Página 1 dos resultados de 5455 itens digitais encontrados em 0.020 segundos

Effects of nitrate and phosphate availabilities on growth, photosynthesis and pigment and protein contents in colour strains of Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen in Jacqu.) J.V. Lamour. (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta)

MARTINS, Aline P.; NECCHI JUNIOR, Orlando; COLEPICOLO, Pio; YOKOYA, Nair S.
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Farmacognosia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Farmacognosia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.74%
In Brazil, Hypnea musciformis is the main raw material for carrageenan production and the knowledge of nitrogen and phosphorus metabolism in algae is critical for the success of cultivation because these elements can limit seaweed productivity. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of nitrate (zero to 100 ?M) and nitrate plus phosphate (zero to 25 ?M) availabilities on the growth, the contents of photosynthetic pigments (phycobiliproteins and chlorophyll a) and proteins, and the photosynthesis and respiration of the brown (BR) and light green (LG) strains of H. musciformis. The results revealed metabolic differences between the colour strains of H. musciformis for nitrogen metabolism: upon nitrate addition, the LG strain stored nitrogen mainly as proteins, while the BR strain stored it as proteins and pigments. Moreover, the respiration of the LG strain and the photosynthesis of the BR strain increased with nitrate concentrations, indicating that the BR strain fixed more photosynthetic carbon than the LG strain.; Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq)

Elevated CO(2) increases photosynthesis, biomass and productivity, and modifies gene expression in sugarcane

SOUZA, Amanda Pereira De; GASPAR, Marilia; SILVA, Emerson Alves Da; ULIAN, Eugenio Cesar; WACLAWOVSKY, Alessandro Jaquiel; NISHIYAMA JR., Milton Yutaka; SANTOS, Renato Vicentini Dos; TEIXEIRA, Marcelo Menossi; SOUZA, Glaucia Mendes; BUCKERIDGE, Marcos Sil
Fonte: WILEY-BLACKWELL Publicador: WILEY-BLACKWELL
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.82%
Because of the economical relevance of sugarcane and its high potential as a source of biofuel, it is important to understand how this crop will respond to the foreseen increase in atmospheric [CO(2)]. The effects of increased [CO(2)] on photosynthesis, development and carbohydrate metabolism were studied in sugarcane (Saccharum ssp.). Plants were grown at ambient (similar to 370 ppm) and elevated (similar to 720 ppm) [CO(2)] during 50 weeks in open-top chambers. The plants grown under elevated CO(2) showed, at the end of such period, an increase of about 30% in photosynthesis and 17% in height, and accumulated 40% more biomass in comparison with the plants grown at ambient [CO(2)]. These plants also had lower stomatal conductance and transpiration rates (-37 and -32%, respectively), and higher water-use efficiency (c.a. 62%). cDNA microarray analyses revealed a differential expression of 35 genes on the leaves (14 repressed and 22 induced) by elevated CO(2). The latter are mainly related to photosynthesis and development. Industrial productivity analysis showed an increase of about 29% in sucrose content. These data suggest that sugarcane crops increase productivity in higher [CO(2)], and that this might be related, as previously observed for maize and sorghum...

The effects of UV radiation on photosynthesis estimated as chlorophyll fluorescence in Zygnemopsis decussata (Chlorophyta) growing in a high mountain lake (Sierra Nevada, Southern Spain)

FIGUEROA, Felix L.; KORBEE, Nathalie; CARRILLO, Presentacion; MEDINA-SANCHEZ, Juan Manuel; MATA, Mayte; BONOMI, Jose; SANCHEZ-CASTILLO, Pedro M.
Fonte: CNR IST ITALIANO IDROBIOLOGIA Publicador: CNR IST ITALIANO IDROBIOLOGIA
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.74%
The effect of increased UV radiation on photosynthesis estimated as in vivo chlorophyll fluorescence i.e. optimal quantum yield (F(v)/F(m)) and electron transport rate (ETR) in the green filamentous alga Zygnemopsis decussata (Streptophyta, Zygnematales) growing in the high mountain lake ""La Caldera"" (Sierra Nevada, Spain) at 3050 m altitude was evaluated. Two sets of in situ experiments were conducted: (1) On July 2006, F(v)/F(m) was measured throughout the day at different depths (0.1, 0.25, 0.5 and 1 m) and in the afternoon. ETR and phenolic compounds were determined. In addition, in order to analyze the effect of UV radiation, F(v)/F(m) was determined in algae incubated for 3 days at 0.5m under three different light treatments: PAR+UVA+UVB (PAB). PAR+UVA (PA) and PAR (P). (2) On August 2007, F(v)/F(m) was determined under PAB, PA and P treatments and desiccation/rehydration conditions. F(v)/F(m) decreased in algae growing in surface waters (0.1 m) but also at 1 m depth compared to that at 0.5 in depth. The decrease of F(v)/F(m) at noon due to photoinhibition was small (less than 10%) except in algae growing at 1 m depth (44%). The maximal electron transport rate was 3.5-5 times higher in algae growing at 0.25-0.5 m respectively than that at 0.1 and 1 m depth. These results are related to the accumulation of phenolic compounds: i.e. the algae at 0.25-0.5 in presentedrespectively about a 3-5 times higher concentration of phenolic compounds than that of algae at 0.1-1 m depth. The protection mechanisms seem to be stimulated by UVB radiation...

Relações entre espectroscopia de fluorescência, fotossíntese e severidade do cancro cítrico (Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri); Relationships between fluorescence spectroscopy, photosynthesis and severity of citrus canker (Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri)

Gasparoto, Maria Cândida de Godoy
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: dissertação de mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 06/02/2007 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.74%
O cancro cítrico (Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri) é uma das mais importantes doenças dos citros e seu controle é feito com medidas de exclusão e erradicação do patógeno. As chances de detecção de plantas doentes diminuem em pomares com baixa incidência da doença. Considerando-se as dificuldades da diagnose visual do cancro cítrico e as vantagens de uma tecnologia que possa melhorar o processo de detecção desta doença no campo, procurou-se identificar características espectroscópicas únicas de uma planta com esta doença. Os objetivos do presente trabalho foram verificar as características espectroscópicas de folhas com cancro cítrico e correlacioná-las às alterações na eficiência fotossintética do tecido foliar doente e relacionar severidade da doença à eficiência fotossintética. Os perfis espectroscópicos e a eficiência fotossintética de plantas das espécies Citrus sinensis (?Hamlin?), Citrus reticulata (?Ponkan?) e Citrus limonia (?Cravo?) foram avaliados antes e após a inoculação com Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri. O modelo y = (1 - x) ?, onde y representa a assimilação líquida relativa de CO2 e x, a severidade da doença, foi ajustado aos dados por meio de regressão não-linear. O modelo monomolecular foi ajustado à relação entre assimilação líquida relativa de CO2 e razões espectroscópicas da região do vermelho...

Efeitos de uma atmosfera enriquecida com CO2 sobre a fotossíntese, o crescimento e o metabolismo de carboidratos do açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.); Effects of a CO2-enriched atmosphere on the photosynthesis, growth, and carbohydrate metabolism of açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.)

Mortari, Leila Cristina
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: dissertação de mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 26/11/2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.89%
Dentre a gama de estudos existentes acerca das respostas de plantas ao incremento de CO2 atmosférico associado às mudanças climáticas, são poucas as investigações que contemplam espécies amazônicas frente à relevância desse ecossistema, e se desconhecem estudos desse aspecto com palmeiras. O açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart., Arecaceae) é uma espécie típica de planícies da Floresta Amazônica sujeitas ao regime anual de inundação e, além de ser extremamente tolerante à anóxia, apresenta elevado valor comercial e um potencial para a produção de energia a partir de biomassa, gerando uma exploração economicamente sustentável. Este trabalho buscou caracterizar o crescimento inicial de plântulas de açaí quanto à fotossíntese, crescimento e metabolismo de carboidratos e investigar as respostas desses parâmetros ao incremento de CO2 atmosférico (de 380ppm - ambiente para 760ppm - elevado) em duas escalas temporais: ao longo do desenvolvimento das plântulas (entre 105 e 195 dias após a germinação, período de desenvolvimento da segunda folha) e ao longo de 24 horas (aos 175 dias após a germinação). Foram analisadas medidas de altura, área foliar, acúmulo e alocação de biomassa, curvas de resposta da fotossíntese à luz...

Competência para a expressão da fotossíntese CAM em plantas de Guzmania monostachia (Bromeliaceae) em diferentes fases ontogenéticas; Competence for CAM photosynthesis expression in different ontogenétic stages of plants of Guzmania monostachia (Bromeliaceae)

Hamachi, Leonardo
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: dissertação de mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 06/11/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.74%
A Guzmania monostachia é uma espécie de bromélia heteroblástica, ou seja, na fase juvenil, ela apresenta a forma atmosférica e na fase adulta, ela adquire uma estrutura chamada de tanque, que pode armazenar água e nutrientes em momentos de seca esporádica. Ela também é reconhecida por ser C3-CAM facultativa, podendo ser induzida ao CAM através de estímulos ambientais como o a escassez d'água. Estudos com outras espécies competentes para a expressão do CAM, há relatos de que tecidos jovens expressariam preferencialmente a fotossíntese C3 e passariam a expressar o CAM à medida que se tornassem maduros. No Laboratório de Fisiologia do Desenvolvimento Vegetal a indução do CAM em plantas adultas da espécie G. monostachia por déficit hídrico foi estudada e pôde-se constatar que essa bromélia possui folhas com regiões funcionais distintas: a porção basal seria responsável pela absorção de água e nutrientes e a porção apical encarregada de realizar, principalmente, a fotossíntese. Contudo, ainda não se possuía informação sobre como a ontogenia e as mudanças morfológicas estariam influenciando a competência para a expressão do CAM em folhas inteiras e nas diferentes porções foliares de G. monostachia. A fim de se caracterizar o CAM nesta espécie ao longo da ontogenia...

Influence of light intensity and salt-treatment on mode of photosynthesis and enzymes of the antioxidative response system of Mesembryanthemum crystallinum

Broetto, F.; Luttge, U.; Ratajczak, R.
Fonte: CSIRO Publishing Publicador: CSIRO Publishing
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 13-23
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.62%
The metabolic switch From C-3-photosynthesis to crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM),and the antioxidative response of Mesembryanthemum crystallinum L. plants cultured under severe salt stress and high light intensities, and a combination of booth stress conditions, were studied. High light conditions led to a more rapid CAM induction than salinity. The induction time was still shortened when both stress factors were combined. A main pattern observed in CAM plants was a decrease in mitochondrial Mn-superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity during the day. The activities of the chloroplastic Fe-SOD and cytosolic CuZn-SOD were increased due to salt treatment after a lag phase, while catalase activity was decreased. Combination of salt and light stress did not lead to a higher SOD activity as found after application of one stress factor alone, indicating that there is a threshold level of the oxidative stress response. The fact that salt-stressed plants grown under high light conditions showed permanent photoinhibition and lost the ability for nocturnal malate storage after 9 d of treatment indicate serious malfunction of metabolism, leading to accelerated senescence. Comparison of CuZn-SOD activity with CuZn-SOD protein amount, which was determined immunologically...

Effects of nitrate and phosphate availabilities on growth, photosynthesis and pigment and protein contents in colour strains of Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen in Jacqu.) J.V. Lamour. (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta)

Martins, Aline P.; Necchi Junior, Orlando; Colepicolo, Pio; Yokoya, Nair S.
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Farmacognosia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Farmacognosia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 340-348
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.74%
Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq); In Brazil, Hypnea musciformis is the main raw material for carrageenan production and the knowledge of nitrogen and phosphorus metabolism in algae is critical for the success of cultivation because these elements can limit seaweed productivity. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of nitrate (zero to 100 ?M) and nitrate plus phosphate (zero to 25 ?M) availabilities on the growth, the contents of photosynthetic pigments (phycobiliproteins and chlorophyll a) and proteins, and the photosynthesis and respiration of the brown (BR) and light green (LG) strains of H. musciformis. The results revealed metabolic differences between the colour strains of H. musciformis for nitrogen metabolism: upon nitrate addition, the LG strain stored nitrogen mainly as proteins, while the BR strain stored it as proteins and pigments. Moreover, the respiration of the LG strain and the photosynthesis of the BR strain increased with nitrate concentrations, indicating that the BR strain fixed more photosynthetic carbon than the LG strain.

Elevated CO(2) increases photosynthesis, biomass and productivity, and modifies gene expression in sugarcane

SOUZA, Amanda Pereira De; GASPAR, Marilia; SILVA, Emerson Alves Da; ULIAN, Eugenio Cesar; WACLAWOVSKY, Alessandro Jaquiel; NISHIYAMA JR., Milton Yutaka; SANTOS, Renato Vicentini Dos; TEIXEIRA, Marcelo Menossi; SOUZA, Glaucia Mendes; BUCKERIDGE, Marcos Sil
Fonte: WILEY-BLACKWELL Publicador: WILEY-BLACKWELL
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.82%
Because of the economical relevance of sugarcane and its high potential as a source of biofuel, it is important to understand how this crop will respond to the foreseen increase in atmospheric [CO(2)]. The effects of increased [CO(2)] on photosynthesis, development and carbohydrate metabolism were studied in sugarcane (Saccharum ssp.). Plants were grown at ambient (similar to 370 ppm) and elevated (similar to 720 ppm) [CO(2)] during 50 weeks in open-top chambers. The plants grown under elevated CO(2) showed, at the end of such period, an increase of about 30% in photosynthesis and 17% in height, and accumulated 40% more biomass in comparison with the plants grown at ambient [CO(2)]. These plants also had lower stomatal conductance and transpiration rates (-37 and -32%, respectively), and higher water-use efficiency (c.a. 62%). cDNA microarray analyses revealed a differential expression of 35 genes on the leaves (14 repressed and 22 induced) by elevated CO(2). The latter are mainly related to photosynthesis and development. Industrial productivity analysis showed an increase of about 29% in sucrose content. These data suggest that sugarcane crops increase productivity in higher [CO(2)], and that this might be related, as previously observed for maize and sorghum...

Influence of transient shade periods on the effects of drought on photosynthesis, carbohydrate accumulation and lipid peroxidation in sunflower leaves

Correia, Maria João; Osório, Maria Leonor; Osório, Júlio; Barrote, Isabel; Martins, Mónica; David, Maria Manuela
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2006 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.62%
The effects of a slow-imposing two-weeks soil drying period, and subsequent re-watering, on leaf water potential (?), gas exchange rates, chlorophyll fluorescence and on the concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA) and non-structural carbohydrates (starch, hexose and sucrose) were determined in mature leaves of sunflower plants growing under controlled environmental conditions. To assess how transient shade periods, associated with increased cloud cover, may influence drought-induced effects on carbon assimilation, measurements were carried out both in plants kept under the photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) prevailing during the growth period and stress imposition (750 ?mol m-2 s-1), and in plants subjected to a 5 hours-long period under a lower PPFD (200 ?mol m-2 s-1). In plants kept under high PPFD, ?, stomatal conductance (g), net CO2 uptake rate (A), the quantum yield of photosystem II electron transport (?e), the photochemical efficiency of open PSII reaction centres (Fv’/Fm’) and * Corresponding author. Tel: +351 289800932; fax: +351 289818419. E-mail address: jcorreia@ualg.pt (M.J. Correia) 1 the diurnal accumulation of total non-structural carbohydrates (TNC) were significantly depressed at the end of the soil drying period...

Effects of nitrate and phosphate availabilities on growth, photosynthesis and pigment and protein contents in colour strains of Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen in Jacqu.) J.V. Lamour. (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta)

Martins,Aline P.; Necchi Junior,Orlando; Colepicolo,Pio; Yokoya,Nair S.
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Farmacognosia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Farmacognosia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.74%
In Brazil, Hypnea musciformis is the main raw material for carrageenan production and the knowledge of nitrogen and phosphorus metabolism in algae is critical for the success of cultivation because these elements can limit seaweed productivity. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of nitrate (zero to 100 ?M) and nitrate plus phosphate (zero to 25 ?M) availabilities on the growth, the contents of photosynthetic pigments (phycobiliproteins and chlorophyll a) and proteins, and the photosynthesis and respiration of the brown (BR) and light green (LG) strains of H. musciformis. The results revealed metabolic differences between the colour strains of H. musciformis for nitrogen metabolism: upon nitrate addition, the LG strain stored nitrogen mainly as proteins, while the BR strain stored it as proteins and pigments. Moreover, the respiration of the LG strain and the photosynthesis of the BR strain increased with nitrate concentrations, indicating that the BR strain fixed more photosynthetic carbon than the LG strain.

Effects of nitrate and phosphate availabilities on growth, photosynthesis and pigment and protein contents in colour strains of Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen in Jacqu.) J.V. Lamour. (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta)

Martins,Aline P.; Necchi Junior,Orlando; Colepicolo,Pio; Yokoya,Nair S.
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Farmacognosia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Farmacognosia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.74%
In Brazil, Hypnea musciformis is the main raw material for carrageenan production and the knowledge of nitrogen and phosphorus metabolism in algae is critical for the success of cultivation because these elements can limit seaweed productivity. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of nitrate (zero to 100 ?M) and nitrate plus phosphate (zero to 25 ?M) availabilities on the growth, the contents of photosynthetic pigments (phycobiliproteins and chlorophyll a) and proteins, and the photosynthesis and respiration of the brown (BR) and light green (LG) strains of H. musciformis. The results revealed metabolic differences between the colour strains of H. musciformis for nitrogen metabolism: upon nitrate addition, the LG strain stored nitrogen mainly as proteins, while the BR strain stored it as proteins and pigments. Moreover, the respiration of the LG strain and the photosynthesis of the BR strain increased with nitrate concentrations, indicating that the BR strain fixed more photosynthetic carbon than the LG strain.

Hydrography, phytoplankton biomass and photosynthesis in shelf and oceanic waters off southeastern Brazil during autumn (may/june, 1983)

Brandini,Frederico Pereira
Fonte: Instituto Oceanográfico da Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Instituto Oceanográfico da Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/1988 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.74%
Spatial distribution of chlorophyll-a, phytoplankton photosynthesis and nutrients were studied in relation to the hydrographic environment of the southeastern Brazil from May 3 to June 31 of 1983 during an oceanographia cruise conducted by the R/V "Almirante Saldanha" of the Brazilian Navy. Temperature and salinity at 5 meters depth ranged from 21 to 25º C and from 33.00 to 37.11, respectively. The concentration of nutrients varied, nitrate + nitrite-N from 1.0-3.0 µg-at/l, phosphate-P 0.1-0.9 µg-at/l and silicate-Si 5-25 µg-at/l. The chlorophyll-a concentrations along the coast varied from 0.35 to 1.48 mg/m³ with maxima in front of Paranaguá Bay (PR) and over the southern shelf of Santa Catarina State. Low concentrations around 0.20 mg/m³ of uniform distribution were observed in shelf and off-shelf areas. Comparatively high concentrations were measured over the shelf break zone in front of Paranaguá Bay indicationg the occurrence of shelf break upwelling of deep nutrient rich waters. The pattern of vertical distribution was stratified and irregular in coastal stations and uniform in shelf and oceanic waters although some subsurface peaks were sometimes detected. The integrated chlorophyll values within the euphotic layer varied between 2.70 and 28.06 mg/m². The surface photo synthetic capacity varied from 0.4 to 7.7 mgC/mgChl.a/hr with higher values obtained in coastal areas.. The vertical distributions were variable in coastal areas and more uniform in mid-shelf stations. Sub-surface maxima of photosynthesis were detected in both nearshore and off-shore stations...

Effects of light on the growth and photosynthesis of Egeria najas planchon

Tavechio,Washington Luiz Gomes; Thomaz,Sidinei Magela
Fonte: Instituto de Tecnologia do Paraná - Tecpar Publicador: Instituto de Tecnologia do Paraná - Tecpar
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/2003 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.74%
Photosynthesis and growth of Egeria najas (Hydrocharitaceae) from a subtropical reservoir (Itaipu Reservoir, Brazil-Paraguay) were measured in response to low light intensities (0-124 µM m-2 s-1 PAR) in the laboratory. Photosynthesis approached saturation in the range of light intensities used and light compensation point was reached at ca. 6-22 µM m-2 s-1 PAR, indicating that this species had a low light requirement for growth. Light stimulated shoot and root relative growth rates (RGR) but it was not related to ratios between root:shoot RGR. Laboratory observations indicated that (i) both shoot and root growth were simultaneously stimulated by light and (ii) the low light requirements of E. najas may explain its incidence in the Itaipu Reservoir, where biogenic as well as abiogenic turbidity is high.

High temperature effects on the response of photosynthesis to light in sweet orange plants infected with Xylella fastidiosa

Ribeiro,Rafael Vasconcelos; Machado,Eduardo Caruso; Oliveira,Ricardo Ferraz de; Pimentel,Carlos
Fonte: Brazilian Journal of Plant Physiology Publicador: Brazilian Journal of Plant Physiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2003 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.74%
The objective of this study was to evaluate the high temperature effects on the response of photosynthesis to light in sweet orange plants infected with Xylella fastidiosa. This vascular bacterium is the causal agent of the citrus variegated chlorosis that causes severe economical losses to the Brazilian citrus industry. The responses of the photosynthetic oxygen evolution and the parameters related to chlorophyll a fluorescence to the increase in light intensity were evaluated at 35ºC and 45ºC in both healthy and infected leaf discs. The increase in temperature affected the photosynthetic apparatus of both healthy and infected plants, although infected plants showed higher photochemical sensitivity at the higher temperature (e.g. in the potential quantum efficiency of photosystem II, maximum and basal fluorescence yield, and in the relation between variable and basal fluorescence yield). This higher sensitivity of infected plants was not reflected in the overall photosynthetic reaction, since photosynthetic oxygen evolution values did not vary at 45ºC. Healthy and infected plants showed differences in photosynthetic oxygen evolution but displayed similar effective quantum efficiency of photosystem II as well as apparent electron transport rates at 35ºC. These results suggest that the limitations in photosynthesis observed on the infected plants might arise through impaired biochemical reactions.

Establishment of sensitive and resistant variety of tomato on the basis of photosynthesis and antioxidative enzymes in the presence of cobalt applied as shotgun approach

Hasan,Syed Aiman; Hayat,Shamsul; Wani,Arif Shafi; Ahmad,Aqil
Fonte: Brazilian Journal of Plant Physiology Publicador: Brazilian Journal of Plant Physiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.74%
Cobalt (Co) affords both beneficial as well as toxic effects to plants. The present study was performed with an aim to find out the varietal differences among five tomato cultivars against the Co induced changes in growth, photosynthesis, nitrate reductase (E.C.1.6.6.1), carbonic anhydrase (E.C.4.2.1.1), antioxidative enzymes i.e. peroxidase (E.C.1.11.1.7), catalase (E.C.1.11.1.6), superoxide dismutase (E.C.1.15.1.1) and that of proline content. Seeds of tomato (varieties, K-25, NTS-9, NBR-Uday, Sarvodya, and Malti) were soaked in 0, 100, 200 or 300 µM CoCl2 for 0, 4, 8, 12 h (shotgun approach) and sampled at 30 days after sowing. All the varieties showed significantly different response to different treatment combinations. Despite substantial varietal difference, increased Co concentration caused concomitant decrease in growth, photosynthesis and the activity of nitrate reductase and carbonic anhydrase. However, the activity of antioxidant enzymes and that of proline content increased with the increased concentration of Co as well as duration of soaking in all the varieties. Out of the varieties, K-25 possessed maximum antioxidative enzyme and proline content that represent its most resistant nature against the toxic effect of Co. The order of susceptibility/sensitivity was K-25 > NTS-9 > NBR-Uday > Sarvodya > Malti.

The Mechanistic Basis of Internal Conductance: A Theoretical Analysis of Mesophyll Cell Photosynthesis and CO2 Diffusion1[W][OA]

Tholen, Danny; Zhu, Xin-Guang
Fonte: American Society of Plant Biologists Publicador: American Society of Plant Biologists
Tipo: text
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.89%
Photosynthesis is limited by the conductance of carbon dioxide (CO2) from intercellular spaces to the sites of carboxylation. Although the concept of internal conductance (gi) has been known for over 50 years, shortcomings in the theoretical description of this process may have resulted in a limited understanding of the underlying mechanisms. To tackle this issue, we developed a three-dimensional reaction-diffusion model of photosynthesis in a typical C3 mesophyll cell that includes all major components of the CO2 diffusion pathway and associated reactions. Using this novel systems model, we systematically and quantitatively examined the mechanisms underlying gi. Our results identify the resistances of the cell wall and chloroplast envelope as the most significant limitations to photosynthesis. In addition, the concentration of carbonic anhydrase in the stroma may also be limiting for the photosynthetic rate. Our analysis demonstrated that higher levels of photorespiration increase the apparent resistance to CO2 diffusion, an effect that has thus far been ignored when determining gi. Finally, we show that outward bicarbonate leakage through the chloroplast envelope could contribute to the observed decrease in gi under elevated CO2. Our analysis suggests that physiological and anatomical features associated with gi have been evolutionarily fine-tuned to benefit CO2 diffusion and photosynthesis. The model presented here provides a novel theoretical framework to further analyze the mechanisms underlying diffusion processes in the mesophyll.

Functional Analysis of Corn Husk Photosynthesis[W][OA]

Pengelly, Jasper J.L.; Kwasny, Scott; Bala, Soumi; Evans, John R.; Voznesenskaya, Elena V.; Koteyeva, Nuria K.; Edwards, Gerald E.; Furbank, Robert T.; von Caemmerer, Susanne
Fonte: American Society of Plant Biologists Publicador: American Society of Plant Biologists
Tipo: text
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.82%
The husk surrounding the ear of corn/maize (Zea mays) has widely spaced veins with a number of interveinal mesophyll (M) cells and has been described as operating a partial C3 photosynthetic pathway, in contrast to its leaves, which use the C4 photosynthetic pathway. Here, we characterized photosynthesis in maize husk and leaf by measuring combined gas exchange and carbon isotope discrimination, the oxygen dependence of the CO2 compensation point, and photosynthetic enzyme activity and localization together with anatomy. The CO2 assimilation rate in the husk was less than that in the leaves and did not saturate at high CO2, indicating CO2 diffusion limitations. However, maximal photosynthetic rates were similar between the leaf and husk when expressed on a chlorophyll basis. The CO2 compensation points of the husk were high compared with the leaf but did not vary with oxygen concentration. This and the low carbon isotope discrimination measured concurrently with gas exchange in the husk and leaf suggested C4-like photosynthesis in the husk. However, both Rubisco activity and the ratio of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase to Rubisco activity were reduced in the husk. Immunolocalization studies showed that phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase is specifically localized in the layer of M cells surrounding the bundle sheath cells...

Improving Photosynthesis

Evans, John R.
Fonte: American Society of Plant Biologists Publicador: American Society of Plant Biologists
Tipo: text
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.74%
Photosynthesis is the basis of plant growth, and it is argued that improving photosynthesis can contribute toward greater food security in the coming decades as world population increases.

Relationship between Hexokinase and the Aquaporin PIP1 in the Regulation of Photosynthesis and Plant Growth

Kelly, Gilor; Sade, Nir; Attia, Ziv; Secchi, Francesca; Zwieniecki, Maciej; Holbrook, N. Michele; Levi, Asher; Alchanatis, Victor; Moshelion, Menachem; Granot, David
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.74%
Increased expression of the aquaporin NtAQP1, which is known to function as a plasmalemma channel for CO2 and water, increases the rate of both photosynthesis and transpiration. In contrast, increased expression of Arabidopsis hexokinase1 (AtHXK1), a dual-function enzyme that mediates sugar sensing, decreases the expression of photosynthetic genes and the rate of transpiration and inhibits growth. Here, we show that AtHXK1 also decreases root and stem hydraulic conductivity and leaf mesophyll CO2 conductance (gm). Due to their opposite effects on plant development and physiology, we examined the relationship between NtAQP1 and AtHXK1 at the whole-plant level using transgenic tomato plants expressing both genes simultaneously. NtAQP1 significantly improved growth and increased the transpiration rates of AtHXK1-expressing plants. Reciprocal grafting experiments indicated that this complementation occurs when both genes are expressed simultaneously in the shoot. Yet, NtAQP1 had only a marginal effect on the hydraulic conductivity of the double-transgenic plants, suggesting that the complementary effect of NtAQP1 is unrelated to shoot water transport. Rather, NtAQP1 significantly increased leaf mesophyll CO2 conductance and enhanced the rate of photosynthesis...