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Parasitological risk assessment from wastewater reuse for disposal in soil in developing countries

Cutolo, Silvana Audrá; Piveli, Roque Passos; Santos, Jeferson G.; Montes, Celia Regina; Sundefeld, Gilberto; Campos, Fabio; Gomes, Tamara M.; Melfi, Adolpho Jose
Fonte: IWA PUBLISHING; LONDON Publicador: IWA PUBLISHING; LONDON
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.52%
The purpose of this work is to analyze the parasitological risks of treated wastewater reuse from a stabilization pond in the city of Piracicaba, in the State of Sao Paulo (Brazil), and the level of treatment required to protect public health. Samples were taken from raw and treated wastewater in stabilization ponds and submitted to a parasitological, microbiological and physicochemical analysis. The study revealed on treated wastewater the presence of Ascaris sp. and Entamoeba coli with an average density of 1 cysts L-1 and 6 eggs L-1, respectively. For Ascaris, the annual risks of infection due to the accidental ingestion of wastewater irrigation were 7.5 x 10(-2) in 208 days and 8.7 x 10(-2) in 240 days. For Total Coliforms and Escherichia coli in treated wastewater, the average density was 1.0 x 10(5) MPN/100 ml and 2.7 x 10(4) MPN/100 ml respectively, representing 99% and 94% removal efficiency, respectively. For BOD, COD, TS and TSS removal efficiency was 69, 80, 50 and 71%, respectively. The removal efficiency for nitrogen; ammonia nitrogen and total phosphate was 24, 19 and 68%, respectively. The average density of helminths eggs in treated wastewater is higher compared to the density of the limit value of <= 1 egg L-1 and tolerable risk is above the level recommended by the World Health Organization. Multiple barriers are necessary for the reduction of organic matter...

Ecologia molecular de fungos patogênicos onygenales em animais silvestres do interior do estado de São Paulo

Pereira, Vírginia Bodelão Richini
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP) Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 110 f. + 1 cd-rom
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.08%
Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Pós-graduação em Biologia Geral e Aplicada - IBB; A Paracoccidioidomicose (PCM) é uma micose sistêmica e a de maior ocorrência na América Latina, causada pelo fungo Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Apesar dos esforços contínuos de diversos grupos de pesquisa principalmente do Brasil, Colômbia Venezuela e Argentina, a fase ambiental produtora de propágulos infectantes, seu nicho ecológico e outros aspectos fundamentais da biologia deste patógeno ainda representa um enigma. Sabe-se, no entanto, que há alguns indicadores biológicos onde se constata a infecção natural do P. brasiliensis em espécies de tatu Dasypus novemcinctus em áreas endêmicas. Assim, o isolamento sistemático deste patógeno nesta espécie animal tem despertado o interesse em avaliar outras espécies animais cuja distribuição geográfica seja coincidente com a da PCM. O conhecimento de reservatórios naturais de fungos patogênicos e o mapeamento de regiões habitadas pelos fungos são dados fundamentais para elucidar a eco-epidemiologia da PCM. O presente projeto focalizou a detecção ambiental do P. brasiliensis, bem como de outros fungos patogênicos geneticamente relacionados...

Fatores de riscos associados à leishmaniose visceral canina na área de cinturão verde de Ilha Solteira, SP

Spada, Julio Cesar Pereira
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP) Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/masterthesis Formato: 106 f. : il.
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.08%
Pós-graduação em Ciência e Tecnologia Animal - FEIS; A Leishmaniose Visceral Canina (LVC) é uma zoonose parasitária causada pelo protozoário Leishmania infantum transmitido principalmente pela picada do vetor flebotomíneo da espécie Lutzomyia longipalpis. O presente estudo objetivou avaliar a prevalência da LVC em cães, a distribuição de flebotomíneos e os fatores de riscos associados à doença, em uma área rural periurbana denominada por Cinturão Verde, localizada do município de Ilha Solteira, SP. Dessa forma, amostras de 250 cães, incluindo aspirados de linfonodos, de sangue e de suabe conjuntival foram coletadas para a realização dos exames parasitológico direto (PA), sorológico (ELISA e RIFI) e PCR (suabe conjuntival). A positividade dos cães para LVC foi de 31,6% (79/250) à RIFI, 28,8% (72/250) ao teste ELISA, 25,2% (63/250) ao PA e 20,4% (49/240) à PCR. A concordância entre os métodos, quando analisada pelo índice Kappa (p ? 0,05), foi considerada excelente entre ELISA x RIFI (94,5%), moderada entre ELISA x PA (81,7%) e entre RIFI x PA (78,3%), mas foi baixíssima entre PCR e os demais testes analisados. Os flebotomíneos da espécie Lu. longipalpis foram capturados com auxilio de armadilhas luminosas do tipo CDC (“Center for Disease Control and Prevention”)...

Impacto do controle da esquistossomose mansonica sobre o hospedeiro humano em area de baixa endemicidade (Pedro de Toledo, São Paulo, 1980-1992)

Oswaldo Marçal Junior
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 12/06/1995 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.08%
O programa de controle da esquistossomose mansônica no município de Pedro de Toledo (São Paulo, Brasil) foi implantado em 1980. No presente estudo foram avaliados diferentes aspectos do impacto das medidas de controle deste programa, no período 1980-1992, a partir da integração dos enfoques epidemiológico (quantitativo) e social (qualitativo). A pesquisa epidemiológica incluiu a análise de coeficientes de prevalência e incidência, intensidade de infecção e outros parâmetros de verificação da transmissão/controle. A pesquisa social envolveu a aplicação de questionários numa amostra das famílias locais e entrevistas não-estruturadas, realizadas com lideranças da comunidade. Casos autóctones representaram a maioria absoluta dos portadores de Schistosoma mansoni em Pedro de Toledo. Apesar de se verificar uma acentuada diminuição das taxas de cobertura, particularmente na zona urbana, todos os indicadores de impacto avaliados evidenciaram a diminuição dos níveis de transmissão da esquistossomose. A prevalência geral caiu de 23% em 1980 para 1,9% em 1992 e a incidência geral de 5,2% no período 1981/82 para 1,7% em 1990/91. Os coeficientes de incidência e prevalência foram maiores entre os homens e na zona rural...

Assessing bovine babesiosis in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus ticks and 3 to 9-month-old cattle in the middle Magdalena region, Colombia

Ríos-Tobón,Sandra; Gutiérrez-Builes,Lina A.; Ríos-Osorio,Leonardo A.
Fonte: Colégio Brasileiro de Patologia Animal - CBPA; Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária (EMBRAPA) Publicador: Colégio Brasileiro de Patologia Animal - CBPA; Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária (EMBRAPA)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.24%
Babesia sp. is a protozoan hemoparasite that affects livestock worldwide. The Colombian Middle Magdalena is an enzootic region for babesiosis, but there is no previous research providing detail on its transmission cycle. This study aims to assess some Babesia sp. infection indicators in cattle and ticks from the area, by using direct microscopic and molecular techniques to detect the infection. In the cattle, 59.9% and 3.4 % positivity values for B. bigemina and mixed infection (B. bovis + B. bigemina) were found respectively. In ticks, the positivity of B. bigemina reached 79.2% and 9.4% for the mixed infection. The degree of infestation in the region was 3.2 ticks per bovine. There was positive correlation between tick control acaricide frequencies and infestation in bovines. This leads us to infer that control periodicity greater than 90 days, in stable zones, is an abiotic factor that benefits the acquisition of protective immunity in calves, the natural control of the infection and eventual disease absence. It is necessary to monitor the disease by applying new entomological and parasitological indicators showing the complexity of this phenomenon.

Sanitary quality of sands from marine recreational beaches of São Paulo, Brazil

Sato,Maria Inês Zanoli; Di Bari,Marisa; Lamparelli,Claudia Condé; Truzzi,Ana Cristina; Coelho,Maria Cristina L.S.; Hachich,Elayse Maria
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2005 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.24%
A sanitary evaluation of sand and water from 16 beaches of São Paulo State, Brazil, was undertaken during spring of 1997 and summer of 1998. Ninety six samples each of wet and dry sand and seawater were collected and analysed for fecal indicator bacteria. A parasitological examination and Candida albicans analysis were also performed in sand samples and F-specific bacteriophages were determined in seawater. Statistical analysis of the results demonstrated higher concentrations of fecal coliforms and fecal streptococci in dry sand during summer. Correlation analysis indicated a significant relationship between fecal indicator densities in wet sand and seawater. There was a significant correlation between the densities of fecal coliforms and fecal streptococci for both types of sand, and this correlation was higher in wet sand. Cysts and eggs of parasites were detected in 4.2% of the samples and Candida albicans was isolated in 18% of the samples. The high concentrations of fecal indicators detected in sand during summer demonstrate that there is a health risk to the users of these recreational areas and suggest the necessity of some criteria for microbiological control. Preventive measures, such as education campaings and some management actions are important precautionary measures.

Different response to Plasmodium falciparum malaria in West African sympatric ethnic?groups

Modiano, D.; Petrarca, V.; Sirima, B.?S.; Nebié, I.; Diallo, D.; Esposito, F.; Coluzzi, M.
Fonte: The National Academy of Sciences of the USA Publicador: The National Academy of Sciences of the USA
Tipo: text
Publicado em 12/11/1996 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The comparison of malaria indicators among populations that have different genetic backgrounds and are uniformly exposed to the same parasite strains is one approach to the study of human heterogeneities in the response to the infection. We report the results of comparative surveys on three sympatric West African ethnic groups, Fulani, Mossi, and Rimaibé, living in the same conditions of hyperendemic transmission in a Sudan savanna area northeast of Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. The Mossi and Rimaibé are Sudanese negroid populations with a long tradition of sedentary farming, while the Fulani are nomadic pastoralists, partly settled and characterized by non-negroid features of possible caucasoid origin. Parasitological, clinical, and immunological investigations showed consistent interethnic differences in Plasmodium falciparum infection rates, malaria morbidity, and prevalence and levels of antibodies to various P. falciparum antigens. The data point to a remarkably similar response to malaria in the Mossi and Rimaibé, while the Fulani are clearly less parasitized, less affected by the disease, and more responsive to all antigens tested. No difference in the use of malaria protective measures was demonstrated that could account for these findings...

Induction of protective immunity to Plasmodium falciparum in Saimiri sciureus monkeys with partially purified exoantigens.

James, M A; Kakoma, I; Ristic, M; Cagnard, M
Tipo: text
Publicado em /09/1985 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.08%
Soluble Plasmodium falciparum exoantigens in crude culture supernatant fluids induced protective immunity against experimental falciparum malaria in Bolivian Saimiri sciureus monkeys. Susceptible squirrel monkeys were vaccinated with an aluminum hydroxide-fortified fraction purified from culture supernatants of P. falciparum Indochina I and Geneve/SGE-1 by cation-exchange (sulfopropyl-trisacryl) chromatography. Animals immunized with sulfopropyl-purified and corresponding control immunogens were challenged with whole blood containing monkey-adapted virulent organisms of the Indochina I strain. Hematological, serological, and parasitological profiles, including the appearance of crisis forms, served as potential indicators of protection. This immunogen conferred significant clinical protection of squirrel monkeys against needle challenge with the homologous Indochina I strain and a moderate degree of heterologous strain immunity.

Human Antibody Response to Anopheles gambiae Saliva: An Immuno-Epidemiological Biomarker to Evaluate the Efficacy of Insecticide-Treated Nets in Malaria Vector Control

Drame, Papa M.; Poinsignon, Anne; Besnard, Patrick; Le Mire, Jacques; Dos-Santos, Maria A.; Sow, Cheikh S.; Cornelie, Sylvie; Foumane, Vincent; Toto, Jean-Claude; Sembene, Mbacké; Boulanger, Denis; Simondon, François; Fortes, Filomeno; Carnevale, Pierre
Fonte: The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene Publicador: The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Tipo: text
Publicado em /07/2010 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.08%
For the fight against malaria, the World Health Organization (WHO) has emphasized the need for indicators to evaluate the efficacy of vector-control strategies. This study investigates a potential immunological marker, based on human antibody responses to Anopheles saliva, as a new indicator to evaluate the efficacy of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs). Parasitological, entomological, and immunological assessments were carried out in children and adults from a malaria-endemic region of Angola before and after the introduction of ITNs. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels to An. gambiae saliva were positively associated with the intensity of An. gambiae exposure and malaria infection. A significant decrease in the anti-saliva IgG response was observed after the introduction of ITNs, and this was associated with a drop in parasite load. This study represents the first stage in the development of a new indicator to evaluate the efficacy of malaria vector-control strategies, which could apply in other arthropod vector-borne diseases.

Human Antibody Responses to the Anopheles Salivary gSG6-P1 Peptide: A Novel Tool for Evaluating the Efficacy of ITNs in Malaria Vector Control

Drame, Papa Makhtar; Poinsignon, Anne; Besnard, Patrick; Cornelie, Sylvie; Le Mire, Jacques; Toto, Jean-Claude; Foumane, Vincent; Dos-Santos, Maria Adelaide; Sembène, Mbacké; Fortes, Filomeno; Simondon, Francois; Carnevale, Pierre; Remoue, Franck
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: text
Publicado em 14/12/2010 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.08%
To optimize malaria control, WHO has prioritised the need for new indicators to evaluate the efficacy of malaria vector control strategies. The gSG6-P1 peptide from gSG6 protein of Anopheles gambiae salivary glands was previously designed as a specific salivary sequence of malaria vector species. It was shown that the quantification of human antibody (Ab) responses to Anopheles salivary proteins in general and especially to the gSG6-P1 peptide was a pertinent biomarker of human exposure to Anopheles. The present objective was to validate this indicator in the evaluation of the efficacy of Insecticide Treated Nets (ITNs). A longitudinal evaluation, including parasitological, entomological and immunological assessments, was conducted on children and adults from a malaria-endemic area before and after the introduction of ITNs. Significant decrease of anti-gSG6-P1 IgG response was observed just after the efficient ITNs use. Interestingly, specific IgG Ab level was especially pertinent to evaluate a short-time period of ITNs efficacy and at individual level. However, specific IgG rose back up within four months as correct ITN use waned. IgG responses to one salivary peptide could constitute a reliable biomarker for the evaluation of ITN efficacy...

Fractal analysis of behaviour in a wild primate: behavioural complexity in health and disease

MacIntosh, Andrew J. J.; Alados, Concepción L.; Huffman, Michael A.
Fonte: The Royal Society Publicador: The Royal Society
Tipo: text
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.08%
Parasitism and other stressors are ubiquitous in nature but their effects on animal behaviour can be difficult to identify. We investigated the effects of nematode parasitism and other indicators of physiological impairment on the sequential complexity of foraging and locomotion behaviour among wild Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata yakui). We observed all sexually mature individuals (n = 28) in one macaque study group between October 2007 and August 2008, and collected two faecal samples/month/individual (n = 362) for parasitological examination. We used detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) to investigate long-range autocorrelation in separate, binary sequences of foraging (n = 459) and locomotion (n = 446) behaviour collected via focal sampling. All behavioural sequences exhibited long-range autocorrelation, and linear mixed-effects models suggest that increasing infection with the nodular worm Oesophagostomum aculeatum, clinically impaired health, reproductive activity, ageing and low dominance status were associated with reductions in the complexity of locomotion, and to a lesser extent foraging, behaviour. Furthermore, the sequential complexity of behaviour increased with environmental complexity. We argue that a reduction in complexity in animal behaviour characterizes individuals in impaired or ‘stressed’ states...

Estimating the Burden of Malaria in Senegal: Bayesian Zero-Inflated Binomial Geostatistical Modeling of the MIS 2008 Data

Giardina, Federica; Gosoniu, Laura; Konate, Lassana; Diouf, Mame Birame; Perry, Robert; Gaye, Oumar; Faye, Ousmane; Vounatsou, Penelope
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: text
Publicado em 05/03/2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.24%
The Research Center for Human Development in Dakar (CRDH) with the technical assistance of ICF Macro and the National Malaria Control Programme (NMCP) conducted in 2008/2009 the Senegal Malaria Indicator Survey (SMIS), the first nationally representative household survey collecting parasitological data and malaria-related indicators. In this paper, we present spatially explicit parasitaemia risk estimates and number of infected children below 5 years. Geostatistical Zero-Inflated Binomial models (ZIB) were developed to take into account the large number of zero-prevalence survey locations (70%) in the data. Bayesian variable selection methods were incorporated within a geostatistical framework in order to choose the best set of environmental and climatic covariates associated with the parasitaemia risk. Model validation confirmed that the ZIB model had a better predictive ability than the standard Binomial analogue. Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods were used for inference. Several insecticide treated nets (ITN) coverage indicators were calculated to assess the effectiveness of interventions. After adjusting for climatic and socio-economic factors, the presence of at least one ITN per every two household members and living in urban areas reduced the odds of parasitaemia by 86% and 81% respectively. Posterior estimates of the ORs related to the wealth index show a decreasing trend with the quintiles. Infection odds appear to be increasing with age. The population-adjusted prevalence ranges from 0.12% in Thillé-Boubacar to 13.1% in Dabo. Tambacounda has the highest population-adjusted predicted prevalence (8.08%) whereas the region with the highest estimated number of infected children under the age of 5 years is Kolda (13940). The contemporary map and estimates of malaria burden identify the priority areas for future control interventions and provide baseline information for monitoring and evaluation. Zero-Inflated formulations are more appropriate in modeling sparse geostatistical survey data...

Towards a rational strategy for monitoring of microbiological quality of ambient waters

Poma, Hugo Ramiro; Cacciabue, Dolores Gutiérrez; Garcé, Beatriz; Gonzo, Elio Emilio; Rajal, Verónica Beatriz
Tipo: text
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.08%
Water is one of the main sources of human exposure to microbiological hazards. Although legislation establishes regulatory standards in terms of fecal indicator bacteria to assess the microbiological quality of water, these do not necessarily predict the presence of pathogens such as parasites and viruses. Better surveillance and management strategies are needed to assess the risk of pathogens waterborne transmission. We established a baseline dataset to characterize river water quality, identify changes over time, and design a rational monitoring strategy. Data from a year-long monthly monitoring campaign of the polluted Arenales River (Argentina), were analyzed to statistically correlate physicochemical and microbiological variables, the seasonal and longitudinal variation of the water quality and determine the similarity between study sites. The measured variables (sixteen) reflected the deterioration in the river quality through the city. Different viruses and parasites found did not correlate with the concentration of total and thermotolerant coliforms. There was significant seasonal variation for temperature, turbidity, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, enterococci, and norovirus. Strong correlations between some variables were found; we selected eight variables (dissolved oxygen...