Página 1 dos resultados de 28 itens digitais encontrados em 0.043 segundos

PAS-1, an Ascaris suum Protein, Modulates Allergic Airway Inflammation via CD8(+) gamma delta TCR(+) and CD4(+) CD25(+) FoxP3(+) T Cells

ARAUJO, C. A. A. de; PERINI, A.; MARTINS, M. A.; MACEDO, M. S.; MACEDO-SOARES, M. F.
Fonte: WILEY-BLACKWELL PUBLISHING, INC Publicador: WILEY-BLACKWELL PUBLISHING, INC
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.55%
We have previously demonstrated that PAS-1, a 200 kDa protein from Ascaris suum, has a potent immunomodulatory effect on humoral and cell-mediated responses induced by APAS-3 (an allergenic protein from A. suum) or unrelated antigens. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms by which PAS-1 is able to induce this effect on an allergic airway inflammation induced by OVA in mice. C57BL/6 mice were adoptively transferred on day 0 with seven different PAS-1-primed cell populations: PAS-1-primed CD19(+) or B220(+) or CD3(+) or CD4(+) or CD8(+) or CD4(+) CD25) or CD4(+) CD25(+) lymphocytes. These mice were immunized twice with OVA and alum by intraperitoneal route (days 0 and 7) and challenged twice by intranasal route (days 14 and 21). Two days after the last challenge, the airway inflammation was evaluated by antibody levels, cellular migration, eosinophil peroxidase levels, cytokine and eotaxin production, and pulmonary mechanical parameters. Among the adoptively transferred primed lymphocytes, only CD4(+) CD25(+), CD8(+) or the combination of both T cells impaired the production of total IgE and OVA-specific IgE and IgG1 antibodies, eosinophilic airway inflammation, Th2-type cytokines (IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13), eotaxin release and airway hyperreactivity. Moreover...

PAS-1, a protein from Ascaris suum, modulates allergic inflammation via IL-10 and IFN-gamma, but not IL-12

ARAUJO, C. A.; PERINI, A.; MARTINS, M. A.; MACEDO, M. S.; MACEDO-SOARES, M. F.
Fonte: ACADEMIC PRESS LTD ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD Publicador: ACADEMIC PRESS LTD ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.43%
Helminths and their products have a profound immunomodulatory effect upon the inductive and effector phases of inflammatory responses, including allergy. We have demonstrated that PAS-1, a protein isolated from Ascaris strum worms, has an inhibitory effect on lung allergic inflammation due to its ability to down-regulate eosinophilic inflammation, Th2 cytokine release and IgE antibody production. Here, we investigated the role of IL-12, IFN-gamma and IL-10 in the PAS-1-induced inhibitory mechanism using a murine model of asthma. Wild type C57BL/6, IL-12(-/-), IFN-gamma(-/-) and IL-10(-/-) mice were immunized with PAS-1 and/or OVA and challenged with the same antigens intranasally. The suppressive effect of PAS-I was demonstrated on the cellular influx into airways, with reduction of eosinophil number and eosinophil peroxidase activity in OVA + PAS-1-immunized wild type mice. This effect well correlated with a significant reduction in the levels of IL-4, IL-5, IL-13 and eotaxin in BAL fluid. Levels of IgE and IgG1 antibodies were also impaired in serum from these mice. The inhibitory activity of PAS-I was also observed in IL-12(-/-) mice, but not in IFN-gamma(-/-) and IL-10(-/-) animals. These data show that IFN-gamma and IL-10, but not IL-12...

Parasitological risk assessment from wastewater reuse for disposal in soil in developing countries

Cutolo, Silvana Audrá; Piveli, Roque Passos; Santos, Jeferson G.; Montes, Celia Regina; Sundefeld, Gilberto; Campos, Fabio; Gomes, Tamara M.; Melfi, Adolpho Jose
Fonte: IWA PUBLISHING; LONDON Publicador: IWA PUBLISHING; LONDON
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.21%
The purpose of this work is to analyze the parasitological risks of treated wastewater reuse from a stabilization pond in the city of Piracicaba, in the State of Sao Paulo (Brazil), and the level of treatment required to protect public health. Samples were taken from raw and treated wastewater in stabilization ponds and submitted to a parasitological, microbiological and physicochemical analysis. The study revealed on treated wastewater the presence of Ascaris sp. and Entamoeba coli with an average density of 1 cysts L-1 and 6 eggs L-1, respectively. For Ascaris, the annual risks of infection due to the accidental ingestion of wastewater irrigation were 7.5 x 10(-2) in 208 days and 8.7 x 10(-2) in 240 days. For Total Coliforms and Escherichia coli in treated wastewater, the average density was 1.0 x 10(5) MPN/100 ml and 2.7 x 10(4) MPN/100 ml respectively, representing 99% and 94% removal efficiency, respectively. For BOD, COD, TS and TSS removal efficiency was 69, 80, 50 and 71%, respectively. The removal efficiency for nitrogen; ammonia nitrogen and total phosphate was 24, 19 and 68%, respectively. The average density of helminths eggs in treated wastewater is higher compared to the density of the limit value of <= 1 egg L-1 and tolerable risk is above the level recommended by the World Health Organization. Multiple barriers are necessary for the reduction of organic matter...

Changes in Pulmonary Function and Parasite Burden in Rats Infected with Strongyloides venezuelensis Concomitant with Induction of Allergic Airway Inflammation

Negrão-Corrêa, Deborah; Silveira, Micheline R.; Borges, Cynthia M.; Souza, Danielle G.; Teixeira, Mauro M.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: text
Publicado em /05/2003 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.43%
The prevalence of allergic diseases such as asthma has increased markedly over the past few decades. To evaluate the possible mutual influence of helminth infection and allergy, the combined effects of experimental allergic airway inflammation and infection with Strongyloides venezuelensis on various parasitological and inflammatory indices were evaluated in the rat. A challenge of immunized rats with aerosolized ovalbumin (OVA) resulted in eosinophilic inflammation that peaked 48 h after the challenge and was accompanied by airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) to an intravenous acetylcholine challenge. S. venezuelensis infection concomitant with an OVA challenge of immunized rats resulted in prolonged pulmonary inflammation with increased eosinophil infiltration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid but not in the lung tissue. These rats also showed a significant parasite burden reduction, especially during parasite migration through the lungs. However, the fecundity rates of worms that reached the intestine were similar in allergic and nonallergic animals. Despite airway inflammation, the increased responsiveness of the airways in the experimental asthma model was suppressed during parasite migration through the lungs (2 days). In contrast...

Detection of helminth ova and larvae in trichrome-stained stool smears.

Wood, J C; Friedly, G; de la Maza, L M
Tipo: text
Publicado em /12/1982 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.24%
The detection and identification of intestinal helminths were studied retrospectively by comparing the Formalin concentration technique with the trichrome-stained smear technique. A total of 3,997 stool samples from 1,570 patients were examined by both methods. Of the 3,997 samples, 31% (1,239 of 3,997) contained helminths or protozoans or both. A total of 11% (434 of 3,997) of the samples representing 14% (221 of 1,570) of the patients were positive for one or more helminth species. A total of 570 separate identifications of helminth ova/larvae were made. Among the helminth ova/larvae identified. 14.6% (83 of 570) were detected only in the trichrome-stained smear, representing 6.3% (14 of 221) of the patients. From these data, it can be concluded that unless a diligent search of the stained smear for helminths is made, a significant number of helminth infections may be missed. It is, therefore, recommended that stained stool smears be used to aid the detection of helminth ova/larvae in conjunction with Formalin concentration. The appearance of the most common helminth ova/larvae in trichrome-stained smears is described, along with specific characteristics that may be used for their identification. In addition, the advantages and disadvantages of the trichrome staining technique for helminth identification are discussed.

The Effects of Phenothiazine vs Methyridine on the Weight Gains and Helminth Burdens of Feed Lot Lambs

Dale, D. G.; Gibbs, H. C.; Jeffers, H.
Tipo: text
Publicado em /11/1962 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.43%
The anthelmintic efficiency of methyridine administered subcutaneously was compared with orally administered phenothiazine in a group of feed lot ram lambs. Methyridine caused a greater suppression of total ova counts than did phenothiazine and was particularly superior in regard to Nematodirus and S. Papillosus. Examination of gastrointestinal tracts at the conclusion of the 10 week feeding period indicated that the reduced total ova counts in the methyridine group was for the most part a reflection of reduced numbers of small trichostrongyles of the small intestine.

Infection with Syphacia obvelata (Pinworm) Induces Protective Th2 Immune Responses and Influences Ovalbumin-Induced Allergic Reactions

Michels, Chesney; Goyal, Prem; Nieuwenhuizen, Natalie; Brombacher, Frank
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: text
Publicado em /10/2006 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.43%
Infections with pinworms are common in rodent animal facilities. In this study, we show the consequence of an outbreak in a transgenic barrier facility of infection by Syphacia obvelata, a murine pinworm gastrointestinal nematode. Immune responses were defined in experimental infection studies with BALB/c mice. Infection with S. obvelata induced a transient Th2-type immune response with elevated interleukin 4 (IL-4), IL-5, and IL-13 cytokine production and parasite-specific immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1). In contrast, BALB/c mice deficient in IL-13, IL-4/13, or the IL-4 receptor alpha chain showed chronic disease, with a >100-fold higher parasite burden, increased gamma interferon production, parasite-specific IgG2b, and a default Th2 response. Interestingly, infected IL-4?/? BALB/c mice showed only slightly elevated parasite burdens compared to the control mice, suggesting that IL-13 plays the dominant role in the control of S. obvelata. The influence that pinworm infection has on the allergic response to a dietary antigen was found to be important. Helminth-infected mice immunized against ovalbumin (Ova) elicited more severe anaphylactic shock with reduced Ova-specific IL-4 and IL-5 than did noninfected controls, demonstrating that S. obvelata infection is able to influence nonrelated laboratory experiments. The latter outcome highlights the importance of maintaining mice for use as experimental models under pinworm-free conditions.

Schistosoma japonicum egg antigens stimulate CD4+ CD25+ T cells and modulate airway inflammation in a murine model of asthma

Yang, Jianghua; Zhao, Jiaqing; Yang, Yanfeng; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Xue; Zhu, Xiang; Ji, Minjun; Sun, Nanxiong; Su, Chuan
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing Inc Publicador: Blackwell Publishing Inc
Tipo: text
Publicado em /01/2007 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.9%
A number of epidemiological and clinical studies have suggested an inverse association between allergy and helminth infection, such as Schistosomiasis. Therefore, we hypothesize that Schistosoma japonicum egg antigens, a type of native antigen, can induce production of CD4+ CD25+ T cells with regulatory activity, modulating airway inflammation and inhibiting asthma development. The frequency of CD4+ CD25+ T cells was determined by flow cytometry for mice treated with ovalbumin (OVA), CD25+ depletion/OVA, schistosome egg antigens, schistosome egg antigens/OVA and for control mice. The ability of CD25+ T cells from these mice to suppress T-cell proliferation and cytokine production was investigated both in vivo and in vitro. Results showed that the CD4+ CD25+ T cells of OVA-treated mice exhibited impaired control of dysregulated mucosal T helper 2 responses compared to the controls (P < 0·05). Depletion of CD25+ cells accelerated OVA-induced airway inflammation and increased the expression of interleukin (IL)-5 and IL-4. Treatment with schistosome egg antigens increased the number and suppressive activity of CD4+ CD25+ T cells, which made IL-10, but little IL-4. In a murine model of asthma, S. japonicum egg antigens decreased the expression of Th2 cytokines...

The immunosuppressive activity of Ascaris suum is due to high molecular weight components

Faquim-Mauro, E L; Macedo, M S
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing Ltd Publicador: Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Tipo: text
Publicado em /11/1998 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.62%
The role of isolated components obtained by gel filtration chromatography of Ascaris suum body extract (Asc) on the modulation of the immune response to ovalbumin (OvA) was evaluated and correlated with the immunogenic properties of such components. We showed that high (PI), but not low (PIII), molecular weight components have the ability to inhibit OvA-induced immediate and DTH reactions, lymph node (LN) cell proliferation, cytokine (IL-2, interferon-gamma (IFN-?), IL-4 and IL-10) and antibody (IgG1, IgG2a, IgM and IgE) production in mice concomitantly immunized with OvA and these high mol. wt components. The pattern of cytokines synthesized in response to PI or PIII was totally different: the former induced more IL-4 and IL-10 and the latter more IL-2 and IFN-?. The levels of Asc-specific IgG1 antibodies were higher in mice immunized with OvA plus PI and IgG2a anti-Asc antibodies predominated in those immunized with PIII. IgE antibody production, however, was low in the former group of mice. These results indicate that the high mol. wt components present in the body extract from the helminth A. suum are responsible for its suppressive effect upon Th1- and Th2-dependent immune responses to an unrelated antigen. The suppression of the Th1-dependent parameters could be related to high-level expression of IL-4 and IL-10 induced by such components.

The intestinal parasite infection status of inhabitants in the Roxas city, the Philippines

Kim, Bong-Jin; Ock, Mee-Sun; Chung, Dong-Il; Yong, Tai-Soon; Lee, Kyu-Jae
Fonte: The Korean Society for Parasitology Publicador: The Korean Society for Parasitology
Tipo: text
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.56%
We carried out a small-scale survey to investigate the status of intestinal protozoa and helminthes infection of inhabitants in Roxas city, Mindoro, the Philippines. Total 301 stool samples were subjected to the formalin-ether concentration method for the detection of helminth ova and protozoan cysts. The overall positive rate was 64.5%, and that of male and female were 56.6% and 72.5%, respectively. The highest infected helminth was Ascaris lumbricoudes (51.2%), followed by Trichuris trichiura (27.6%), hookworm (8.0%) and Enterobius vermicularis (0.3%). The protozoa infection status revealed that Entamoeba coli was the most frequent (15.0%). Iodoamoeba buetschlii and E. histolytica were found but few. The multiple infection more than two parasites was 29.6%, and double infection with A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura was most common. The intestinal helminth infections were highly prevalent in this area, according to this result, and we concluded that anthelminthic drugs should be given to inhabitants, especially to children of 1 to 15 years-old.

A small-scale survey of intestinal parasite infections among children and adolescents in Legaspi city, the Philippines

Lee, Kyu-Jae; Ahn, Yung-Kyum; Yong, Tai-Soon
Fonte: The Korean Society for Parasitology Publicador: The Korean Society for Parasitology
Tipo: text
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.21%
To determine the status of infection caused by intestinal parasites among children and adolescents living in Legaspi city, the Philippines, we performed a small survey by fecal examination for helminth ova and protozoan cysts with formalin-ether concentration method. Of the 64 examinees, the infection rate was 78.1%. The infection rates of primary school children, preschool children and adolescents were 95.5%, 64.7% and 87.5%, respectively. The infection rate in urban areas was 56%, and 92.3% in rural areas. The infection rates were 51% with Trichuris trichiura, 40% with Ascaris lumbricoides, 23.4% with hookworm, 15.6% with Iodamoeba butschlii, 14.1% with Endolimax nana, 9.4% with Entamoeba coli and 7.8% with Giardia lamblia. There were 33 cases with multiple infection (51.6%). Mixed infection with more than 3 parasites was observed in 15 cases, all of them being children and adolescents living in rural areas. By this survey, it was conjectured that helminthic infection is prevalent among children and adolescents in Legaspi, Philippines.

Disseminated peritoneal Schistosoma japonicum: a case report and review of the pathological manifestations of the helminth

Al-Waheeb, Salah; Al-Murshed, Maryam; Dashti, Fareeda; Hira, Parsotam R.; Al-Sarraf, Lamia
Fonte: Medknow Publications Publicador: Medknow Publications
Tipo: text
Publicado em //2009 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.21%
Schistosomiasis (also known as bilharzia, bilharziasis, bilharziosis or snail fever) is a human disease syndrome caused by infection from one of several species of parasitic trematodes of the genus Schistosoma. The three main species infecting humans are S haematobium, S japonicum, and S mansoni. S japonicum is most common in the fareast, mostly in China and the Philippines. We present an unusual case of S japonicum in a 32-year-old Filipino woman who had schistosomal ova studding the peritoneal cavity and forming a mass in the right iliac fossa.

HELIGMOSOMOIDES POLYGYRUS INFECTION CAN INHIBIT COLITIS THROUGH DIRECT INTERACTION WITH INNATE IMMUNITY

Hang, Long; Setiawan, Tommy; Blum, Arthur M.; Urban, Joseph; Stoyanoff, Korynn; Arihiro, Seiji; Reinecker, Hans-Christian; Weinstock, Joel V.
Tipo: text
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.66%
Less developed countries have a low incidence of immunological diseases like inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), perhaps prevented by the high prevalence of helminth infections in their populations. In the Rag IL10?/? T cell transfer model of colitis, Heligmosomoides polygyrus (Hp), an intestinal helminth, prevents and reverses intestinal inflammation. This model of colitis was used to explore the importance of innate immunity in Hp protection from IBD. Rag mice briefly exposed to Hp before reconstitution with IL10?/? colitogenic T cells are protected from colitis. Exposure to Hp before introduction of IL10?/? and OT2 T cells reduced the capacity of the intestinal mucosa to make IFN? and IL17 after either anti-CD3 mAb- or OVA-stimulation. This depressed cytokine response was evident even in the absence of colitis suggesting that the down-modulation in pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion was not just secondary to improvement in intestinal inflammation. Following Hp infection, dendritic cells (DCs) from the lamina propria (LP) of Rag mice displayed decreased expression of CD80 and CD86, and heightened expression of PDCA-1 and CD40. They were also less responsive to LPS, producing less IL12p40 and IL10. Also diminished was their capacity to present OVA to OT2 T cells. These experiments infer that Hp does not require direct interactions with T or B cells to render animals resistant to colitis. DCs have an important role in driving both murine and human IBD. Data suggest that phenotypic alternations in mucosal DC function are part of the regulatory process.

HELIGMOSOMOIDES BAKERI INDUCES TOLEROGENIC DENDRITIC CELLS THAT BLOCK COLITIS AND PREVENT ANTIGEN-SPECIFIC GUT T CELL RESPONSES

Blum, Arthur M.; Hang, Long; Setiawan, Tommy; Urban, Joseph P.; Stoyanoff, Korynn M.; Leung, John; Weinstock, Joel V.
Tipo: text
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.55%
Immunological diseases like IBD are infrequent in less developed countries possibly because helminths provide protection by modulating host immunity. In IBD murine models, the helminth Heligmosomoides polygyrus bakeri (Hpb) prevents colitis. It was determined if Hpb mediated IBD protection by altering DC function. We used a Rag IBD model where animals were reconstituted with IL10-/- T cells making them susceptible to IBD and with OVA antigen-responsive OT2 T cells allowing study of a gut antigenic response. Intestinal DC from Hpb-infected Rag mice added to lamina propria mononuclear cells (LPMC) isolated from colitic animals blocked OVA IFNg/IL17 responses in vitro through direct contact with the inflammatory LPMC. DC from uninfected Rag mice displayed no regulatory activity. Transfer of DC from Hpb-infected mice into Rag mice reconstituted with IL10-/- T cells protected animals from IBD, and LPMC from these mice lost OVA responsiveness. After DC transfer, OT2 T cells populated the intestines normally. However, the OT2 T cells were rendered antigen-nonresponsive through regulatory action of LPMC non-T cells. The process of regulation appeared to be Treg independent. Thus, Hpb modulates intestinal DC function, rendering them tolerogenic. This appears to be an important mechanism through which Hpb suppresses colitis. IFNg and IL17 are colitogenic. The capacity of these DC to block a gut antigen-specific IFNg/IL17 T cell response also is significant.

Schistosoma mansoni-Mediated Suppression of Allergic Airway Inflammation Requires Patency and Foxp3+ Treg Cells

Layland, Laura E.; Straubinger, Kathrin; Ritter, Manuel; Loffredo-Verde, Eva; Garn, Holger; Sparwasser, Tim; Prazeres da Costa, Clarissa
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: text
Publicado em 15/08/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.67%
The continual rise of asthma in industrialised countries stands in strong contrast to the situation in developing lands. According to the modified Hygiene Hypothesis, helminths play a major role in suppressing bystander immune responses to allergens, and both epidemiological and experimental studies suggest that the tropical parasitic trematode Schistosoma mansoni elicits such effects. The focus of this study was to investigate which developmental stages of schistosome infection confer suppression of allergic airway inflammation (AAI) using ovalbumin (OVA) as a model allergen. Moreover, we assessed the functional role and localization of infection-induced CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Treg) in mediating such suppressive effects. Therefore, AAI was elicited using OVA/adjuvant sensitizations with subsequent OVA aerosolic challenge and was induced during various stages of infection, as well as after successful anti-helminthic treatment with praziquantel. The role of Treg was determined by specifically depleting Treg in a genetically modified mouse model (DEREG) during schistosome infection. Alterations in AAI were determined by cell infiltration levels into the bronchial system, OVA-specific IgE and Th2 type responses, airway hyper-sensitivity and lung pathology. Our results demonstrate that schistosome infection leads to a suppression of OVA-induced AAI when mice are challenged during the patent phase of infection: production of eggs by fecund female worms. Moreover...

Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infection and Nutritional Status Among Urban Slum Children in Kenya

Suchdev, Parminder S.; Davis, Stephanie M.; Bartoces, Monina; Ruth, Laird J.; Worrell, Caitlin M.; Kanyi, Henry; Odero, Kennedy; Wiegand, Ryan E.; Njenga, Sammy M.; Montgomery, Joel M.; Fox, LeAnne M.
Fonte: The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene Publicador: The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Tipo: text
Publicado em 05/02/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.44%
To evaluate the nutritional impact of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infection, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of 205 pre-school (PSC) and 487 school-aged children (SAC) randomly selected from the surveillance registry of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention of the Kibera slum in Kenya. Hemoglobin, iron deficiency (ID), vitamin A deficiency (VAD), inflammation, malaria, anthropometry, and STH ova were measured. Poisson regression models evaluated associations between STH and malnutrition outcomes and controlled for confounders. Approximately 40% of PSC and SAC had STH infection, primarily Ascaris and Trichuris; 2.9% of PSC and 1.1% of SAC had high-intensity infection. Malnutrition prevalence among PSC and SAC was anemia (38.3% and 14.0%, respectively), ID (23.0% and 5.0%, respectively), VAD (16.9% and 4.5%, respectively), and stunting (29.7% and 16.9%, respectively). In multivariate analysis, STH in PSC was associated with VAD (prevalence ratio [PR] = 2.2, 95% confidence interval = 1.1–4.6) and ID (PR = 3.3, 95% confidence interval = 1.6–6.6) but not anemia or stunting. No associations were significant in SAC. Integrated deworming and micronutrient supplementation strategies should be evaluated in this population.

Blockade of IL-33 release and suppression of type 2 innate lymphoid cell responses by helminth secreted products in airway allergy

McSorley, H J; Blair, N F; Smith, K A; McKenzie, A N J; Maizels, R M
Fonte: Nature Publishing Group Publicador: Nature Publishing Group
Tipo: text
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.09%
Helminth parasites such as the nematode Heligmosomoides polygyrus strongly inhibit T helper type 2 (Th2) allergy, as well as colitis and autoimmunity. Here, we show that the soluble excretory/secretory products of H. polygyrus (HES) potently suppress inflammation induced by allergens from the common fungus Alternaria alternata. Alternaria extract, when administered to mice intranasally with ovalbumin (OVA) protein, induces a rapid (1–48?h) innate response while also priming an OVA-specific Th2 response that can be evoked 14 days later by intranasal administration of OVA alone. In this model, HES coadministration with Alternaria/OVA suppressed early IL-33 release, innate lymphoid cell (ILC) production of IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13, and localized eosinophilia. Upon OVA challenge, type 2 ILC (ILC2)/Th2 cytokine production and eosinophilia were diminished in HES-treated mice. HES administration 6?h before Alternaria blocked the allergic response, and its suppressive activity was abolished by heat treatment. Administration of recombinant IL-33 at sensitization with Alternaria/OVA/HES abrogated HES suppression of OVA-specific responses at challenge, indicating that suppression of early Alternaria-induced IL-33 release could be central to the anti-allergic effects of HES. Thus...

Intestinal Helminth Infections in Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinic at Kitale District Hospital, Kenya

Wekesa, A. W.; Mulambalah, C. S.; Muleke, C. I.; Odhiambo, R.
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: text
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.69%
Intestinal helminth infections during pregnancy are associated with adverse outcomes including low birth weight and prenatal mortality. The infections are a major public health problem in developing countries. A hospital based survey was undertaken for six months to determine the infection prevalence, intensity, and risk factors. The study involved expectant women attending antenatal clinic. Stool samples were screened microscopically for helminth ova using Kato Katz technique. Information on risk factors was collected using semistructured questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS. Epidemiological data was analysed using descriptive statistics and multivariate analysis. The overall prevalence of infection was 21 (13.8%). Ascariasis was the most prevalent 10 (6.5%), hookworm infection was 6 (3.9%), and trichuriasis was 2 (1.3%). Pregnant women aged below 29 years (OR = 3.63, CI = 0.87–11.75) and those with primary level of education (OR = 3.21, CI = 0.88–11.75) were at a higher risk of infection compared to those aged ? 29 years with secondary level of education. Hand washing was significantly associated with reduced likelihood of infection (OR = 0.18, 95% CI = 0.06–0.57). It was concluded that intestinal helminth infections were prevalent among pregnant women. We recommended that all expectant women visiting antenatal clinics be screened for intestinal helminth infections and positive cases be advised to seek treatment.

Prevalence of soil-transmitted helminths after mass albendazole administration in an indigenous community of the Manu jungle in Peru

Cabada, Miguel M; Lopez, Martha; Arque, Eulogia; Clinton White, A
Fonte: Maney Publishing Publicador: Maney Publishing
Tipo: text
Publicado em /06/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.44%
Few data are available on the epidemiology of soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) in indigenous populations of the Peruvian Amazon. While albendazole is being increasingly used in deworming campaigns, few data exist on the impact of mass drug administration in isolated populations. We studied the prevalence of STHs, anemia, and malnutrition in a Matsigenka ethnic group from the Peruvian Amazon. Participants had received two doses of albendazole on consecutive days, 3 months before and again 2 weeks before data collection. Overall, 290 subjects were included. Most were female (53.7%) and 63.9% were ?19 years old. Half of the participants had helminth infections. Trichiuris (30.2%), hookworm (19.1%), Ascaris (17.7%), and Strongyloides (5.6%) were the most common helminths. Other helminth ova included Capillaria hepatica and Fasciola-like eggs. Subjects of 5–19 years (51.8 %) and 20–35 years (68.6 %) old had helminths more often than those under 5 years (38%) and older than 35 years (41.5%) (P ?=? 0.02). Anemia was detected in 41% of children and this was more common in children under 5 years that in those of 5–19 years [odd ratio (OR) ?=? 5.68; 95% CI: 2.71–11.88]. Overall, 72.1% of children were malnourished. Stunting was common in children (70.7%)...

Heligmosomoides polygyrus abrogates antigen-specific gut injury in a murine model of inflammatory bowel disease

Leung, John; Hang, Long; Blum, Arthur; Setiawan, Tommy; Stoyanoff, Karynn; Weinstock, Joel
Tipo: text
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.56%
Developing countries have a low incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), perhaps prevented by the high prevalence of helminth infections and other alterations in intestinal flora and fauna. Helminth infections prevent colitis in various murine models of IBD. IBD may be driven by an aberrant immune response to luminal antigen(s). We therefore developed a murine model of IBD in which gut injury was induced by a specific antigen to better simulate the IBD disease process and to determine if helminth infections could abolish gut injury induced by an orally administered antigen. The model features pan-enterocolitis triggered by feeding ovalbumin. The intestinal inflammation is antigen-specific and generates IL-17 and IFN-?, but not IL-4. Full expression of the disease required T cells with defective capacity to make IL-10 and treatment with a non-injurious, low dose of a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Exposure to H. polygyrus abrogated this antigen-induced gut injury. H. polygyrus colonization induced Foxp3+ Tregs and mucosal production of IL-10 from non-T cells. Lamina propria mononuclear cells from H. polygyrus infected mice released less IL-17 and IFN-? constitutively and when stimulated with OVA or anti-CD3/CD28 mAbs. In conclusion...