em /03/2003 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.02%
The author traces the development of the concept of health promotion from 1980s policies of the World Health Organization. Two approaches that signify the modernization of public health are outlined in detail: the European Health for All targets and the settings approach. Both aim to reorient health policy priorities from a risk factor approach to strategies that address the determinants of health and empower people to participate in improving the health of their communities.

Rural Health Disparities, Population Health, and Rural Culture

Hartley, David
Fonte: © American Journal of Public Health 2004 Publicador: © American Journal of Public Health 2004
Tipo: text
Publicado em /10/2004 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.02%
In this commentary, I place the maturing field of rural health research and policy in the context of the rural health disparities documented in Health United States, 2001, Urban and Rural Health Chartbook. Because of recent advances in our understanding of the determinants of health, the field must branch out from its traditional focus on access to health care services toward initiatives that are based on models of population health.

Securing Maternal Health Through Comprehensive Reproductive Health Services: Lessons from Bangladesh

Jahan, Rounaq
Fonte: © American Journal of Public Health 2007 Publicador: © American Journal of Public Health 2007
Tipo: text
Publicado em /07/2007 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.01%
During the past decade, there has been a noticeable reduction of maternal mortality in Bangladesh, in part because of government policy and program initiatives. Of particular note is the comprehensive reproductive health strategy adopted in 1996 under the country’s first Health and Population Sector Strategy and the 5-year Health and Population Sector Programme (1998–2003). The latter includes actions in most of the areas recommended in the World Health Organization’s 2004 report, Reproductive Health Strategy to Accelerate Progress Towards the Attainment of International Development Goals and Targets. After assessing Bangladesh’s achievements and challenges in the design and implementation of a maternal health strategy, I concluded that mobilizing and nurturing political will is the key to sustaining policy commitment to comprehensive reproductive health.

Approaching Health Disparities From a Population Perspective: The National Institutes of Health Centers for Population Health and Health Disparities

Warnecke, Richard B.; Oh, April; Breen, Nancy; Gehlert, Sarah; Paskett, Electra; Tucker, Katherine L.; Lurie, Nicole; Rebbeck, Timothy; Goodwin, James; Flack, John; Srinivasan, Shobha; Kerner, Jon; Heurtin-Roberts, Suzanne; Abeles, Ronald; Tyson, Frederic
Fonte: American Public Health Association Publicador: American Public Health Association
Tipo: text
Publicado em /09/2008 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.04%
Addressing health disparities has been a national challenge for decades. The National Institutes of Health–sponsored Centers for Population Health and Health Disparities are the first federal initiative to support transdisciplinary multilevel research on the determinants of health disparities. Their novel research approach combines population, clinical, and basic science to elucidate the complex determinants of health disparities. The centers are partnering with community-based, public, and quasi-public organizations to disseminate scientific findings and guide clinical practice in communities. In turn, communities and public health agents are shaping the research. The relationships forged through these complex collaborations increase the likelihood that the centers’ scientific findings will be relevant to communities and contribute to reductions in health disparities.

A systematic review of inequalities in the use of maternal health care in developing countries: examining the scale of the problem and the importance of context

Say, Lale; Raine, Rosalind
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: text
Publicado em /10/2007 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.01%
Two decades after the Safe Motherhood campaign’s 1987 launch in India, half a million women continue to die from pregnancy-related causes every year. Key health-care interventions can largely prevent these deaths, but their use is limited in developing countries, and is reported to vary between population groups. We reviewed the use of maternal health-care interventions in developing countries to assess the extent, strength and implications of evidence for variations according to women’s place of residence and socioeconomic status. Studies with data on use of a skilled health worker at delivery, antenatal care in the first trimester of pregnancy and medical settings for delivery were assessed. We identified 30 eligible studies, 12 of which were of high or moderate quality, from 23 countries. Results of these studies showed wide variation in use of maternal health care. Methodological factors (e.g. inaccurate identification of population in need or range of potential confounders controlled for) played a part in this variation. Differences were also caused by factors related to health-care users (e.g. age, education, medical insurance, clinical risk factors) or to supply of health care (e.g. clinic availability, distance to facility)...

Public Health, the APHA, and Urban Renewal

Lopez, Russ P.
Fonte: American Public Health Association Publicador: American Public Health Association
Tipo: text
Publicado em /09/2009 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.03%
Joint efforts by fields of public health in the last decade have advocated use of the built environment to protect health. Past involvement by public health advocates in urban policy, however, has had mixed results. Although public health has significantly contributed to health improvements, its participation in urban renewal activities was problematic. Health advocates and the American Public Health Association produced guidelines that were widely used to declare inner-city areas blighted and provided a scientific justification for demolishing neighborhoods and displacing mostly poor and minority people. Furthermore, health departments failed to uphold their legal responsibility to ensure that relocated families received safe, affordable housing alternatives. These failures have important implications for future health-related work on the built environment and other core public health activities.

US Opinions on Health Determinants and Social Policy as Health Policy

Robert, Stephanie A.; Booske, Bridget C.
Fonte: American Public Health Association Publicador: American Public Health Association
Tipo: text
Publicado em /09/2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.04%
To examine what factors the public thinks are important determinants of health and whether social policy is viewed as health policy, we conducted a national telephone survey of 2791 US adults from November 2008 through February 2009. Respondents said that health behaviors and access to health care have very strong effects on health; they were less likely to report a very strong role for other social and economic factors. Respondents who recognized a stronger role for social determinants of health and who saw social policy as health policy were more likely to be older, women, non-White, and liberal, and to have less education, lower income, and fair/poor health. Increasing public knowledge about social determinants of health and mobilizing less advantaged groups may be useful in addressing broad determinants of health.

The Health Care Home Model: Primary Health Care Meeting Public Health Goals

Grant, Roy; Greene, Danielle
Fonte: American Public Health Association Publicador: American Public Health Association
Tipo: text
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.04%
In November 2010, the American Public Health Association endorsed the health care home model as an important way that primary care may contribute to meeting the public health goals of increasing access to care, reducing health disparities, and better integrating health care with public health systems. Here we summarize the elements of the health care home (also called the medical home) model, evidence for its clinical and public health efficacy, and its place within the context of health care reform legislation. The model also has limitations, especially with regard to its degree of involvement with the communities in which care is delivered. Several actions could be undertaken to further develop, implement, and sustain the health care home.

The Public Health Foundation of Health Services for American Indians & Alaska Natives

Rhoades, Everett R.; Rhoades, Dorothy A.
Fonte: American Public Health Association Publicador: American Public Health Association
Tipo: text
Português
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46.03%
The integration of public health practices with federal health care for American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) largely derives from three major factors: the sovereign nature of AI/AN tribes, the sociocultural characteristics exhibited by the tribes, and that AI/ANs are distinct populations residing in defined geographic areas. The earliest services consisted of smallpox vaccination to a few AI/AN groups, a purely public health endeavor. Later, emphasis on public health was codified in the Snyder Act of 1921, which provided for, among other things, conservation of the health of AI/AN persons. Attention to the community was greatly expanded with the 1955 transfer of the Indian Health Service from the US Department of the Interior to the Public Health Service and has continued with the assumption of program operations by many tribes themselves. We trace developments in integration of community and public health practices in the provision of federal health care services for AI/AN persons and discuss recent trends.