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Auto-relato da frequência de consumo de álcool numa amostra representativa da população adulta portuguesa : associações com a obesidade e o perímetro da cintura; Self-reported frequency of alcohol consumption in a representative sample of the portuguese adult population : associations with obesity and waist circumference

Camolas, José; Santos, Osvaldo; Vieira, João; Mesquita, Fernanda de
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.62%
São vários, e ainda mal compreendidos, os factores que contribuem para a obesidade. Em Portugal, há simultaneamente uma elevada prevalência de obesidade e um elevado consumo de bebidas alcoólicas. A associação entre consumo de álcool e obesidade não é clara. Este artigo analisa a associação entre a frequência auto-relatada de consumo de bebidas alcoólicas (vinho, cerveja e bebidas brancas/espirituosas) e a prevalência de pré-obesidade e/ou obesidade na população adulta (entre os 18 e os 64 anos) em Portugal. Trata-se de um estudo observacional e transversal, representativo a nível de Portugal continental. No total, recolheram-se dados relativamente a 8116 portugueses. As frequências de consumo das várias bebidas estão fortemente correlacionadas entre si. Foi encontrada uma associação significativa entre as frequências auto-relatadas de consumo de álcool e o excesso de peso, a obesidade e as medidas do perímetro da cintura. A frequência auto-relatada de consumo para todas as bebidas aumenta com as categorias de índice de massa corporal. As categorias de perímetro da cintura associadas a risco cardiovascular estão associadas a maior frequência auto-relatada de consumo de todas as bebidas alcoólicas em estudo...

Prevalência de sobrepeso e obesidade em nipo-brasileiros: comparação entre sexos e geração; Prevalence of overweight and obesity among Japanese-Brazilian: comparison across sex and generation

SIMONY, Rosana Farah; GIMENO, Suely Godoy Agostinho; FERREIRA, Sandra Roberta Gouvea; FRANCO, Laércio Joel
Fonte: Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Campinas Publicador: Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Campinas
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.63%
OBJETIVO: Descrever a prevalência de sobrepeso, obesidade e obesidade abdominal em nipo-brasileiros residentes na cidade de Bauru (SP), Brasil. MÉTODOS: Os dados foram obtidos a partir de um estudo transversal com 1 330 nipo-brasileiros de 1ª e 2ª geração, de ambos os sexos, com idade >30 anos. Os critérios para sobrepeso e obesidade foram índice de massa corporal entre 25-29,9kg/m² e >30kg/m², respectivamente. A obesidade abdominal foi classificada com valores de circunferência da cintura >90cm, para homens, e >80cm para mulheres. Foram calculadas as prevalências de sobrepeso, obesidade e obesidade abdominal por ponto e por intervalo, com 95% de confiança. RESULTADOS: Verificou-se que a prevalência de sobrepeso em nipo-brasileiros foi de 26,1% e 27,9% na primeira geração e de 44,8% e 32,5% na segunda geração, respectivamente, para homens e mulheres. Em relação à obesidade, a prevalência entre homens foi de 3,7% e 12%, e nas mulheres de 6,6% e 9,9% respectivamente na primeira e na segunda geração. Observou-se aumento na prevalência de sobrepeso e obesidade nos homens entre as gerações, apesar de as diferenças não serem estatisticamente significantes. A obesidade abdominal nos homens de primeira e segunda geração foi de 32...

Trends in morbid obesity and in bariatric surgeries covered by the Brazilian public health system

SANTOS, Leonor Maria Pacheco; OLIVEIRA, Isabella Vasconcellos de; PETERS, Lilian Rose; CONDE, Wolney Lisboa
Fonte: Oxford Publicador: Oxford
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.62%
Background Obesity is an increasingly serious public health problem on a global level. Morbid obesity, defined as a body mass index greater than 40 kg/m2, is associated with increased mortality and a high burden of obesity-related morbidities. Methods To study the prevalence of morbid obesity in Brazil, three national anthropometric surveys were reanalyzed. Data about bariatric surgeries were obtained from the Ministry of Health Hospital Information System, which is available online. Results A 255% rise in the prevalence of morbid obesity was observed, starting at 0.18% in 1975-1976 and growing to 0.33% in 1989 and 0.64% in 2002-2003. There was a higher rate in the South in the first two surveys, but the prevalence in the Southeast rose steadily, reaching 0.77% in 2002-2003 and overtaking the South. Since 1999, the Brazilian Unified Health System has covered surgical treatment for morbid obesity. From 2000 to 2006, there was a sixfold increase in the number of surgeries, which topped the 2,500 mark in 2006. The geographic distribution of these surgeries is heavily concentrated in the Southeast, the most developed region of Brazil, where there is also the highest prevalence of morbid obesity. This was followed by the Southern region. Conclusions The figures for the rise in morbid obesity in Brazil are startling...

Trends in Morbid Obesity and in Bariatric Surgeries Covered by the Brazilian Public Health System

SANTOS, Leonor Maria Pacheco; OLIVEIRA, Isabella Vasconcellos de; PETERS, Lilian Rose; CONDE, Wolney Lisboa
Fonte: SPRINGER Publicador: SPRINGER
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.62%
Obesity is an increasingly serious public health problem on a global level. Morbid obesity, defined as a body mass index greater than 40 kg/m(2), is associated with increased mortality and a high burden of obesity-related morbidities. To study the prevalence of morbid obesity in Brazil, three national anthropometric surveys were reanalyzed. Data about bariatric surgeries were obtained from the Ministry of Health Hospital Information System, which is available online. A 255% rise in the prevalence of morbid obesity was observed, starting at 0.18% in 1975-1976 and growing to 0.33% in 1989 and 0.64% in 2002-2003. There was a higher rate in the South in the first two surveys, but the prevalence in the Southeast rose steadily, reaching 0.77% in 2002-2003 and overtaking the South. Since 1999, the Brazilian Unified Health System has covered surgical treatment for morbid obesity. From 2000 to 2006, there was a sixfold increase in the number of surgeries, which topped the 2,500 mark in 2006. The geographic distribution of these surgeries is heavily concentrated in the Southeast, the most developed region of Brazil, where there is also the highest prevalence of morbid obesity. This was followed by the Southern region. The figures for the rise in morbid obesity in Brazil are startling...

Fatores dietéticos associados à obesidade abdominal: estudo transversal de base populacional em nipo-brasileiros de Bauru; Dietary factors associated with abdominal obesity: cross-sectional population based study among Japanese-Brazilian from Bauru, SP

Cristofoletti, Maria Fernanda
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 12/03/2008 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.65%
Introdução: A obesidade abdominal associa-se ao risco para diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (DM) e doença cardiovascular (DCV). Entre os fatores associados à obesidade abdominal, destaca-se o importante papel da dieta. Objetivo: O presente estudo investigou a associação entre fatores dietéticos e adiposidade em nipo-brasileiros de Bauru, Estado de São Paulo. Métodos: Para o presente estudo, 772 participantes (329 homens e 443 mulheres) com idade entre 30-92 anos foram analisados em inquérito transversal de base populacional. Um questionário quantitativo de freqüência alimentar validado para essa população foi empregado para avaliar a dieta habitual. Índice de massa corporal (IMC, em kg/m2) e circunferência de cintura (CC, em cm) foram classificados de acordo com critérios da Organização Mundial de Saúde para a população asiática (obesidade geral IMC >= 25kg/m2; obesidade abdominal CC >= 90 cm para homens e >= 80 cm para mulheres). Modelos de regressão logística múltiplos foram utilizados na comparação entre o menor e o maior tercil de consumo alimentar em relação ao risco associado para obesidade abdominal, obesidade geral ou obesidade geral com obesidade abdominal, após ajuste para co-variáveis sócio-demográficas...

A percepção do corpo de mulheres com diabetes mellitus e obesidade; The perception of the women´s body with diabetes mellitus and obesity

Oliveira, Valmir Aparecido de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: dissertação de mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 24/06/2010 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.62%
Trata-se de um estudo de abordagem qualitativa que teve o objetivo de compreender como as mulheres com diabetes mellitus (DM) tipo 2 e obesidade vivenciam o seu corpo, realizado no Centro de Pesquisa e Extensão Universitária do interior paulista, em 2009. O referencial teórico utilizado foi a Fenomenologia da Percepção de Maurice Merleau-Ponty. Para coleta de dados foi utilizada a questão norteadora: Como a senhora se sente com o seu corpo? Foram entrevistadas oito mulheres com diabetes mellitus tipo 2 e obesidade (IMC 30) com idade de 40 a 76 anos. A coleta de dados foi realizada no referido Centro, às terças-feiras, das 14 às 17 horas, em ambiente preservado, pelo próprio pesquisador, com entrevistas gravadas. Os dados foram submetidos à técnica de análise de conteúdo, o que possibilitou a elaboração de sete categorias temáticas: A falta de vivência do corpo atual; O corpo com intencionalidade e significação; A dualidade da obesidade da proteção a tragédia; A negação e a fragmentação da obesidade no corpo atual/habitual; A obesidade velada percepção do objeto como razão de todas as experiências; O DM como algo que destrói e desfigura o corpo e O DM incorporado no seu corpo e na sua vida. Os resultados mostraram que nas falas das participantes há falta de percepção em relação às mudanças e de responsabilidade para com o seu corpo. As falas também mostraram que as participantes atribuem ao corpo intencionalidades e significados...

Pesquisa de genes e/ou segmentos cromossômicos em pacientes com obesidade, e/ou hiperfagia, atraso do desenvolvimento neuropsicomotor e/ou dificuldades de aprendizado e distúrbios de comportamento; Study of genes and / or chromosome segments in patientes with obesity and / or hyperphagia, developmental delay and / or learning disabilities and behavior disorders

Kohl, Ilana
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 03/08/2010 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.62%
Obesidade sindrômica é definida como a obesidade ocorrendo em conjunto com várias características clínicas distintas, associadas a retardo mental. A forma sindrômica mais freqüente é a síndrome de Prader-Willi (PWS) caracterizada por hipotonia, dificuldade de sucção no período neonatal, atraso do desenvolvimento neuropsicomotor (DNPM), hiperfagia, obesidade, baixa estatura na adolescência, mãos e pés pequenos, hipogonadismo, dificuldade de aprendizado e distúrbios de comportamento. Estudamos 141 pacientes com obesidade e/ou hiperfagia, atraso no desenvolvimento neuropsicomotor e/ou dificuldades de aprendizado e distúrbios de comportamento, pela técnica de MLPA (multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification) assim como 19 pacientes que apresentavam além de atraso do DNPM e/ou dificuldade de aprendizado, distúrbios de comportamento, obesidade e/ou hiperfagia, outro sinal ao exame físico que sugerisse alteração cromossômica, pela técnica de SNP-array (The GeneChip 174; Mapping 100K Set, Affymetrix), com o objetivo de identificar genes e/ou segmentos cromossômicos envolvidos com obesidade sindrômica. Essas técnicas detectam deleções e/ ou duplicações do genoma, seja analisando regiões específicas, como a de MLPA...

Differential nutritional, endocrine, and cardiovascular effects in obesity-prone and obesity-resistant rats fed standard and hypercaloric diets

Oliveira Junior, Silvio A.; Dal Pai-Silva, Maeli; Martinez, Paula F.; Campos, Dijon H. S.; Lima-Leopoldo, Ana P.; Leopoldo, Andre S.; Nascimento, Andre F.; Okoshi, Marina P.; Okoshi, Katashi; Padovani, Carlos R.; Cicogna, Antonio C.
Fonte: Int Scientific Literature, Inc Publicador: Int Scientific Literature, Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: br208-br217
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.63%
Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Processo FAPESP: 05/58776-8; Processo FAPESP: 06/52334-6; Processo FAPESP: 10/50615-3; Background: This study tested whether rats with obesity induced by a hypercaloric diet (HD) present higher nutritional, endocrine, and cardiovascular disturbances compared with counterparts with obesity induced by overfeeding of a standard diet. An additional objective was to compare the isolated influence of HD on these parameters in lean and obese rats.Material/Methods: Twenty Wistar-Kyoto rats were distributed into four groups: CD-lean, CD-obese, HD-lean, and HD-obese. CD (control diet) and HD groups received commercial standard chow and HD, respectively, for 20 weeks. The lean and obese groups included obesity-resistant and obesity-prone animals, respectively. Nutritional and metabolic evaluation involved measurement of calorie intake, dietary efficiency, body weight, adiposity, glycemia, triacylglycerol, insulin, and leptin. Cardiovascular evaluation included systolic blood pressure measurement, echocardiography, and analyses of myocardial morphology and myosin heavy-chain composition.Results: In both diets, obesity was characterized by increased adiposity, hyperleptinemia, hypertriacylglycerolemia...

Soro Amilóide A (SAA) e Adiponectina : caracterização no câncer de mama na pós-menopausa e relação com obesidade; Serum Amyloid A (SAA) and Adiponectin : characterization in postmenopausal breast cancer relationship with obesity

Aline Barros Santana
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: dissertação de mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 16/02/2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.62%
A obesidade tem aumentado consideravelmente nas últimas cinco décadas em todo mundo. A Organização Mundial de Saúde estima que pessoas com sobrepeso ultrapassem a casa do bilhão e que cerca de 300 milhões sejam obesas. No contexto da inflamação crônica presente na obesidade, as adipocinas SAA e adiponectina, que possuem funções antagônicas, têm demonstrado notável destaque na literatura e ambas também têm sido associadas com o desenvolvimento e prognóstico do câncer de mama. No presente estudo foi investigada a associação entre obesidade, SAA e adiponectina em portadoras de câncer de mama na fase pós-menopausa e suas relações com as características clínico-patológicas dos tumores. Para esta investigação as pacientes participantes do estudo foram divididas em dois grupos: o primeiro grupo foi composto por mulheres com sobrepeso/obesidade e presença de gordura abdominal e o segundo grupo por mulheres não-obesas, com ausência de gordura abdominal. Os dados encontrados demonstraram que as concentrações séricas de SAA foram maiores em pacientes com sobrepeso/obesidade e que essa elevação foi dependente da obesidade, aqui caracterizada tanto pelo índice de massa corpórea (IMC) quanto pela circunferência abdominal (CA). Concentrações mais elevadas de SAA foram também observadas em portadoras de tumores com ausência de expressão de receptores de estrógeno (RE-)...

Influência da obesidade materna na diferenciação neonatal das células germinativas masculinas; Influence of maternal obesity on neonatal germ cell differentiation

Caroline Maria Christante
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: dissertação de mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 22/02/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.62%
Os gonócitos são os precursores das células germinativas masculinas, encontrados durante o período fetal e neonatal. Sua diferenciação neonatal é fundamental para a função reprodutora e envolve retomada da atividade proliferativa, movimentação para a base do epitélio seminífero e diferenciação em espermatogônia. Sabe-se que, no período fetal, a atividade proliferativa dessas células é andrógeno dependente, e que a obesidade altera o cenário dos hormônios sexuais, levando a um aumento dos níveis de andrógenos em mulheres. Contudo, pouco é conhecido sobre os efeitos da obesidade materna sobre o desenvolvimento do aparelho genital masculino, em particular no período neonatal, e as implicações com o cenário hormonal. Sendo assim, o objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar se a obesidade materna interfere no desenvolvimento neonatal do testículo de ratos Wistar, tanto no que se refere às suas características morfológicas gerais, quanto à diferenciação das células germinativas. A obesidade materna foi induzida pelo tratamento, por 15 semanas, com dieta contendo 20% de lipídeos saturados. Foram utilizados filhotes machos de mães normais e obesas nas idades de 0,5, 4,5, 7,5 e 14,5 dias pós-parto (dpp). Os testículos foram processados para microscopias de luz e eletrônica de transmissão. Os cortes histológicos submetidos à reação imunocitoquímica para hormônio anti-Mülleriano (AMH) foram utilizados para a determinação da densidade numérica (Nv) de gonócitos e estimativa da densidade de gonócitos reposicionados para a periferia do túbulo. Também foi avaliado os níveis de apoptose...

Prevalence of obesity in Portugal

do Carmo, Isabel; dos Santos, Osvaldo; Camolas, José; Vieira, João; Carreira, Mário; Medina, Luís; Reis, Lima; Galvão-Teles, Alberto
Fonte: International Association for the Study of Obesity Publicador: International Association for the Study of Obesity
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 124326 bytes; application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.58%
Obesity is a serious health problem in developed countries. Knowledge of reliable and nationwide representative data is a must for any public health action. The dimension of this problem in Portugal was first assessed in 1995–1998. A similar populational survey using objective anthropometric measures is now being conducted (field work started in January 2003). A total of 6411 subjects aged 18– 64 years old have already been measured and their respective body mass indexes (BMIs) calculated. Results from 2003 to 2005 show 38.6% is overweight and 13.8% has obesity. The total of overweight and obesity is 52.4%. In 1995–1998 survey, overweight was 35.2% and obesity was 14.4%. The total was 49.6%. These results suggest an increase of the overweight/obesity (altogether) prevalence in the last 10 years. Actual results show that more than half of the adult sample has excessive weight and 2.4% of the sample has low BMI. Finally, 45.6% of the sample suffers increased health risks because of high waist circumference ( ? 80 cm for women; ? 94 cm for men). These results highlight the fact that, although obesity was identified as a public health problem one decade ago, action to reduce it does not seem to have been very effective to date.

Prevalence of overweight and obesity among Portuguese Youth: a study in a representative sample of 10-18 years old children and adolescents

Sardinha, Luís; Santos, Rute; Vale, Susana; Silva, Analiza; Ferreira, José; Raimundo, Armando; Moreira, Helena; Baptista, Fátima; Mota, Jorge
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.63%
Purpose. The aim of this research was to report the prevalence of overweight and obesity in a representative sample of Portuguese youth. Methods. This was a school-based study performed in Portugal. A total of 22 048 children and adolescents aged 10 – 18 years were included in the study. The World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) cut-offs were used to categorise overweight and obese participants. Results. Using IOTF cut-offs the prevalence of overweight and obesity was 17.0 and 4.6% in girls, and 17.7 and 5.8% in boys, respectively ( p 0.001 for overweight and p 0.05 for obesity), whereas WHO cut-offs resulted in overweight and obesity prevalence scores of 23.1 and 9.6% in girls, and 20.4 and 10.3% in boys, respectively ( p 0.001 for overweight and p 0.05 for obesity). With IOTF cut-offs, a lower prevalence of obesity and overweight was observed at higher ages, in both genders. With the WHO cut-offs, a lower prevalence of obesity and overweight was observed at higher ages, in boys. In girls, the prevalence of overweight and obesity increases from 10 to 12 years of age and decreases from the age of 13 to 18 years. Conclusion. The prevalence for overweight/obesity among Portuguese children and adolescents vary according to the cut-off points used and are also of concern requiring strategies to promote healthy weight gain among children and adolescents.

Prevalence of Overweight, Obesity, and Abdominal Obesity in a Representative Sample of Portuguese Adults

Sardinha, Luís; Santos, Diana; Silva, Analiza; Coelho-e-Silva, Manuel; Raimundo, Armando; Moreira, Helena; Santos, Rute; Vale, Susana; Baptista, Fátima; Mota, Jorge
Fonte: Jonatan R. Ruiz, University of Granada, Spain Publicador: Jonatan R. Ruiz, University of Granada, Spain
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.63%
This study determined the prevalence of overweight, obesity, and abdominal obesity in the Portuguese adults and examined the relationship between above mentioned prevalences and educational level. Body mass, stature, and waist circumference were measured in a representative sample of the Portuguese population aged 18–103 years (n = 9,447; 18–64 years: n = 6,908; $65 years: n = 2,539). Overweight and obesity corresponded to a body mass index ranging between 25– 29.9 kg/m2 and $30 kg/m2, respectively. Abdominal obesity was assessed as .102 cm for males and .88 cm for females. After adjusting for educational level, the combined prevalences of overweight and obesity were 66.6% in males and 57.9% in females (18–64 years). Respective values in older adults ($65 years) were 70.4% for males and 74.7% for females. About 19.3% of adult males and 37.9% of adult females presented abdominal obesity. Correspondent values in older adults were 32.1%, for males, and 69.7%, for females. In adults, low educational level was related to an increased risk for overweight (OR = 2.54; 95% CI: 2.08–3.09), obesity (OR = 2.76; 95% CI: 2.20–3.45), and abdominal obesity (OR = 5.48; 95% CI: 4.60–6.52). This reinforces the importance of adjusting public health strategies for educational level.

Prevalence and factors associated with central obesity in schoolchildren in Santa Catarina, Brazil

Feltrin,Gabriella Bettiol; Vasconcelos,Francisco de Assis Guedes de; Costa,Larissa da Cunha Feio; Corso,Arlete Catarina Tittoni
Fonte: Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Campinas Publicador: Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Campinas
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/02/2015 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.62%
Objective: The aims of this article are to estimate the prevalence and to identify the sociodemographic factors and food consumption associated with central obesity in schoolchildren 6-10 years old of the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Methods: It consists in a cross-sectional population-based study involving 4,963 schoolchildren enrolled in the public and private sectors. The dependent variable is central obesity investigated by measuring waist circumference and classified according to percentiles/gender/age. Bivariate and multivariate analyzes were also performed. Results: The prevalence of central obesity was 4,9% (CI95%=4,3;5,5), being more prevalent in boys with statistical significance (p=0,003). The other variables investigated (age the schoolchildren, type of school, maternal education, protective and risk food consumption, number of daily meals) were not associated with outcome. Among the schoolchildren who had central obesity (n=243), 99.3% of the boys and 99.0% of the girls also showed overweight/obesity. Conclusion: The prevalence of central obesity was lower than that reported in national and international studies. In this scenario, the gender (male) variable was strongly associated with the outcome. The identified prevalence is a major concern in nutrition and medical science as the central obesity may remain in adulthood and show strong association with cardiovascular risk. It is noteworthy that there is a need for obesity prevention campaigns that encourage children and their parents to adopt a healthier life style. Finally...

Prevalence of obesity, overweight and abdominal obesity and its association with physical activity in a federal University

Costa,Miguel Ataide Pinto da; Vasconcelos,Ana Gloria Godoi; Fonseca,Maria de Jesus Mendes da
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Saúde Coletiva Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Saúde Coletiva
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.63%
A cross sectional study to investigate the prevalence of obesity, overweight and abdominal obesity and its association with the level of physical activity (PA) measured in employees of a Rio de Janeiro University according to the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ).299 employees selected by random sampling were interviewed. The association between PA and anthropometric markers was estimated by Poisson models (robust variance). The prevalence of obesity was 27.4% (men 22.8% and 36.3% women), the prevalence of overweight was 63.5% (men 65.0% and women 65.8%) and the prevalence of abdominal obesity was 45.2% (men 35.5% and 63.7% women). Women reported a higher prevalence of low PA (42.2%) compared to men (33.0%). The models adjusted for socio-demographic and behavioral variables and habits related to health, showed a significant association between PA and the outcomes analyzed. The low level of practice of PA (high level reference) has remained associated with the occurrence of obesity (PR = 1.89; 95%CI 1.05 - 3.42) and overweight (PR = 1.40; 95%CI 1.08 - 1.80). For the abdominal obesity, both the mid level (PR = 1.70; 95%CI 1.11 - 2.58) and the low level (PR = 1.74; 95%CI 1.14 - 2.66) were related. This study found inverse association between the practice of PA and obesity in line with what has been recommended by the WHO...

Leptin resistance: a prediposing factor for diet-induced obesity

Scarpace, Philip J.; Zhang, Yi
Fonte: American Physiological Society Publicador: American Physiological Society
Tipo: text
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.65%
Obesity is a resilient and complex chronic disease. One potential causative factor in the obesity syndrome is leptin resistance. Leptin behaves as a potent anorexic and energy-enhancing hormone in most young or lean animals, but its effects are diminished or lacking in the obese state associated with a normal genetic background. Emerging evidence suggests that leptin resistance predisposes the animal to exacerbated diet-induced obesity (DIO). Elevation of central leptin in young, lean rats induces a leptin resistance that precludes obesity on a chow diet but accelerates high-fat (HF)-induced obesity. Similarly, chronic dietary fructose consumption evokes a leptin resistance that causes obesity only upon HF exposure. Inherent central leptin insensitivity also contributes to dietary weight gain in certain obesity-prone rats. Conversely, aged, leptin-resistant animals are obese with continuous chow feeding and demonstrate aggravated obesity when challenged with an HF diet. Additionally, a submaximal central blockade with a leptin antagonist leads to obesity on both chow and HF diets, as is the case in rodents with leptin receptor deficiency of genetic origin. Despite the differences in the incidence of obesity on a chow diet, all of these forms of leptin resistance predispose rodents to aggravated HF-mediated obesity. Moreover...

Recent progress in the genetics of common obesity

Loos, Ruth J F
Fonte: Blackwell Science Inc Publicador: Blackwell Science Inc
Tipo: text
Publicado em /12/2009 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.63%
The genetic contribution to interindividual variation in common obesity has been estimated at 40–70%. Yet, despite a relatively high heritability, the search for obesity susceptibility genes has been an arduous task. This paper reviews recent progress made in the obesity genetics field with an emphasis on established obesity susceptibility loci identified through candidate gene as well as genome-wide studies. For the last 15 years, candidate gene and genome-wide linkage studies have been the two main genetic epidemiological approaches to identify genetic loci for common traits, yet progress has been slow and success limited. Only recently have candidate gene studies started to succeed; by means of large-scale studies and meta-analyses at least five variants in four candidate genes have been found to be robustly associated with obesity-related traits. Genome-wide linkage studies, however, have so far not been able to pinpoint genetic loci for common obesity. The genome-wide association approach, which has become available in recent years, has dramatically changed the pace of gene discoveries for common disease, including obesity. Three waves of large-scale high-density genome-wide association studies have already discovered at least 15 previously unanticipated genetic loci incontrovertibly associated with body mass index and extreme obesity risk. Although the combined contribution of these loci to the variation in obesity risk at the population level is small and their predictive value is typically low...

Impact of weight bias and stigma on quality of care and outcomes for patients with obesity

Phelan, SM; Burgess, DJ; Yeazel, MW; Hellerstedt, WL; Griffin, JM; van Ryn, M
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing Ltd Publicador: Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Tipo: text
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.62%
The objective of this study was to critically review the empirical evidence from all relevant disciplines regarding obesity stigma in order to (i) determine the implications of obesity stigma for healthcare providers and their patients with obesity and (ii) identify strategies to improve care for patients with obesity. We conducted a search of Medline and PsychInfo for all peer-reviewed papers presenting original empirical data relevant to stigma, bias, discrimination, prejudice and medical care. We then performed a narrative review of the existing empirical evidence regarding the impact of obesity stigma and weight bias for healthcare quality and outcomes. Many healthcare providers hold strong negative attitudes and stereotypes about people with obesity. There is considerable evidence that such attitudes influence person-perceptions, judgment, interpersonal behaviour and decision-making. These attitudes may impact the care they provide. Experiences of or expectations for poor treatment may cause stress and avoidance of care, mistrust of doctors and poor adherence among patients with obesity. Stigma can reduce the quality of care for patients with obesity despite the best intentions of healthcare providers to provide high-quality care. There are several potential intervention strategies that may reduce the impact of obesity stigma on quality of care.

Examining Methods Used to Evaluate the Cost-Effectiveness of Childhood Obesity Interventions

Wright, Davene
Tipo: thesis or dissertation
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.68%
This dissertation examines methods used to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of childhood obesity interventions in order to help decision-makers prioritize among competing health programs using standardized outcomes. Chapter 1 generates inputs for use in cost-effectiveness analyses (CEAs) of childhood obesity interventions. In Chapter 1.1, I use data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey to predict expenditures associated with obesity in childhood and adolescence. I found that obese children and adolescents have significantly different expenditures than their normal weight counterparts. I conclude that exclusion of obesity-related medical expenditures can potentially undervalue the cost-effectiveness of interventions. In Chapter 1.2, I use data from the Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development to examine the longitudinal trajectory of child weight. I derived probabilities of transitioning between weight classes that can be used in a decision-analytic model to extrapolate the effectiveness of childhood obesity interventions beyond childhood. I found that deviating from CDC BMI reference categories can more accurately capture the risk of future obesity. In Chapter 2, I evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a primary care-based obesity prevention program...

National, regional, and global trends in adult overweight and obesity prevalences

Stevens, Gretchen A; Singh, Gitanjali Maya; Lu, Yuan; Danaei, Goodarz; Lin, John K; Finucane, Mariel M; Bahalim, Adil N; McIntire, Russell K; Gutierrez, Hialy R; Cowan, Melanie; Paciorek, Christopher J; Farzadfar, Farshad; Riley, Leanne; Ezzati, Majid
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.66%
Background: Overweight and obesity prevalence are commonly used for public and policy communication of the extent of the obesity epidemic, yet comparable estimates of trends in overweight and obesity prevalence by country are not available. Methods: We estimated trends between 1980 and 2008 in overweight and obesity prevalence and their uncertainty for adults 20 years of age and older in 199 countries and territories. Data were from a previous study, which used a Bayesian hierarchical model to estimate mean body mass index (BMI) based on published and unpublished health examination surveys and epidemiologic studies. Here, we used the estimated mean BMIs in a regression model to predict overweight and obesity prevalence by age, country, year, and sex. The uncertainty of the estimates included both those of the Bayesian hierarchical model and the uncertainty due to cross-walking from mean BMI to overweight and obesity prevalence. Results: The global age-standardized prevalence of obesity nearly doubled from 6.4% (95% uncertainty interval 5.7-7.2%) in 1980 to 12.0% (11.5-12.5%) in 2008. Half of this rise occurred in the 20 years between 1980 and 2000, and half occurred in the 8 years between 2000 and 2008. The age-standardized prevalence of overweight increased from 24.6% (22.7-26.7%) to 34.4% (33.2-35.5%) during the same 28-year period. In 2008...