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Differential response to gepirone but not to chlordiazepoxide in malnourished rats subjected to learned helplessness

CAMARGO, L.M.M; NASCIMENTO, A.B; ALMEIDA, S.S
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.37%
The learned helplessness (LH) paradigm is characterized by learning deficits resulting from inescapable events. The aims of the present study were to determine if protein-calorie malnutrition (PCM) alters learning deficits induced by LH and if the neurochemical changes induced by malnutrition alter the reactivity to treatment with GABA-ergic and serotonergic drugs during LH. Well-nourished (W) and PCM Wistar rats (61 days old) were exposed or not to inescapable shocks (IS) and treated with gepirone (GEP, 0.0-7.5 mg/kg, intraperitoneally, N = 128) or chlordiazepoxide (0.0-7.5 mg/kg, intraperitoneally, N = 128) 72 h later, 30 min before the test session (30 trials of escape learning). The results showed that rats exposed to IS had higher escape latency than non-exposed rats (12.6 ± 2.2 vs 4.4 ± 0.8 s) and that malnutrition increased learning impairment produced by LH. GEP increased the escape latency of W animals exposed or non-exposed to IS, but did not affect the response of PCM animals, while chlordiazepoxide reduced the escape deficit of both W and PCM rats. The data suggest that PCM animals were more sensitive to the impairment produced by LH and that PCM led to neurochemical changes in the serotonergic system, resulting in hyporeactivity to the anxiogenic effects of GEP in the LH paradigm.; FAPESP; CNPq

Ventricular remodeling and diastolic myocardial dysfunction in rats submitted to protein-calorie malnutrition

Fioretto, JR; Querioz, S. S.; Padovani, C. R.; Matsubara, L. S.; Okoshi, K.; Matsubara, B. B.
Fonte: Amer Physiological Soc Publicador: Amer Physiological Soc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: h1327-h1333
Português
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66.25%
The effects of protein-calorie malnutrition (PCM) on heart structure and function are not completely understood. We studied heart morphometric, functional, and biochemical characteristics in undernourished young Wistar rats. They were submitted to PCM from birth (undernourished group, UG). After 10 wk, left ventricle function was studied using a Langendorff preparation. The results were compared with age-matched rats fed ad libitum (control group, CG). The UG rats achieved 47% of the body weight and 44% of the left ventricular weight (LVW) of the CG. LVW-to-ventricular volume ratio was smaller and myocardial hydroxyproline concentration was higher in the UG. Left ventricular systolic function was not affected by the PCM protocol. The myocardial stiffness constant was greater in the UG, whereas the end-diastolic pressure-volume relationship was not altered. In conclusion, the heart is not spared from the adverse effects of PCM. There is a geometric alteration in the left ventricle with preserved ventricular compliance despite the increased passive myocardial stiffness. The systolic function is preserved.

EFFECTS OF INTRAUTERINE AND POSTNATAL PROTEIN-CALORIE MALNUTRITION ON METABOLIC ADAPTATIONS TO EXERCISE IN YOUNG-RATS

Demello, MAR
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica (ABRADIC) Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica (ABRADIC)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 2461-2466
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
96.57%
The effect of intrauterine and postnatal protein-calorie malnutrition on the biochemical ability to perform exercise was investigated in young male rats. Malnourished rats were obtained by feeding dams a low-protein (6%) casein-based diet prepared in the laboratory during pregnancy and lactation. Control rats received an isocaloric diet containing 25% protein. The low-protein diet contained additional starch and glucose. At 45 days of age, malnourished rats showed lower body weight, serum protein, albumin and glucose levels, hematocrit values and heart glycogen content but higher circulating free fatty acids and gastrocnemius muscle glycogen than control rats. In response to exercise (50 min of swimming), control rats displayed lower heart, gastrocnemius and liver glycogen levels whereas malnourished rats showed low glycogen levels only in the gastrocnemius muscle. Both control and malnourished rats showed high serum glucose and free fatty acid levels after exercise. In conclusion, protein-calorie malnutrition improved muscle glycogen storage but this substrate was broken down to a greater extent in response to exercise. Malnourished rats were able to perform exercise maintaining high blood glucose levels, as observed in control rats...

Prova de absorção de gordura em crianças.

Moreira, F. L.; Maffei, H. V.; Padovani, C. R.; Campana, A. O.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 113-118
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.35%
To overcome the difficulties observed with fecal fat estimations, we studied fat absorption in 4 m to 12 years old children, assessing increments of serum triglycerides after administration of corn oil. Eighteen well-nourished children without gastrointestinal symptoms or parasites, 31 children with protein-calorie malnutrition (PCM), with or without protracted diarrhea and/or intestinal parasites and nine children with specific malabsorptive entities were studied. Serum triglycerides (TG) were measured before, 2 and 4 hours after the administration of 2 g/kg of corn oil per os. For control infants below 2 years no significant differences between the fasting level and those after 2 and 4 hours were observed. For children above this age significant absorption occurred by 2 hours but more intensively after 4 hours, an increment of TG above 35 mg% being considered normal. A good discrimination between TG increments of controls and malabsorptive children over 2 years was observed. In conclusion, the oral fat loading test, is applicable for children over 2 year of age. For infants below this age other schedules should be tested.

Plasma levels of transthyretin and retinol-binding protein in child-a cirrhotic patients in relation to protein-calorie status and plasma amino acids, zinc, vitamin a and plasma thyroid hormones

Calamita, Zamir; Dichi, Isaías; Papini-Berto, Sílvia J.; Dichi, Jane B.; Angeleli, Aparecida Y.O.; Vannucchi, Hélio; Caramori, Carlos; Burini, Roberto Carlos
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 139-147
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
86.76%
Transthyretin and retinal-binding protein are sensitive markers of acute protein-calorie malnutrition both for early diagnosis and dietary evaluation. A preliminary study showed that retinal-binding protein is the most sensitive marker of protein-calorie malnutrition in cirrhotic patients, even those with the mild form of the disease (Child A). However, in addition to being affected by protein-calorie malnutrition, the levels of these short half-life-liver-produced proteins are also influenced by other factors of a nutritional (zinc, tryptophan, vitamin A, etc) and non-nutritional (sex, aging, hormones, renal and liver functions and inflammatory activity) nature. These interactions were investigated in 11 adult male patients (49.9 ± 9.2 years of age) with alcoholic cirrhosis (Child-Pugh grade A) and with normal renal function. Both transthyretin and retinol binding protein were reduced below normal levels in 55% of the patients, in close agreement with their plasma levels of retinal. In 67% of the patients (4/6), the reduced levels of transthyretin and retinal-binding protein were caused by altered liver function and in 50% (3/6) they were caused by protein-calorie malnutrition. Thus, the present data, taken as a whole, indicate that reduced transthyretin and retinal-binding protein levels in mild cirrhosis of the liver are mainly due to liver failure and/or vitamin A status rather than representing an isolated protein-calorie malnutrition indicator.

Modulation of insulin secretion by physical training during recovery from protein malnutrition in rats

Moreira, Veridiana Mota; Botezelli, José Diego; Carniero, Everardo Magalhãesc; Latorraca, Márcia Queiroz; Lamp, César Ricardo; de Mello, Maria Alice Rostom
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 258-268
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.5%
Objective: The purpose of the present study was to examine insulin secretion in rats submitted to protein restriction and nutritional recovery associated or not to physical training. Methods: The experiment was designed in two sets of five weeks each. In the first set the rats were fed a nonnal-protein diet(17%-control group) or a low-protein diet (6%-malnourished group) for five weeks. After this, all animals were fed the 17% protein diet and separated into four groups: sedentary control(SC); trained eontrol(TC); sedentary recovered(SR) and trained recovered(TR). TC and TR rats performed swimming exercise. Results: The results indicated efficiency of the 6% protein diet in producing signs of malnutrition, as reduction in body weight gain and serum albumin levels, as well as liver fat. Serum insulin in the fed state and insulin secretion by isolated pancreatic islets in response to glucose were Keduced,but peripheral sensitivity to insulin was increased and glucose tolerance was not changed in the protein deficient rats, indicating adaptation to malnutrition. Diet protocol for nutritional recovery was efficient in repairing body weight gain, serum albumin and liver fat levels of the previously malnourished rats. Glucose induced insulin release by pancreatic islets remained low after nutritional recovery. Insulin secretion by the islets isolated from rats submitted to exercise training during nutritional recovery was improved when compared with the sedentary animals. Conclusion: This indicates that exercise training may be useful in the treatment of protein calorie malnutrition...

Food intake and weight of lactating rats maintained on different protein-calorie diets, and pup growth

Cambraia,R.P.B.; Vannucchi,H.; De-Oliveira,L.M.
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/1997 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.34%
Studies on rats maintained on low-protein-calorie diets during the lactation period show that food intake decreases. This process results in weight loss and a delay in litter development. The purpose of the present study was to determine the alterations in food intake, maternal weight and litter growth during lactation when dams were exposed to diets with different levels of protein and carbohydrate. Female Wistar rats receiving one of 4 different diets, A (N = 14), B (N = 14), C (N = 9) and D (N = 9), were used. Diet A contained 16% protein and 66% carbohydrate; diet B, 6% protein and 77% carbohydrate; diet C, 6% protein and 66% carbohydrate; diet D, 16% protein and 56% carbohydrate. Thus, C and D diets were hypocaloric, while A and B were isocaloric. The intake of a low-protein diet in groups B and C affected the weight of dams and litters during the last two weeks of lactation, while the low-calorie diets limited the growth of D litters at 21 days compared with A litters, but had no effect on the weight of D dams. Group B showed an increase in intake during the first five days of lactation, resulting in a behavioral calorie compensation due to the increase in carbohydrate content, but the intake decreased during the last part of lactation. Food intake regulation predominantly involves the recruitment of a variety of peripheral satiety systems that attempt to decrease the central feeding command system.

Differential response to gepirone but not to chlordiazepoxide in malnourished rats subjected to learned helplessness

Camargo,L.M.M; Nascimento,A.B; Almeida,S.S
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2008 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.37%
The learned helplessness (LH) paradigm is characterized by learning deficits resulting from inescapable events. The aims of the present study were to determine if protein-calorie malnutrition (PCM) alters learning deficits induced by LH and if the neurochemical changes induced by malnutrition alter the reactivity to treatment with GABA-ergic and serotonergic drugs during LH. Well-nourished (W) and PCM Wistar rats (61 days old) were exposed or not to inescapable shocks (IS) and treated with gepirone (GEP, 0.0-7.5 mg/kg, intraperitoneally, N = 128) or chlordiazepoxide (0.0-7.5 mg/kg, intraperitoneally, N = 128) 72 h later, 30 min before the test session (30 trials of escape learning). The results showed that rats exposed to IS had higher escape latency than non-exposed rats (12.6 ± 2.2 vs 4.4 ± 0.8 s) and that malnutrition increased learning impairment produced by LH. GEP increased the escape latency of W animals exposed or non-exposed to IS, but did not affect the response of PCM animals, while chlordiazepoxide reduced the escape deficit of both W and PCM rats. The data suggest that PCM animals were more sensitive to the impairment produced by LH and that PCM led to neurochemical changes in the serotonergic system, resulting in hyporeactivity to the anxiogenic effects of GEP in the LH paradigm.

Differential response to gepirone but not to chlordiazepoxide in malnourished rats subjected to learned helplessness

Camargo,L.M.M; Nascimento,A.B; Almeida,S.S
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2008 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.37%
The learned helplessness (LH) paradigm is characterized by learning deficits resulting from inescapable events. The aims of the present study were to determine if protein-calorie malnutrition (PCM) alters learning deficits induced by LH and if the neurochemical changes induced by malnutrition alter the reactivity to treatment with GABA-ergic and serotonergic drugs during LH. Well-nourished (W) and PCM Wistar rats (61 days old) were exposed or not to inescapable shocks (IS) and treated with gepirone (GEP, 0.0-7.5 mg/kg, intraperitoneally, N = 128) or chlordiazepoxide (0.0-7.5 mg/kg, intraperitoneally, N = 128) 72 h later, 30 min before the test session (30 trials of escape learning). The results showed that rats exposed to IS had higher escape latency than non-exposed rats (12.6 ± 2.2 vs 4.4 ± 0.8 s) and that malnutrition increased learning impairment produced by LH. GEP increased the escape latency of W animals exposed or non-exposed to IS, but did not affect the response of PCM animals, while chlordiazepoxide reduced the escape deficit of both W and PCM rats. The data suggest that PCM animals were more sensitive to the impairment produced by LH and that PCM led to neurochemical changes in the serotonergic system, resulting in hyporeactivity to the anxiogenic effects of GEP in the LH paradigm.

Effects of protein calorie malnutrition on tuberculosis in?mice

Chan, John; Tian, Yu; Tanaka, Kathryn?E.; Tsang, Ming?S.; Yu, Keming; Salgame, Padmini; Carroll, Dinah; Kress, Yvonne; Teitelbaum, Rachel; Bloom, Barry?R.
Fonte: The National Academy of Sciences of the USA Publicador: The National Academy of Sciences of the USA
Tipo: text
Publicado em 10/12/1996 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.41%
Infectious diseases and malnutrition represent major burdens afflicting millions of people in developing countries. Both conditions affect individuals in industrialized nations, particularly the aged, the HIV-infected, and people with chronic diseases. While malnutrition is known to induce a state of immunodeficiency, the mechanisms responsible for compromised antimicrobial resistance in malnourished hosts remain obscure. In the present study, mice fed a 2% protein diet and developing protein calorie malnutrition, in contrast to well-nourished controls receiving a 20% protein diet, rapidly succumbed to infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Malnourished mice exhibited a tissue-specific diminution in the expression of interferon ?, tumor necrosis factor ?, and the inducible form of nitric oxide synthase in the lungs, but not the liver. The expression of these molecules critical to the production of mycobactericidal nitrogen oxides was depressed in malnourished animals in the lungs specifically at early times (

Enhancement of Susceptibility to Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 by Protein Calorie Malnutrition in Mice

Kurioka, Takaaki; Yunou, Yoshihisa; Kita, Eiji
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: text
Publicado em /04/1998 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.29%
Infection with Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli is increasing among children. In this study, 5-week-old C57BL/6 mice with protein calorie malnutrition (PCM) that had been fed a 5% protein diet for 2 weeks since ablactation were inoculated intragastrically with 2 × 106 CFU of Stx-producing E. coli O157:H7. More than 75% of infected mice with PCM died by 10 days postinfection. Infected mice with PCM developed neurologic symptoms 5 days after infection, while well-nourished control mice receiving a 25% protein diet did not. In the intestinal tracts of infected mice with PCM, inoculated E. coli O157:H7 multiplied between days 2 and 4 of infection, with a peak of growth at day 4. Although the pathogens were not culturable from the stool after day 7, O157 lipopolysaccharide was detectable in the stool by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay even after day 8. Stx was detectable in the stool after day 2 of infection and increased in proportion to the growth of inoculated organisms. The maximal production of Stx occurred at 4 days postchallenge, and Stx was detectable in the blood on days 3 to 5. In contrast, well-nourished control mice survived the infection, and all of them remained well even after 3 weeks of infection. In these control mice...

Phagocytosis and leucocyte enzymes in protein–calorie malnutrition

Selvaraj, Ratnam J.; Bhat, K. Seetharam
Tipo: text
Publicado em /03/1972 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.28%
1. Enzymes pertinent to bactericidal activities of leucocytes were assayed in children suffering from protein–calorie malnutrition. 2. Leucocytes obtained from malnourished and control children contained similar activities for glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase. Granule-bound NADPH oxidase activity was low in leucocytes isolated from malnourished patients and failed to show the phagocytic stimulation which is normally seen in control leucocytes. Further, leucocytes obtained from malnourished patients did not release the acid phosphatase from lysosomes during phagocytosis, unlike those from controls. 3. Treatment of the malnourishment with a diet high in calories and protein resulted in significant increase in the activities of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase and NADPH oxidase and in releasing the acid phosphatase from the lysosomes into the supernatant fraction during phagocytosis. 4. The significance of these enzyme changes are discussed in relation to the increased susceptibility of these patients to infection.

Effect of protein calorie malnutrition on the levels of natural and inducible cytotoxic activities in mouse spleen cells.

Saxena, Q B; Saxena, R K; Adler, W H
Tipo: text
Publicado em /04/1984 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.31%
Six-week-old C57B1/6 female mice were fed a normal (24% protein) or an isocaloric but protein-deficient (4% protein) diet. At different time periods after the initiation of diets, basal natural killer (NK) activity, interleukin-2 (IL-2) and concanavalin-A (Con-A)-induced cytotoxic activity, Con-A-induced IL-2 production and levels of allospecific cytotoxic T cell activity generated in a mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC), were studied in spleen cells derived from control and protein deficient (PD) mice. Results indicated that (a) levels of spleen NK activity increased initially in PD mice, but after 7 weeks on PD diet declined to normal and subnormal levels, (b) IL-2 generation in response to Con-A as well as IL-2 activation of NK activity were comparable in spleen cells of control and PD mice at all time points tested, (c) Con-A-induced cytotoxic activity was significantly greater in spleen cells from PD mice, the difference being greater at higher doses of Con-A, and (d) generation of alloimmune cytotoxic T cells in a MLC reaction was normal in PD mouse spleen cells until 4 weeks after the beginning of PD diet, but declined markedly thereafter. Relevance of these observations to other related findings in protein calorie malnutrition are discussed.

Biliary secretory IgA levels in rats with protein-calorie malnutrition.

Lim, G M; Sheldon, G F; Alverdy, J
Tipo: text
Publicado em /05/1988 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.55%
Malnutrition is a recognized cause of failure of host defense mechanisms. In the past 5 years, it has been demonstrated that the gut, long known to have significant morphologic changes with protein calorie malnutrition (PCM), is an immune organ affected by malnutrition. To assess the role of biliary immunoglobulin A (S-IgA), part of the barrier to bacterial invasion from the gastrointestinal tract, the following study was performed. Seventy-eight Fisher female inbred rats weighing 110-130 g were randomly separated into two groups. The control rats were fed standard rat chow. The experimental rats were fed a 2% agar protein depletion (PCM) diet (USP XV). The biliary tract of the rat was cannulated with Silastic tubing and bile flow and rat secretory immunoglobulin A (S-IgA) was sampled at intervals. S-IgA was measured by the Elisa method. Total bile protein was measured by micro-Kjeldahl. Bile was collected from the rats on day 0, 7, 14, 21, 29, 36, 42, and 49. During the study, the weight of rats fed the PCM diet decreased from 127.4 +/- 14.5 g at day 0 to 83 +/- 2.6 g on day 37. Control rats gained weight from 124.4 +/- 14.5 g at day 0 to 153.6 +/- 3.8 g at day 37. Total biliary protein at day 0 was 2.52 +/- .05 mg/ml and at day 36 was 2.51 +/- 11 mg/ml for PCM rats and 2.57 +/- 10 mg/ml for control rats. Normal rats and control rats both had an initial increase of S-IgA from 2.74 +/- 73 mg/ml on day 0 to 5.75 +/- 1.75 mg/ml on day 37. Both PCM and control rats demonstrated an increase in S-IgA levels despite significant loss of weight in the experimental group. Similarly...

Plasma somatomedin activity in protein calorie malnutrition.

Mohan, P S; Jaya Rao, K S
Tipo: text
Publicado em /01/1979 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.25%
Somatomedin activity was assayed in the plasma of children suffering from protein calorie malnutrition by a bioassay using rat cartilage and expressed as sulphate uptake ratio. The sulphate uptake ratio was particularly reduced in kwashiorkor. In marasmus there was a slight reduction and the levels were still in the normal range. Plasma growth hormone (GH) levels were raised in kwashiorkor but were in the normal range in marasmus. Reduction in sulphate uptake ratio was observed only when plasma albumin levels were less than 2.5 g/100 ml (25 g/l). A rise in plasma GH was also observed but only below this threshold level.

Secretory IgA in protein-calorie malnutrition.

Reddy, V; Raghuramulu, N; Bhaskaram, C
Tipo: text
Publicado em /11/1976 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.25%
The secretory IgA system was investigated in children with protein-calorie malnutrition (PCM). The results of the study indicated that in children suffering from kwashiorkor and marasmus the concentration of IgA in duodenal fluid, saliva, nasal secretions, and tears was significantly reduced on admission and returned to normal 4 weeks after treatment. However, the concentration of secretory IgA in children with mild to moderate PCM was similar to that of normal children. Secretory IgA deficiency may be an important factor in promoting bacterial growth and this may account for the increased incidence and severity of mucosal infections in children with severe PCM.

Phagocyte function in protein-calorie malnutrition

Douglas, S. D.; Schopfer, K.
Tipo: text
Publicado em /05/1974 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.25%
Sixteen children with the kwashiorkor type of protein-calorie malnutrition (PCM) have been investigated in an attempt to assess the functional activity of their peripheral blood phagocytes. Hexose-monophosphate shunt (HMS) activity in the resting and phagocytizing state and bactericidal capacity with Escherischia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were measured. The findings indicate HMS stimulation in the normal range as determined by 14CO2 production during phagocytosis. The bactericidal capacity of phagocytes from kwashiorkor patients was normal in the early phase (first 30 min) and significantly reduced during the later phase (after 60 min) of the assay as compared with cells from healthy children.

Influence of age, sex, pregnancy and protein-calorie malnutrition on the pharmacokinetics of salicylate in rats.

Varma, D. R.; Yue, T. L.
Fonte: Nature Publishing Group Publicador: Nature Publishing Group
Tipo: text
Publicado em /05/1984 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.28%
The influence of age, sex, pregnancy and protein-calorie malnutrition (PCM) on the plasma t1/2, plasma clearance (Clp) and apparent volume of distribution (Vd) of sodium salicylate (62 mumol kg-1) was determined in Sprague-Dawley rats. Female and male rats of five different age groups (ages in weeks: pups 1, weanling 3, young 8-9, adult including pregnant 14-15, old 56-60) including three age groups with PCM (8-9, 14-15 and 56-60 weeks old) were used. Plasma and urinary salicylates were assayed by h.p.l.c. Plasma t1/2 was longer and Clp smaller in pups than in weanling and young rats and comparable to values for old rats; Vd of salicylate in pups was larger than in any other group of rats. Plasma t1/2 was longer and Clp as well as Vd of salicylate were smaller in adult females than in males of comparable age. Relative to nonpregnant adult females, Vd of salicylate in pregnant rats was larger but plasma t1/2 and Clp were unchanged. In all groups of rats studied, PCM decreased the plasma t1/2 and increased the Clp of salicylate; Vd was unchanged. Changes in salicylate pharmacokinetics were not due to any differences in serum protein-salicylate binding or to serum testosterone levels. Ovariectomy decreased the plasma t1/2 of salicylate but castration of male rats had no significant effect. Administration of testosterone to ovariectomized female rats exerted no significant effect on salicylate pharmacokinetics. It is concluded that the physiological state and the nutritional status can modify salicylate pharmacokinetics; in so far as the rat model reflects the human situation...

Seroprevalence of HIV-1 and HIV-2 infection among children diagnosed with protein-calorie malnutrition in Nigeria.

Fischer, G. D.; Rinaldo, C. R.; Gbadero, D.; Kingsley, L. A.; Ndimbie, O.; Howard, C.; Montemayor, P. C.; Langer, A.; Sibolboro, W.
Fonte: Cambridge University Press Publicador: Cambridge University Press
Tipo: text
Publicado em /04/1993 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.32%
Excessive weight loss due to protein calorie malnutrition (PCM) is a significant problem in Nigerian children. This syndrome may be difficult to differentiate from the wasting disease caused by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. We studied 70 children admitted to the Baptist Medical Center in Ogbomosho, Nigeria in 1990 with PCM for prevalence of antibodies to HIV-1 and HIV-2. The cohort was from low-risk mothers and had a median age of 25 months (range, 4 months-9 years) with a weight deficit of at least 20% of the theoretical weight for age. Two sera were positive for anti-HIV-1 by both ELISA and Western blot (WB). A high prevalence of samples negative for HIV-1 antibody by ELISA were repeatedly reactive (11%, 8/70) or indeterminate (46%, 32/70) by WB. None of the sera was positive for antibody to HIV-2. There was no correlation of ELISA positivity or extent of WB banding with successful recovery from malnutrition. These results indicate a relatively low but significant prevalence of HIV-1 infection in Nigerian children with PCM. The high prevalence of indeterminate reactions in WB assays for HIV-1 suggests that other procedures may be necessary for confirmatory diagnosis of HIV-1 infection in this African population.

Transient hypothermia in HIV-1 with insulin-like growth factor-1 deficiency and severe protein calorie malnutrition

Choi, Charles H.; McNeal, Tresa
Fonte: Baylor Health Care System Publicador: Baylor Health Care System
Tipo: text
Publicado em /01/2015 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.47%
Hypothermia is a multifactorial process that results from decreased heat production or increased heat loss, with the former due to, but not limited to, endocrine dysfunction, malnutrition, and central nervous system pathologies. We report an HIV-1 patient with transient hypothermia secondary to severe protein calorie malnutrition and elevated HIV viral load. In this patient, it is hypothesized that the etiology of the hypothermia was multifactorial due to severe protein calorie malnutrition, evidenced by decreased insulin-like growth factor-1 levels, severe hypothyroidism, and an elevated HIV viral load, since the patient began to improve with the initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy, improved nutrition, and continuation of thyroid supplementation.