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Epidemiologia do beber pesado e beber pesado episódico no Brasil: uma revisão sistemática da literatura; Epidemiology of heavy drinking and heavy episodic drinking in Brazil: a systematic review of literature

SILVEIRA, Camila Magalhães; SILVEIRA, Clóvis Castanho; SILVA, Janaina Guzzardi da; SILVEIRA, Lígia Magalhães; ANDRADE, Arthur Guerra de; ANDRADE, Laura Helena Silveira Guerra de
Fonte: Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.81%
CONTEXTO: O beber pesado episódico (BPE) tem sido fortemente associado a danos e a uma carga social consideráveis. OBJETIVOS: Este estudo tem como finalidade avaliar o panorama brasileiro a partir de aspectos sociodemográficos, fatores individuais e sociais relacionados ao beber pesado. MÉTODOS: A busca de artigos científicos foi realizada com base em um programa de computador nos principais bancos de dados científicos. RESULTADOS: Os homens beberam pesado mais freqüentemente que as mulheres. O beber pesado episódico foi mais prevalente em adolescentes e adultos jovens, e a prevalência tende a diminuir com o aumento da idade. As condições socioeconômicas parecem ter um efeito sobre o beber pesado. O início precoce do beber pesado esteve associado com história de dependência do álcool na vida adulta. O beber pesado episódico esteve associado ao uso concomitante de outras substâncias psicoativas. Os fatores de risco para BPE incluíram atividades sociais e disponibilidade de dinheiro. A pressão dos pares mostrou influenciar mais do que o suporte parental especialmente no final de adolescência. O BP também variou de acordo com a cultura, com mais episódios de BP no Sul em comparação com o Norte do País. CONCLUSÕES: Uma variedade de aspectos sociodemográficos e individuais associados ao beber pesado foi identificada. Porém...

Gender differences in drinking patterns and alcohol-related problems in a community sample in Sao Paulo, Brazil

Silveira, Camila Magalhaes; Siu, Erica Rosanna; Wang, Yuan-Pang; Viana, Maria Carmen; de Andrade, Arthur Guerra; Andrade, Laura Helena
Fonte: HOSPITAL CLINICAS, UNIV SAO PAULO; SAO PAULO Publicador: HOSPITAL CLINICAS, UNIV SAO PAULO; SAO PAULO
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.83%
OBJECTIVE: To investigate drinking patterns and gender differences in alcohol-related problems in a Brazilian population, with an emphasis on the frequency of heavy drinking. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with a probability adult household sample (n = 1,464) in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Alcohol intake and ICD-10 psychopathology diagnoses were assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview 1.1. The analyses focused on the prevalence and determinants of 12-month non-heavy drinking, heavy episodic drinking (4-5 drinks per occasion), and heavy and frequent drinking (heavy drinking at least 3 times/week), as well as associated alcohol-related problems according to drinking patterns and gender. RESULTS: Nearly 22% (32.4% women, 8.7% men) of the subjects were lifetime abstainers, 60.3% were non-heavy drinkers, and 17.5% reported heavy drinking in a 12-month period (26.3% men, 10.9% women). Subjects with the highest frequency of heavy drinking reported the most problems. Among subjects who did not engage in heavy drinking, men reported more problems than did women. A gender convergence in the amount of problems was observed when considering heavy drinking patterns. Heavy and frequent drinkers were twice as likely as abstainers to present lifetime depressive disorders. Lifetime nicotine dependence was associated with all drinking patterns. Heavy and frequent drinking was not restricted to young ages. CONCLUSIONS: Heavy and frequent episodic drinking was strongly associated with problems in a community sample from the largest city in Latin America. Prevention policies should target this drinking pattern...

Gender differences in drinking patterns and alcohol-related problems in a community sample in São Paulo, Brazil

Silveira, Camila Magalhães; Siu, Erica Rosanna; Wang, Yuan-Pang; Viana, Maria Carmen; Andrade, Arthur Guerra de; Andrade, Laura Helena
Fonte: Faculdade de Medicina / USP Publicador: Faculdade de Medicina / USP
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.82%
OBJECTIVE: To investigate drinking patterns and gender differences in alcohol-related problems in a Brazilian population, with an emphasis on the frequency of heavy drinking. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with a probability adult household sample (n = 1,464) in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Alcohol intake and ICD-10 psychopathology diagnoses were assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview 1.1. The analyses focused on the prevalence and determinants of 12-month nonheavy drinking, heavy episodic drinking (4-5 drinks per occasion), and heavy and frequent drinking (heavy drinking at least 3 times/week), as well as associated alcohol-related problems according to drinking patterns and gender. RESULTS: Nearly 22% (32.4% women, 8.7% men) of the subjects were lifetime abstainers, 60.3% were non-heavy drinkers, and 17.5% reported heavy drinking in a 12-month period (26.3% men, 10.9% women). Subjects with the highest frequency of heavy drinking reported the most problems. Among subjects who did not engage in heavy drinking, men reported more problems than did women. A gender convergence in the amount of problems was observed when considering heavy drinking patterns. Heavy and frequent drinkers were twice as likely as abstainers to present lifetime depressive disorders. Lifetime nicotine dependence was associated with all drinking patterns. Heavy and frequent drinking was not restricted to young ages. CONCLUSIONS: Heavy and frequent episodic drinking was strongly associated with problems in a community sample from the largest city in Latin America. Prevention policies should target this drinking pattern...

Gender differences in drinking patterns and alcohol-related problems in a community sample in São Paulo, Brazil

Silveira,Camila Magalhães; Siu,Erica Rosanna; Wang,Yuan-Pang; Viana,Maria Carmen; Andrade,Arthur Guerra de; Andrade,Laura Helena
Fonte: Faculdade de Medicina / USP Publicador: Faculdade de Medicina / USP
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.82%
OBJECTIVE: To investigate drinking patterns and gender differences in alcohol-related problems in a Brazilian population, with an emphasis on the frequency of heavy drinking. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with a probability adult household sample (n = 1,464) in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Alcohol intake and ICD-10 psychopathology diagnoses were assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview 1.1. The analyses focused on the prevalence and determinants of 12-month nonheavy drinking, heavy episodic drinking (4-5 drinks per occasion), and heavy and frequent drinking (heavy drinking at least 3 times/week), as well as associated alcohol-related problems according to drinking patterns and gender. RESULTS: Nearly 22% (32.4% women, 8.7% men) of the subjects were lifetime abstainers, 60.3% were non-heavy drinkers, and 17.5% reported heavy drinking in a 12-month period (26.3% men, 10.9% women). Subjects with the highest frequency of heavy drinking reported the most problems. Among subjects who did not engage in heavy drinking, men reported more problems than did women. A gender convergence in the amount of problems was observed when considering heavy drinking patterns. Heavy and frequent drinkers were twice as likely as abstainers to present lifetime depressive disorders. Lifetime nicotine dependence was associated with all drinking patterns. Heavy and frequent drinking was not restricted to young ages. CONCLUSIONS: Heavy and frequent episodic drinking was strongly associated with problems in a community sample from the largest city in Latin America. Prevention policies should target this drinking pattern...

Increased serum pancreatitis associated protein (PAP) concentration after longterm alcohol consumption: further evidence for regular subclinical pancreatic damage after heavy drinking?

Nordback, I; Jaakkola, M; Iovanna, J L; Dagorn, J C
Tipo: text
Publicado em /01/1995 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.63%
It has been shown recently that longterm but not short term heavy drinking of alcohol frequently results in increased serum activities of pancreatic enzymes suggesting subclinical pancreatic injury. Serum pancreatitis associated protein (PAP) is a novel protein, whose synthesis in the acinar cells and release into serum is specifically induced by acute pancreatic damage. This study was performed to further characterise the alcohol induced subclinical pancreatic injury by using serum PAP measurements. Three groups were studied: (1) control group (n = 25), (2) short term drinking group (n = 20), who consumed 2.0 g of ethanol per kg body weight during four hours, and (3) longterm drinking group (n = 32), who were admitted to withdrawal clinic after a median 30 months heavy drinking period. Serum PAP concentration was low in the control group (8 (5 to 12) micrograms/l, geometric mean (95% confidence intervals)). In the short term drinking group serum PAP was in the range of the control group values during 56 hours after drinking. Longterm drinking induced at least a 10-fold increase in serum PAP, the highest concentrations being seen on day 2 after drinking had ended (106 (61 to 184) micrograms/l). The patients did not develop abdominal symptoms...

Perceptions of risks of smoking and heavy drinking during pregnancy: 1985 NHIS findings.

Fox, S H; Brown, C; Koontz, A M; Kessel, S S
Tipo: text
Publicado em //1987 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.63%
As part of the Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Questionnaire administered in the 1985 National Health Interview Survey, nearly 20,000 respondents ages 18-44 answered questions about their awareness of the risks of smoking and heavy drinking during pregnancy. In reference to smoking, interviewers asked about miscarriage, stillbirth, prematurity, and low birth weight; in reference to heavy drinking, they asked about miscarriage, mental retardation, low birth weight, and birth defects, as well as fetal alcohol syndrome. For each of these adverse outcomes, a majority of subjects acknowledged increased risk because of smoking or heavy drinking during pregnancy. The range was 66-80 percent of respondents for the four questions on smoking, with the perceived association to smoking strongest for low birth weight. Approximately 84 percent of respondents associated heavy drinking with increased risk for each of the suggested pregnancy outcomes. Smoking seemed to be perceived to pose a lesser risk to pregnancy than heavy drinking. This relative lack of awareness of the pregnancy risks of smoking was more apparent among respondents with less education and more pronounced among blacks than whites. Women were more likely than men to express some opinion on these pregnancy-related questions and were more cognizant than men of the risks. On this limited survey...

A Pilot Study of Naltrexone and BASICS for Heavy Drinking Young Adults

Leeman, Robert F.; Palmer, Rebekka S.; Corbin, William R.; Romano, Denise M.; Meandzija, Boris; O’Malley, Stephanie S.
Tipo: text
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.64%
Heavy drinking young adults often have limited motivation to change their drinking behavior. Adding pharmacotherapy to brief counseling is a novel approach to treating this population. A small open-label pilot study was conducted to assess the feasibility of offering eight weeks of daily and targeted (i.e., taken as needed in anticipation of drinking) naltrexone with BASICS (brief motivational) counseling to heavy drinking young adults; to assess the tolerability of the medication in this population and to obtain preliminary efficacy data. The sample (N = 14) showed strong adherence to study appointments and medication taking, supporting the feasibility of this approach. Overall, the medication was well-tolerated. Significant reductions from baseline were observed in drinks per drinking day and in percent heavy drinking days and these gains were maintained one month after treatment ended. A significant decrease in alcohol-related consequences was also observed. Findings from this small pilot study suggest that naltrexone in combination with BASICS represents a promising strategy to reduce heavy drinking among young adults.

Heavy drinking across the transition to college: Predicting first-semester heavy drinking from precollege variables

Sher, Kenneth J.; Rutledge, Patricia C.
Tipo: text
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.72%
Parents, public health officials, college personnel, and society at-large continue to be concerned about the increase in heavy drinking that occurs across the transition to college, prompting alcohol researchers to continue the search for effective interventions. In this report we use data from a large (N=3720) prospective study to (1) estimate how predictable heavy drinking in the first semester of college is on the basis of information obtained prior to college and (2) identify precollege variables that are important predictors of heavy drinking in the first semester. We found that first-semester heavy drinking is highly predictable, primarily because of continuity from precollege heavy drinking, but also from precollege peer drinking norms, precollege other substance use (esp. tobacco use), and precollege party motivation for attending college. These findings have implications for both the timing and targets of interventions. Interventions timed to occur prior to college and/or in the early months of college may disrupt the momentum of previously established drinking behavior. Furthermore, interventions may be most effective if they target conjoint alcohol and tobacco use, college party motivation, and self-selection into heavy-drinking social environments.

Solitary and Social Heavy drinking, Suicidal Ideation, and Drinking Motives in Underage College Drinkers

Gonzalez, Vivian M.; Collins, R. Lorraine; Bradizza, Clara M.
Tipo: text
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.78%
In college students, solitary heavy drinking (i.e., while alone) is associated with depression and with higher rates of drinking problems than heavy drinking in social contexts. This study explored the relationship among heavy episodic drinking context, suicidal ideation, and drinking motives among underage college drinkers (n = 91) with a history of passive suicidal ideation. Participants completed measures of depression, suicidal ideation, alcohol consumption and problems, and drinking motives. Multiple regression analyses revealed that suicidal ideation, but not depression, was significantly related to solitary heavy drinking. Neither was related to social heavy drinking. Enhancement motives for drinking, but not other drinking motives (i.e., social, conformity, drinking to cope), were significantly associated with social heavy drinking. In contrast, only drinking to cope was associated with solitary heavy drinking. These findings suggest that greater suicidal ideation is associated with greater frequency of becoming intoxicated while alone, and that this drinking is motivated by attempts to cope. Solitary heavy drinking is a potentially dangerous coping strategy for an individual experiencing suicidal ideation.

A Longitudinal Investigation of Heavy Drinking and Physical Dating Violence in Men and Women

Stappenbeck, Cynthia A.; Fromme, Kim
Tipo: text
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.74%
Examinations of heavy drinking and dating violence have typically focused on either female victimization or male perpetration; yet recent findings indicate that mutual aggression is the most common pattern of dating violence. The current study investigated the relation between heavy drinking and dating violence for both men and women. Participants (N = 2,247) completed surveys that assessed their heavy drinking and dating violence frequency across the first three years of college. Findings indicated that heavy drinking and dating violence were both relatively stable across time for men and women, but the relation between heavy drinking and dating violence differed by gender. For men, heavy drinking and dating violence were concurrently associated during their freshman year (Year 1), whereas for women heavy drinking during sophomore year (Year 2) predicted dating violence in their junior year (Year 3). In addition to providing educational material on healthy relationships and conflict resolution techniques, intervention efforts should target both heavy drinking and dating violence for men during or prior to their freshman year of college, whereas women may primarily benefit from efforts to reduce their heavy drinking.

Examination of the Mediational Influences of Peer Norms, Environmental Influences, and Parent Communications on Heavy Drinking in Athletes and Nonathletes

Turrisi, Rob; Mastroleo, Nadine R.; Mallett, Kimberly A.; Larimer, Mary E.; Kilmer, Jason R.
Tipo: text
Publicado em /12/2007 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.71%
The present study used perspectives from the general literature on college alcohol consumption to examine mediational influences of peer, environmental, and parental variables on heavy drinking for student athlete and nonathlete samples. Eight hundred thirty-five freshmen who differed in organized sports involvement were compared on heavy drinking outcomes, peer norms, environmental influences, and parental communication. College athletes reported significantly more heavy drinking experiences than nonathletes. Peer norms, environmental influences, and parental communication were all significant mediators of the athlete–heavy drinking relationship. Athletes reported a higher perception of peer drinking, peer approval of drinking, higher alcohol availability, and direct drink offers, which, in turn, were related to higher rates of heavy drinking. Parental communication mediated the athlete–heavy drinking relationship differently, depending on the specific topic of conversation. Discussion surrounding the importance of incorporating a variety of interventions aimed at reducing collegiate athlete drinking on the basis of the peer, environmental, and parental influences observed in the present analyses are presented. Limitations and directions for future research are also noted.

The Effect of Marriage on Young Adult Heavy Drinking and its Mediators: Results from Two Methods of Adjusting for Selection into Marriage

Lee, Matthew R.; Chassin, Laurie; MacKinnon, David
Tipo: text
Publicado em /12/2010 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.67%
This study tested the effect of marriage on young adult heavy drinking and tested whether this effect was mediated by involvement in social activities, religiosity, and self-control reasons for limiting drinking. The sample of 508 young adults was taken from an ongoing longitudinal study of familial alcoholism that over-sampled children of alcoholics (Chassin, Rogosch, & Barrera, 1991). In order to distinguish role socialization effects of marriage from confounding effects of role selection into marriage, analyses used both the analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) method and the change score method of adjusting for pre-marriage levels of heavy drinking and the mediators. Results showed role socialization effects of marriage on post-marriage declines in heavy drinking. This effect was mediated by involvement in social activities such that marriage predicted decreased involvement in social activities, which in turn predicted decreased heavy drinking. There were no statistically significant mediated effects of religiosity. The mediated effect of self-control reasons for limiting drinking was supported by the ANCOVA method only, and further investigation suggested that this result was detected erroneously due to violation of an assumption of the ANCOVA method that is not shared by the change score method. Findings from this study offer an explanation for the maturing out of heavy drinking that takes place for some individuals over the course of young adulthood. Methodologically...

Collegiate Heavy Drinking Prospectively Predicts Change in Sensation Seeking and Impulsivity

Quinn, Patrick D.; Stappenbeck, Cynthia A.; Fromme, Kim
Tipo: text
Publicado em /08/2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.73%
Recent models of alcohol use in youth and young adulthood have incorporated personality change and maturation as causal factors underlying variability in developmental changes in heavy drinking. Whereas these models assume that personality affects alcohol use, the current prospective study tested the converse relation. That is, we tested whether, after accounting for the effect of traits on drinking, collegiate heavy drinking in turn predicted individual differences in change in alcohol-related aspects of personality. We also examined whether affiliation with heavy-drinking peers better accounted for this relation. Following a cohort of recent high school graduates (N = 1,434) through the college years, we found evidence for transactional relations between heavy drinking and changes in impulsivity and sensation seeking. Both traits predicted increases in heavy drinking, but more importantly, heavy drinking predicted increases in sensation seeking and impulsivity. In final models, social influences did not underlie the effect of heavy drinking on increases in sensation seeking and impulsivity. The results of this investigation suggest that collegiate heavy drinking may negatively and pervasively impact a wide range of behaviors because of its effect on personality change.

Predictors of Heavy Drinking During and Following Treatment

Witkiewitz, Katie
Tipo: text
Publicado em /09/2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.63%
Alcohol dependence has been described as a relapsing condition and it has been proposed that alcohol lapses could potentially be explained by dynamic associations between contextual, interpersonal, and intrapersonal risk factors. Yet, few studies have tested the associations between risk factors in the prediction of lapse dynamics. The current study was a secondary analysis of data from the COMBINE study (n=1,383; COMBINE Study Research Group, 2003). The goal of the current study was to examine static (alcohol dependence severity, treatment history, marital status, psychiatric symptoms) and dynamic (negative affect, craving, stress) predictors of heavy drinking during the course of treatment and up to one year following treatment. Results from dynamic latent difference score models indicated that higher levels of static and dynamic risk and increased dynamic risk over time were significantly associated with greater increases in heavy drinking. Likewise, more frequent heavy drinking and higher static risk predicted higher levels of dynamic risk. In addition, changes in dynamic risk factors significantly mediated the association between changes in heavy drinking and both psychiatric symptoms and treatment history. It is important to note that while the effects of static and dynamic risk factors in the prediction of heavy drinking were statistically significant...

Stimulant Use Trajectories and the Longitudinal Risk of Heavy Drinking: Findings From a Rural Population-Based Study

Borders, Tyrone F.; Booth, Brenda M.
Tipo: text
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.73%
The extant literature offers little information about the longitudinal course of alcohol use among stimulant users, particularly those in rural areas, but it is plausible that reductions in stimulant use are accompanied by increases in heavy drinking. The objective of this study was to examine the longitudinal relationships between heavy drinking days and latent trajectories of powder cocaine, crack cocaine, and methamphetamine use. Participants (n = 710) were identified via Respondent-Driven Sampling in 3 rural communities in each of 3 states, with interviews conducted every 6 months over 3 years. Latent trajectory classes for powder cocaine, crack cocaine, and methamphetamine use were identified by conducting latent class growth analysis (LCGA). Generalized linear models (GLM) were conducted to examine how these latent classes were associated with the number of heavy drinking days in the past 30 days. Heavy drinking days did not significantly change over time when adjusting for covariates. Compared to those with a “fast low” trajectory of crack use, those with “steady high” and “declining” trajectories had more heavy drinking days. Compared to those with a “fast low” trajectory of powder cocaine use, those with a “steady moderate” trajectory had more heavy drinking days. Trajectories of methamphetamine use were not significantly associated with heavy drinking days. In conclusion...

Baseline Trajectories of Heavy Drinking and their Effects on Post-Randomization Drinking in the COMBINE Study: Empirically Derived Predictors of Drinking Outcomes During Treatment

Gueorguieva, Ralitza; Wu, Ran; Donovan, Dennis; Rounsaville, Bruce R.; Couper, David; Krystal, John H.; O’Malley, Stephanie S.
Tipo: text
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.8%
The COMBINE Study sought to answer questions about the benefits of combining behavioral and pharmacological interventions (naltrexone and acamprosate) in alcohol-dependent patients. Our goals were to identify trajectories of heavy drinking prior to randomization in COMBINE, to characterize subjects in these trajectories, and to assess whether pre-randomization trajectories predict drinking outcomes. We analyzed daily indicators of heavy drinking in 90 days prior to randomization using a trajectory-based approach. Each subject was assigned to the most-likely pre-randomization heavy drinking trajectory, and the baseline characteristics of participants in the baseline trajectories were compared. Main and interactive effects of these trajectories and treatment factors (acamprosate, naltrexone or CBI) on summary drinking measures during active treatment (16 weeks) were assessed. We identified five trajectories of heavy drinking pre-randomization: “T1: frequent heavy drinkers”, “T2: very frequent heavy drinkers”, “T3: nearly daily heavy drinkers”, “T4: daily heavy drinkers” and “T5: daily heavy drinkers stopping early” prior to randomization. Trajectory membership was significantly associated with all drinking outcomes. Subjects in “T5: daily heavy drinkers stopping early” had comparable drinking outcomes to the subjects in “T1: frequent heavy drinkers” while the remaining trajectories were associated with significantly worse outcomes. Baseline trajectory did not interact significantly with treatment condition. These exploratory analyses confirmed the hypothesis that baseline trajectories predict post-randomization drinking outcomes. Interestingly...

Episodic Heavy Drinking, Problem Drinking and Injuries – Results of the WHO/NIAAA Collaborative Emergency Room Study in South Korea

Chou, S. Patricia; Chun, Sungsoo; Smith, Sharon; Ruan, June; Li, Ting-Kai; Grant, Bridget F.
Tipo: text
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.65%
Alcohol is the 5th leading risk factor to the global disease burden and disability and about half of the global alcohol burden was attributable to injuries. Despite a large body of evidence documenting the associations between alcohol and injuries, data from Asian countries including South Korea are sparse. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between episodic heavy past-year drinking, problem drinking symptomatic of alcohol dependence and alcohol-related and intentional injuries. Data from 1,989 injured patients recruited for the WHO/NIAAA Collaborative Study on Alcohol and Injury in South Korea were analyzed with respect to the prevalence rates and associations between injuries and frequency of past-year episodic heavy drinking and problem drinking. In estimating the odds ratios (ORs) and the associated 95% confidence intervals between alcohol intake and injuries multivariable logistic models were employed to adjust for sociodemographic characteristics and selected drinking variables. All analyses were conducted using the SAS 9.2 software. Findings of this study were consistent with prior studies that the risk of alcohol-related or intentional injury was positively associated with the frequency of episodic heavy drinking. The magnitudes of the associations were larger with frequent consumption of 5+ drinks (OR=4.0 approximately) than with frequent consumption of 12+ drinks (OR=3.1). Strong associations were also noted between RAPS4-assessed alcohol dependence and alcohol-related and intentional injuries. Further...

Suicide Attempts During Heavy Drinking Episodes Among Individuals Entering Alcohol Treatment in Warsaw, Poland

Klimkiewicz, Anna; Ilgen, Mark A.; Bohnert, Amy S.B.; Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Wojnar, Marcin; Brower, Kirk J.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: text
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.63%
Aims: Acute alcohol intoxication itself may act as a trigger for suicidal thoughts and attempts among individuals at risk and may influence the potential lethality of the suicide attempt. This study in alcohol-dependent patients compared the correlates of suicide attempts during a heavy drinking episode with those of suicide attempts during relative sobriety. Methods: In two outpatient and two residential alcohol treatment programs in Warsaw, Poland, 113 patients who reported a suicide attempt during their lifetime were interviewed. The analyses focused on the patients’ most serious suicide attempts and on whether these occurred during a heavy drinking episode. Results: Over two-thirds of the patients reported that their most serious suicide attempt occurred during a period of heavy drinking. A multivariable logistic model indicated that the following factors significantly distinguished those patients whose most serious suicide attempt occurred during a heavy drinking episode: male gender, younger current age, greater severity of alcohol dependence and the attempt being unplanned. Conclusion: Among the patients in treatment for alcohol dependence who made a suicide attempt, the most serious attempt was likely to have been unplanned and committed by men when it occurred during a heavy drinking episode.

Alcohol Increases Impulsivity and Abuse Liability in Heavy Drinking Women

Reed, Stephanie Collins; Levin, Frances R.; Evans, Suzette M.
Tipo: text
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.64%
Heavy drinking has increased in recent years and has been linked to numerous health-related risks, particularly in women. A number of factors may play a role in exacerbating the risks linked to heavy drinking, such as impulsivity, which itself is related to a number of risky behaviors. The present study investigated the effects of alcohol (0, 0.5, 0.75 g/kg) on impulsivity in female heavy drinkers (n = 23) and female light drinkers (n = 23) using a double-blind, placebo-controlled outpatient design; all women were tested during follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. Each session, participants completed a range of tasks including subjective measures of abuse liability, cognitive performance tasks, three behavioral impulsivity tasks, and a risk-taking task. Alcohol increased impulsivity on the Immediate and Delayed Memory Task (IMT and DMT) and Delay Discounting task. Heavy drinkers scored higher on impulsivity self-reports and were more impulsive on the IMT and the GoStop task than light drinkers. The high dose of alcohol further increased impulsive performance on the IMT and DMT in heavy drinkers. There were no group differences or alcohol effects on the Balloon Analogue Risk Task. Alcohol increased sedative-like effects more in light drinkers and increased stimulant-like effects and alcohol liking more in heavy drinkers. In summary...

Heavy Drinking, Poor Mental Health, and Substance Use Among Asian Americans in the NLAAS: A Gender-Based Comparison

Cheng, Alice W.; Lee, Christina S.; Iwamoto, Derek K.
Tipo: text
Publicado em /09/2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.7%
The severity of heavy drinking among Asian Americans has often been dismissed because of relatively low rates compared to other racial/ethnic groups. However, higher depression and suicide rates among Asian Americans and their association to alcohol use suggest serious detrimental effects of heavy alcohol use among Asian Americans. Gender differences in heavy drinking have been documented among other immigrant based ethnic minorities, little is known of this pattern for Asian Americans. The purpose of the present study was to examine gender differences in heavy drinking, poor mental health, and substance use among a national sample of Asian Americans (N = 581) in the National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS). Using National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) guidelines, heavy drinkers were categorized as those who exceeded the recommended weekly number of drinks (?14 drinks/week for male and ?7 drinks/week for female). Accordingly, six comparison groups were created (male non, light, and heavy drinkers, and female non, light, and heavy drinkers). Pearson’s chi-square test was conducted to examine percentage distribution for the six groups for mental health disorders (i.e., suicidality, DSM–IV mental health endorsement for past 12-month and lifetime). Logistic regression was followed to determined predictors for heavy drinking behavior for men and for women. Female heavy drinkers reported significantly poorer mental health than non drinkers...