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Eficácia dos integradores químicos x indicadores biológicos no monitoramento dos ciclos de esterilização a vapor: revisão sistemática da literatura; Efficacy of chemical integrators x biological indicators in the monitoring of steam sterilization cycles: systematic review of literature

Martinho, Maria Antonieta Velosco
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: dissertação de mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 24/04/2007 Português
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Este estudo trata-se de uma revisão sistemática cujo objetivo foi levantar as evidências na literatura científica da eficácia dos integradores químicos no monitoramento dos ciclos de esterilização a vapor. As estratégias de busca foram realizadas nas bases de dados MEDLINE, LILACS, CINAHL, DEDALUS, OVID, Cochrane e Google Acadêmico, através de combinações dos termos esterilização (sterilization), integrador químico (chemical integrator), indicador químico (chemical indicator), indicador biológico (biological indicator), monitoramento (monitoring) e reagente (reagent). Foi realizado ainda busca em árvore das referências dos artigos selecionados. Os estudos foram selecionados sem restrições quanta a data de publicação e a língua, com critérios de inclusão de estudos básicos experimentais comparativos quanto ao desempenho dos indicadores químicos frente a cinética de morte microbiana ou resultados obtidos por meio de indicadores biológicos em ciclos de esterilização a vapor e exclusão de estudos realizados com métodos de esterilização que não a vapor e estudos que evidenciam utilização de indicadores químicos classes 1, 2, 3 e 4. No total foram selecionados 7 estudos, sendo que o mais antigo data 1975 e o mais recente 2006...

Abordagem farmacocinética e farmacodinâmica no monitoramento terapêutico de antimicrobianos em pacientes queimados da unidade de terapia intensiva; Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic approach for antimicrobial therapeutic monitoring in burn patients from the intensive care unit

Giraud, Cristina Sanches
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/03/2011 Português
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Introdução: A sepse é a maior causa de morbidade e mortalidade em pacientes queimados, uma vez que profundas alterações ocorrem na farmacocinética de agentes antimicrobianos prescritos para o controle das infecções. Além disso, pacientes queimados podem apresentar quadro de infecção por germes da comunidade, numa fase precoce de internação na UTI, e devem receber antimicrobianos que diferem daqueles indicados na sepse. Na vigência de infecção fúngica, o quadro se torna ainda mais grave para os pacientes queimados de prolongada internação e imunocomprometidos. Objetivo: Realizar o monitoramento plasmático de oito antimicrobianos largamente prescritos na UTI, a investigação da farmacocinética e a modelagem PK-PD para o ajuste do regime de dose e controle das infecções em pacientes queimados. Casuística: Investigaram-se 32 pacientes queimados internados na UTI/Unidade de Queimados - Divisão de Cirurgia Plástica do HC FMUSP, portadores de infecção recebendo pela via sistêmica sete antimicrobianos e um antifúngico. Métodos- Etapa Clinica: Os pacientes receberam os antimicrobianos geralmente em associação para o controle das infecções seguindo as recomendações da CCIH do hospital relativas ao regime de dose empírica inicial do controle de infecção na UTI de Queimados...

Monitoramento terapêutico de fluconazol com suporte farmacocinético em pacientes grandes queimados com internação prolongada para controle das infecções fúngicas; Fluconazol therapeutic plasma monitoring for pharmacokinetics purpose for the control of fungal infections in longterm burn patients from the Intensive Care Unit

Bragatto, Michel Silveira
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: dissertação de mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 20/09/2011 Português
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A sepse é a maior causa de morbidade e mortalidade em pacientes queimados, uma vez que profundas alterações ocorrem na farmacocinética de agentes anti-infecciosos prescritos para o controle das infecções. Além disso, pacientes queimados podem apresentar quadro de infecção por germes da comunidade, numa fase precoce de internação na UTI, devendo receber antimicrobianos que diferem daqueles indicados na infecção sistêmica causada por germes hospitalares. Adicionalmente, na vigência de infecção fúngica, o quadro se torna ainda mais grave para os pacientes queimados de prolongada internação e imunocomprometimento. No presente trabalho deve como objetivo realizar o monitoramento plasmático de fluconazol prescrito aos pacientes com infecção sistêmica fúngica internados na UTI e investigar a farmacocinética para o ajuste do regime de dose no controle da infecção fúngica nos pacientes queimados. Investigaram-se 12 pacientes queimados internados na UTI/ Unidade de Queimados - Divisão de Cirurgia Plástica do HC FMUSP, portadores de infecção fúngica recebendo fluconazol através de infusão. Os pacientes receberam o antifúngico geralmente em associação a outros antimicrobianos para o controle das infecções seguindo a recomendação da CCIH do hospital relativa ao regime de dose empírica inicial do controle de infecção na UTI de Queimados. Realizou-se o monitoramento plasmático do fluconazol através da coleta de amostras sanguíneas de pico e vale. Complementarmente...

Thermophilic co-digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid wastes with FOG wastes from a sewage treatment plant : reactor performance and microbial community monitoring

Martín-González, Lucia; Castro, Rita; Pereira, M. A.; Alves, M. M.; Font, Xavier; Vicent, Teresa
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 Português
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Working at thermophilic conditions instead of mesophilic, and also the addition of a co-substrate, are both ways to intend to improve the anaerobic digestion of the source-collected organic fraction of municipal solid wastes (SC-OFMSW). Addition of sewage treatment plant fat, oil and grease wastes (STP-FOGW), that are nowadays sent to landfill, would represent an opportunity to recover a wasted methane potential and, moreover, improve the whole process. In this study, after a first period feeding only SC-OFMSW, a co-digestion step was performed maintaining thermophilic conditions. During the co-digestion period enhancements in biogas production (52 %) and methane yield (38 %) were achieved. In addition, monitoring of microbial structure by using PCR-DGGE and cloning techniques showed that bacterial community profiles clustered in two distinct groups, before and after the extended contact with STP-FOGW, being more affected by the STP-FOGW addition than the archaeal one.

Microbial Load of Drinking Water Reservoir Tributaries during Extreme Rainfall and Runoff

Kistemann, T.; Claßen, T.; Koch, C.; Dangendorf, F.; Fischeder, R.; Gebel, J.; Vacata, V.; Exner, M.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: text
Publicado em /05/2002 Português
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36.09%
Hygienic and microbiological examinations of watercourses are usually not carried out during heavy rainfall and runoff events. After rainfall or snowmelt, there are often massive increases in turbidity in flooding creeks in mountain ranges, which are frequently interpreted as an indication of microbial contamination. The aim of this study was to quantify the microbial loads of watercourses during such runoff events and to compare these loads with loads occurring during regular conditions. In a 14-month monitoring period we investigated the microbial loads of three tributaries of different drinking water reservoirs. A total of 99 water samples were taken under different runoff conditions and analyzed to determine physical, chemical, bacterial, and parasitic parameters. Thirty-two water samples were considered event samples during nine measuring series. The criteria for events, based on duration and intensity of precipitation, water depth gauge measurements, and dynamics, had been fixed before the investigation for each creek individually. Of the physical and chemical parameters examined, only the turbidity, pH, and nitrate values differed clearly from the values obtained for regular samples. Most of the bacteriological parameters investigated (colony...

Characterization of Benthic Microbial Community Structure by High-Resolution Gas Chromatography of Fatty Acid Methyl Esters

Bobbie, Ronald J.; White, David C.
Tipo: text
Publicado em /06/1980 Português
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Fatty acids are a widely studied group of lipids of sufficient taxonomic diversity to be useful in defining microbial community structure. The extraordinary resolution of glass capillary gas-liquid chromatography can be utilized to separate and tentatively identify large numbers of fatty acid methyl esters derived from the lipids of estuarine detritus and marine benthic microbiota without the bias of selective methods requiring culture or recovery of the microbes. The gas-liquid chromatographic analyses are both reproducible and highly sensitive, and the recovery of fatty acids is quantitative. The analyses can be automated, and the diagnostic technique of mass spectral fragmentation analysis can be readily applied. Splitless injection on glass capillary gas chromatographic columns detected by mass spectral selective ion monitoring provides an ultrasensitive and definitive monitoring system. Reciprocal mixtures of bacteria and fungi, when extracted and analyzed, showed progressive changes of distinctive fatty acid methyl esters derived from the lipids. By manipulating the environment of an estuarine detrital microbial community with antibiotics and culture conditions, it was possible to produce a community greatly enriched in eucaryotic fungi...

Impact of Soil Drying-Rewetting Stress on Microbial Communities and Activities and on Degradation of Two Crop Protection Products

Pesaro, Manuel; Nicollier, Gilles; Zeyer, Josef; Widmer, Franco
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: text
Publicado em /05/2004 Português
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Prior to registration of crop protection products (CPPs) their persistence in soil has to be determined under defined conditions. For this purpose, soils are collected in the field and stored for up to 3 months prior to the tests. During storage, stresses like drying may induce changes in microbiological soil characteristics (MSCs) and thus may influence CPP degradation rates. We investigated the influence of soil storage-related stress on the resistance and resilience of different MSCs by assessing the impact of a single severe drying-rewetting cycle and by monitoring recovery from this event for 34 days. The degradation and mineralization of the fungicide metalaxyl-M and the insecticide lufenuron were delayed by factors of 1.5 to 5.4 in the dried and rewetted soil compared to the degradation and mineralization in an undisturbed reference. The microbial biomass, as estimated by direct cell counting and from the soil DNA content, decreased on average by 51 and 24%, respectively. The bulk microbial activities, as determined by measuring substrate-induced respiration and fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis, increased after rewetting and recovered completely within 6 days after reequilibration. The effects on Bacteria, Archaea, and Pseudomonas were investigated by performing PCR amplification of 16S rRNA genes and reverse-transcribed 16S rRNA...

Development and Evaluation of Genome-Probing Microarrays for Monitoring Lactic Acid Bacteria†

Bae, Jin-Woo; Rhee, Sung-Keun; Park, Ja Ryeong; Chung, Won-Hyong; Nam, Young-Do; Lee, Insun; Kim, Hongik; Park, Yong-Ha
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: text
Publicado em /12/2005 Português
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The genome-probing microarray (GPM) was developed for quantitative, high-throughput monitoring of community dynamics in lactic acid bacteria (LAB) fermentation through the deposit of 149 microbial genomes as probes on a glass slide. Compared to oligonucleotide microarrays, the specificity of GPM was remarkably increased to a species-specific level. GPM possesses about 10- to 100-fold higher sensitivity (2.5 ng of genomic DNA) than the currently used 50-mer oligonucleotide microarrays. Since signal variation between the different genomes was very low compared to that of cDNA or oligonucleotide-based microarrays, the capacity of global quantification of microbial genomes could also be observed in GPM hybridization. In order to assess the applicability of GPMs, LAB community dynamics were monitored during the fermentation of kimchi, a traditional Korean food. In this work, approximately 100 diverse LAB species could be quantitatively analyzed as actively involved in kimchi fermentation.

Microbial Monitoring of Surface Water in South Africa: An Overview

Luyt, Catherine D.; Tandlich, Roman; Muller, Wilhelmine J.; Wilhelmi, Brendan S.
Fonte: MDPI Publicador: MDPI
Tipo: text
Português
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36.22%
Infrastructural problems force South African households to supplement their drinking water consumption from water resources of inadequate microbial quality. Microbial water quality monitoring is currently based on the Colilert®18 system which leads to rapidly available results. Using Escherichia coli as the indicator microorganism limits the influence of environmental sources on the reported results. The current system allows for understanding of long-term trends of microbial surface water quality and the related public health risks. However, rates of false positive for the Colilert®18-derived concentrations have been reported to range from 7.4% to 36.4%. At the same time, rates of false negative results vary from 3.5% to 12.5%; and the Colilert medium has been reported to provide for cultivation of only 56.8% of relevant strains. Identification of unknown sources of faecal contamination is not currently feasible. Based on literature review, calibration of the antibiotic-resistance spectra of Escherichia coli or the bifidobacterial tracking ratio should be investigated locally for potential implementation into the existing monitoring system. The current system could be too costly to implement in certain areas of South Africa where the modified H2S strip test might be used as a surrogate for the Colilert®18.

Analysis of the Microbial Community Structure by Monitoring an Hg Methylation Gene (hgcA) in Paddy Soils along an Hg Gradient

Liu, Yu-Rong; Yu, Ri-Qing; Zheng, Yuan-Ming; He, Ji-Zheng
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: text
Publicado em /05/2014 Português
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Knowledge of the diversity of mercury (Hg)-methylating microbes in the environment is limited due to a lack of available molecular biomarkers. Here, we developed novel degenerate PCR primers for a key Hg-methylating gene (hgcA) and amplified successfully the targeted genes from 48 paddy soil samples along an Hg concentration gradient in the Wanshan Hg mining area of China. A significant positive correlation was observed between hgcA gene abundance and methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations, suggesting that microbes containing the genes contribute to Hg methylation in the sampled soils. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) showed that the hgcA gene diversity in microbial community structures from paddy soils was high and was influenced by the contents of total Hg, SO42?, NH4+, and organic matter. Phylogenetic analysis showed that hgcA microbes in the sampled soils likely were related to Deltaproteobacteria, Firmicutes, Chloroflexi, Euryarchaeota, and two unclassified groups. This is a novel report of hgcA diversity in paddy habitats, and results here suggest a link between Hg-methylating microbes and MeHg contamination in situ, which would be useful for monitoring and mediating MeHg synthesis in soils.

Bacterial Monitoring with Adhesive Sheet in the International Space Station-“Kibo”, the Japanese Experiment Module

Ichijo, Tomoaki; Hieda, Hatsuki; Ishihara, Rie; Yamaguchi, Nobuyasu; Nasu, Masao
Fonte: Japanese Society of Microbial Ecology/The Japanese Society of Soil Microbiology Publicador: Japanese Society of Microbial Ecology/The Japanese Society of Soil Microbiology
Tipo: text
Português
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36.22%
Microbiological monitoring is important to assure microbiological safety, especially in long-duration space habitation. We have been continuously monitoring the abundance and diversity of bacteria in the International Space Station (ISS)-“Kibo” module to accumulate knowledge on microbes in the ISS. In this study, we used a new sampling device, a microbe-collecting adhesive sheet developed in our laboratory. This adhesive sheet has high operability, needs no water for sampling, and is easy to transport and store. We first validated the adhesive sheet as a sampling device to be used in a space habitat with regard to the stability of the bacterial number on the sheet during prolonged storage of up to 12 months. Bacterial abundance on the surfaces in Kibo was then determined and was lower than on the surfaces in our laboratory (105 cells [cm2]?1), except for the return air grill, and the bacteria detected in Kibo were human skin microflora. From these aspects of microbial abundance and their phylogenetic affiliation, we concluded that Kibo has been microbiologically well maintained; however, microbial abundance may increase with the prolonged stay of astronauts. To ensure crew safety and understand bacterial dynamics in space habitation environments...

Microbial Monitoring of Crewed Habitats in Space—Current Status and Future Perspectives

Yamaguchi, Nobuyasu; Roberts, Michael; Castro, Sarah; Oubre, Cherie; Makimura, Koichi; Leys, Natalie; Grohmann, Elisabeth; Sugita, Takashi; Ichijo, Tomoaki; Nasu, Masao
Fonte: The Japanese Society of Microbial Ecology (JSME)/The Japanese Society of Soil Microbiology (JSSM) Publicador: The Japanese Society of Microbial Ecology (JSME)/The Japanese Society of Soil Microbiology (JSSM)
Tipo: text
Português
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56.32%
Previous space research conducted during short-term flight experiments and long-term environmental monitoring on board orbiting space stations suggests that the relationship between humans and microbes is altered in the crewed habitat in space. Both human physiology and microbial communities adapt to spaceflight. Microbial monitoring is critical to crew safety in long-duration space habitation and the sustained operation of life support systems on space transit vehicles, space stations, and surface habitats. To address this critical need, space agencies including NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration), ESA (European Space Agency), and JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency) are working together to develop and implement specific measures to monitor, control, and counteract biological contamination in closed-environment systems. In this review, the current status of microbial monitoring conducted in the International Space Station (ISS) as well as the results of recent microbial spaceflight experiments have been summarized and future perspectives are discussed.

Overview of Microbial Monitoring Technologies Considered for Use Inside Long Duration Spaceflights and Planetary Habitats

Roman, Monsi C.; Ott, C. Mark
Tipo: jsc-cn-33158; workshop on planetary protection knowledge gaps for human extraterrestrial missions; 24-26 mar. 2015; moffett field, ca; united states Formato: application/pdf
Português
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The purpose of this presentation is to start a conversation including the Crew Health, ECLSS, and Planetary Protection communities about the best approach for inflight microbial monitoring as part of a risk mitigation strategy to prevent forward and back contamination while protecting the crew and vehicle.

Microbial Monitoring of the International Space Station

Botkin, Douglas J.; Castro, Victoria A.; Oubre, Cherie M.; Bruce, Rebekah J.; Pierson, Duane L.; Ott, C. Mark; Smith, Melanie J.
Tipo: jsc-cn-28760; 8th international workshop on space microbiology; 20-21 may 2013; osaka; japan Formato: application/pdf
Português
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Humans living and working in the harsh environment of space present many challenges for habitability engineers and microbiologists. Spacecraft must provide an internal environment in which physical (gas composition, pressure, temperature, and humidity), chemical, and biological environmental parameters are maintained at safe levels. Microorganisms are ubiquitous and will accompany all human-occupied spacecraft, but if biological contamination were to reach unacceptable levels, long-term human space flight would be impossible. Prevention of microbiological problems, therefore, must have a high priority. Historically, prevention of infectious disease in the crew has been the highest priority, but experience gained from the NASA-Mir program showed that microbial contamination of vehicle and life-support systems, such as biofouling of water and food, are of equal importance. The major sources of microbiological risk factors for astronauts include food, drinking water, air, surfaces, payloads, research animals, crew members, and personnel in close contact with the astronauts. In our efforts to eliminate or mitigate the negative effects of microorganisms in spacecraft, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) implemented comprehensive microbial analyses of the major risk factors. This included the establishment of acceptability requirements for food...

Microbial Monitoring of Pathogens by Comparing Multiple Real-Time PCR Platforms for Potential Space Applications

Birmele, Michele
Tipo: ksc-2012-295; 43rd international conference on environmental systems (ices); 14-18 jul. 2013; vail, co; united states Formato: application/pdf
Português
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46.33%
The International Space Station (ISS) is a closed environment wi~h rotations of crew and equipment each introducing their own microbial flora making it necessary to monitor the air, surfaces, and water for microbial contamination. Current microbial monitoring includes labor and time intensive methods to enumerate total bacterial and fungal cells with limited characterization during in-flight testing. Although this culture-based method has been sufficient for monitoring the ISS, future long duration missions will need to perform more comprehensive characterization in-flight, since sample return and ground characterization may not be available. A workshop was held in 2011 at the Johnson Space Center to discuss alternative methodologies and technologies suitable for microbial monitoring for these longterm exploration missions where molecular-based methodologies, such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR), were recommended. In response, a multi-center (Marshall Space Flight Center, Johnson Space Center, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and Kennedy Space Center) collaborative research effort was initiated to explore novel commercial-off-the-shelf hardware options for spaceflight environmental monitoring. The goal was to evaluate quantitative/semi-quantitative PCR approaches to space applications for low cost in-flight rapid identification of microorganisms affecting crew safety. The initial phase of this project identified commercially available platforms that could be minimally modified to perform nominally in microgravity followed by proof-of-concept testing on the highest qualifying candidates with a universally available test organism...

Microbial Monitoring Challenges and Needs for Mars Applications

Venkateswaran, K. J.; Jan, D. L.; Ott, C. M.; Roman, M. C.; Castro, V. A.; Roberts, M. S.; Birmele, M. N.
Tipo: m12-1804; concepts and approaches for mars exploration; 12-14 jun. 2012; houston, tx; united states Formato: application/pdf
Português
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The monitoring of microorganisms will be an important part of a mission to Mars. Microbial monitoring equipment will be needed to look for the presence of microorganisms on the planet, to confirm that planetary protection measures are working, to monitor the health of plants, bioreactors and humans living in a habitat and to monitor the performance of the life support systems that will keep them alive during their stay on Mars. Coordinating the different microbial monitoring needs during the early days of mission planning, can provide NASA with equipment that could meet more than one need while also providing complementary analysis options, which can enhance the research capabilities. The early coordination between the different NASA groups that will need microbial monitoring equipment on the surface of Mars, could also make the mission more affordable, as development of the needed equipment could be potentially cost shared.

Monitoring of Microbial Loads During Long Duration Missions as a Risk Reduction Tool

Roman, Monsi C.
Tipo: m11-0798; 5th iaass conference: a safer space for a safer world; 17-19 oct. 2011; paris; france Formato: application/pdf
Português
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Humans have been exploring space for more than 40 years. For all those years microorganisms have accompanied, first un-manned spacecraft/cargo and later manned vessels. Microorganisms are everywhere on Earth, could easily adapt to new environments and/or can rapidly mutate to survive in very harsh conditions. Their presence in spacecraft and cargo have caused a few inconveniences over the years of humans spaceflight, ranging from crew health, life support systems challenges and material degradation. The sterilization of spacecraft that will host humans in long duration mission would be a costly operation that will not provide a long-term solution to the microbial colonization of the vessels. As soon as a human is exposed to the spacecraft, during the mission, microorganisms will start to populate the new environment. As the hum an presence in space increases in length, the risk from the microbial load, to hardware and crew will also increase. Mitigation of this risk includes several different strategies that will include minimizing the microbial load (in numbers and diversity) and monitoring. This presentation will provide a list of the risk mitigation strategies that should be implemented during ground processing, and during the mission. It will also discuss the areas that should be discussed before an effective in-flight microbial monitoring regimen is implemented. Microbial monitoring technologies will also be presented.