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"Tendências metodológicas da pesquisa acadêmica em turismo"; Methodological approaches to Academic Research in Tourism

Sakata, Marici Cristine Gramacho
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: dissertação de mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 05/11/2002 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.59%
A discussão sobre a pesquisa faz-se necessária em todas as áreas do conhecimento, tanto para seu aprimoramento como para atualização e busca constante da qualidade. Assim, esta dissertação, procura discutir e analisar a pesquisa em Turismo, suas tendências e limitações. A primeira parte desta dissertação constitui-se de uma pesquisa bibliográfica, ou seja, uma análise e comparação entre autores para a compreensão dos diversos métodos de pesquisa existentes. A segunda parte verifica, através de pesquisa exploratória com Mestres e Doutores formados por Programas Stricto Sensu de Turismo no Brasil, as influências, limitações e considerações destes pesquisadores a respeito do processo de pesquisa. Os resultados mostraram a predominância no uso pesquisa exploratória e na estratégia de pesquisa de campo nas dissertações de Mestrado. Neste sentido, entendemos a importância deste trabalho como uma contribuição ao estudo da teoria e prática de métodos de investigação científica aplicado à pesquisa em Turismo.; The discussion on Academic Research is necessary in all areas of knowledge, not only improving its quality but also to provide continuous update in the quality. This dissertation discusses and analyzes the research on the Tourism field...

Aspectos éticos das pesquisas qualitativas em saúde; Ethical aspects of qualitative health research

Guerriero, Iara Coelho Zito
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 02/06/2006 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.59%
Objetivo. Identificar aspectos éticos das pesquisas qualitativas em saúde, de acordo com os pesquisadores que adotam estas abordagens. Identificar os aspectos da Resolução 196/96 CNS que são aplicáveis, e os que não são aplicáveis às pesquisas qualitativas em saúde. Métodos. A partir da busca no Medline, pelas palavras ética, pesquisa, qualitativa, no período 1993 a 2005, foram localizadas 245 referências. Estas foram classificadas em oito grandes temas das quais foram analisadas, neste trabalho, as que discutiam ética em pesquisa qualitativa, método, epistemologia e trabalho dos comitês de ética. Ao todo, foram analisados 42 artigos, tomando a hermenêutica como referência. A partir da imersão no material, foram identificados temas e categorias. Resultados. Nas pesquisas qualitativas em saúde, os aspectos éticos e aspectos metodológicos freqüentemente estão relacionados. Assim, o compromisso com a justiça social é um dos critérios de qualidade da pesquisa qualitativa e um aspecto ético importante. O consentimento é fundamental, porém deve respeitar as características da relação estabelecida entre pesquisador e pesquisado, a cultura do grupo pesquisado e as características dos indivíduos, como anos de escolaridade. É necessário identificar e respeitar a decisão do pesquisado: seja pelo desejo do anonimato ou...

Etnografia e etnoenfermagem : métodos de pesquisa em enfermagem; Etnografia e etnoenfermería: métodos de investigación en enfermería; Ethnography and ethnonursing: research methods in nursing

Rosa, Ninon Girardon da; Lucena, Amália de Fátima; Crossetti, Maria da Graça Oliveira
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.6%
O artigo tem como objetivo revisar a literatura referente à pesquisa qualitativa etnográfica e sua aplicação na enfermagem, descrevendo a experiência de uma das autoras ao utilizá-la na dissertação de mestrado. As metodologias, etnografia e etnoenfermagem, estão apresentadas com suas etapas e propostas. Para tal, destacamse as idéias de Leininger, visto ter sido quem introduziu, na enfermagem, a importância de compreender a cultura, para a prestação do cuidado coerente com crenças e valores. O estudo permitiu conhecer melhor estas metodologias de pesquisa e se espera contribuir para o aprofundamento dos conhecimentos nestas abordagens, fornecendo subsídios para sua utilização.; Este artículo examina la literatura sobre la investigacíon cualitativa etnográfica y su aplicación en la enfermería, describiendo la experiencia de una de las autoras en su disertación de maestría. Las metodologías etnografía y etnoenfermería son presenteadas com sus etapas y propuestas. Para eso, las autoras destacan las ideas de Leininger, debido a que fue quien introdujo la importancia de comprender la cultura para proporcionar un cuidado coherente com creencias y valores. Este estudio permitió conocer mejor estas metodologías de investigación. Esperamos contribuir a la profundización del conocimiento en este tipo de abordaje...

Five-Year Review of an International Clinical Research-Training Program

Suemoto, C; Ismail, S; Corrêa, P; Khawaja, F; Jerves, T; Pesantez, L; Germani, AC; Zaina, F; Junior, A; Ferreira, R; Singh, P; Paulo, J; Matsubayashi, S; Vidor, L; Andretta, G; Tomás, R; Illigens, B; Fregni, F
Fonte: Dove Medical Press Publicador: Dove Medical Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2015 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.58%
The exponential increase in clinical research has profoundly changed medical sciences. Evidence that has accumulated in the past three decades from clinical trials has led to the proposal that clinical care should not be based solely on clinical expertise and patient values, and should integrate robust data from systematic research. As a consequence, clinical research has become more complex and methods have become more rigorous, and evidence is usually not easily translated into clinical practice. Therefore, the instruction of clinical research methods for scientists and clinicians must adapt to this new reality. To address this challenge, a global distance-learning clinical research-training program was developed, based on collaborative learning, the pedagogical goal of which was to develop critical thinking skills in clinical research. We describe and analyze the challenges and possible solutions of this course after 5 years of experience (2008-2012) with this program. Through evaluation by students and faculty, we identified and reviewed the following challenges of our program: 1) student engagement and motivation, 2) impact of heterogeneous audience on learning, 3) learning in large groups, 4) enhancing group learning, 5) enhancing social presence...

Nursing Care and Patient Safety: Visualizing Medication Organization, Storage and Distribution with Photographic Research Methods

Raduenz,Anna Carolina; Hoffmann,Priscila; Radunz,Vera; Dal Sasso,Grace Teresinha Marcon; Maliska,Isabel Cristina Alves; Marck,Patricia Beryl
Fonte: Escola de Enfermagem de Ribeirão Preto / Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Escola de Enfermagem de Ribeirão Preto / Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2010 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.57%
In this qualitative study, we adapted photographic research methods from earlier nursing research to identify factors related to organization, storage and distribution that could lead to errors in the selection, preparation and administration of medications. The research excerpt presented here was developed in a clinical unit of an urban Brazilian public hospital. The research participants were nurses working at that unit and students from the two final semesters of the Undergraduate Nursing Course. We collected digital photographs of the medication system and subsequently used photo elicitation to review the images with research participants, so as to obtain their perceptions and narratives of working with medications in the unit. We report selected findings here on the organization, storage and distribution of medications, which indicate there is room to improve the safety of the medication system.

Social Psychology: research methods and techniques

Pereira,Marcos Emanoel; Álvaro,José Luís
Fonte: Programa de Pós-graduação em Psicologia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte Publicador: Programa de Pós-graduação em Psicologia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.66%
The objective of this paper is to identify the research methods adopted by researchers in the field of Social Psychology, differentiating them by considerations derived from the four epistemic dimensions. Our starting point was a study conducted to identify the theoretical references and research methods used by educators and researchers in the field of social psychology. The results presented here refer to data, obtained in the years 2011 and 2012, relating to 545 social psychologists and professors of social psychology, of which 157 responded in Portuguese and 388 in Spanish. The average age of participants was 41.5 years (standard deviation = 11.4; minimum = 21 years; maximum = 78), being 54% female and 43% male. The participants originated from 19 countries, with Spain (158), Brazil (149), Mexico (64), and Argentina (45) the most frequent. Based on the results, we sought to classify and subsequently to estimate the frequency of use of the methods, considering them based on the distribution of the researchers from two geographic regions, Latin America and the Iberian Peninsula. Since geographical distribution did not provide a consistent criterion for differentiating between methods, we tried to understand the differences by considering ultimately the theoretical approach embraced by the researcher.

Qualitative methods: what are they and why use them?

Sofaer, S
Tipo: text
Publicado em /12/1999 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.72%
OBJECTIVE: To provide an overview of reasons why qualitative methods have been used and can be used in health services and health policy research, to describe a range of specific methods, and to give examples of their application. DATA SOURCES: Classic and contemporary descriptions of the underpinnings and applications of qualitative research methods and studies that have used such methods to examine important health services and health policy issues. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Qualitative research methods are valuable in providing rich descriptions of complex phenomena; tracking unique or unexpected events; illuminating the experience and interpretation of events by actors with widely differing stakes and roles; giving voice to those whose views are rarely heard; conducting initial explorations to develop theories and to generate and even test hypotheses; and moving toward explanations. Qualitative and quantitative methods can be complementary, used in sequence or in tandem. The best qualitative research is systematic and rigorous, and it seeks to reduce bias and error and to identify evidence that disconfirms initial or emergent hypotheses. CONCLUSIONS: Qualitative methods have much to contribute to health services and health policy research...

Qualitative research and the profound grasp of the obvious.

Hurley, R E
Tipo: text
Publicado em /12/1999 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.64%
OBJECTIVE: To discuss the value of promoting coexistent and complementary relationships between qualitative and quantitative research methods as illustrated by presentations made by four respected health services researchers who described their experiences in multi-method projects. DATA SOURCES: Presentations and publications related to the four research projects, which described key substantive and methodological areas that had been addressed with qualitative techniques. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Sponsor interest in timely, insightful, and reality-anchored evidence has provided a strong base of support for the incorporation of qualitative methods into major contemporary policy research studies. In addition, many issues may be suitable for study only with qualitative methods because of their complexity, their emergent nature, or because of the need to revisit and reexamine previously untested assumptions. CONCLUSION: Experiences from the four projects, as well as from other recent health services studies with major qualitative components, support the assertion that the interests of sponsors in the policy realm and pressure from them suppress some of the traditional tensions and antagonisms between qualitative and quantitative methods.

Priorities for development of research methods in occupational cancer.

Ward, Elizabeth M; Schulte, Paul A; Bayard, Steve; Blair, Aaron; Brandt-Rauf, Paul; Butler, Mary Ann; Dankovic, David; Hubbs, Ann F; Jones, Carol; Karstadt, Myra; Kedderis, Gregory L; Melnick, Ronald; Redlich, Carrie A; Rothman, Nathaniel; Savage, Russell
Tipo: text
Publicado em /01/2003 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.69%
Occupational cancer research methods was identified in 1996 as 1 of 21 priority research areas in the National Occupational Research Agenda (NORA). To implement NORA, teams of experts from various sectors were formed and given the charge to further define research needs and develop strategies to enhance or augment research in each priority area. This article is a product of that process. Focus on occupational cancer research methods is important both because occupational factors play a significant role in a number of cancers, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality, and also because occupational cohorts (because of higher exposure levels) often provide unique opportunities to evaluate health effects of environmental toxicants and understand the carcinogenic process in humans. Despite an explosion of new methods for cancer research in general, these have not been widely applied to occupational cancer research. In this article we identify needs and gaps in occupational cancer research methods in four broad areas: identification of occupational carcinogens, design of epidemiologic studies, risk assessment, and primary and secondary prevention. Progress in occupational cancer will require interdisciplinary research involving epidemiologists...

Research methods used in developing and applying quality indicators in primary care

Campbell, S; Braspenning, J; Hutchinson, A; Marshall, M
Fonte: BMJ Group Publicador: BMJ Group
Tipo: text
Publicado em /12/2002 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.61%
?? Quality indicators have been developed throughout Europe primarily for use in hospitals, but also increasingly for primary care. Both development and application are important but there has been less research on the application of indicators. Three issues are important when developing or applying indicators: (1) which stakeholder perspective(s) are the indicators intended to reflect; (2) what aspects of health care are being measured; and (3) what evidence is available? The information required to develop quality indicators can be derived using systematic or non-systematic methods. Non-systematic methods such as case studies play an important role but they do not tap in to available evidence. Systematic methods can be based directly on scientific evidence by combining available evidence with expert opinion, or they can be based on clinical guidelines. While it may never be possible to produce an error free measure of quality, measures should adhere, as far as possible, to some fundamental a priori characteristics (acceptability, feasibility, reliability, sensitivity to change, and validity). Adherence to these characteristics will help maximise the effectiveness of quality indicators in quality improvement strategies. It is also necessary to consider what the results of applying indicators tell us about quality of care.

Reaching the parts other methods cannot reach: an introduction to qualitative methods in health and health services research.

Pope, C.; Mays, N.
Fonte: BMJ Group Publicador: BMJ Group
Tipo: text
Publicado em 01/07/1995 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.62%
Qualitative research methods have a long history in the social sciences and deserve to be an essential component in health and health services research. Qualitative and quantitative approaches to research tend to be portrayed as antithetical; the aim of this series of papers is to show the value of a range of qualitative techniques and how they can complement quantitative research.

Comparison of Two Storage Methods for the Analysis of Cholinesterase Activities in Food Animals

Askar, Kasim Abass; Kudi, A. Caleb; Moody, A. John
Fonte: SAGE-Hindawi Access to Research Publicador: SAGE-Hindawi Access to Research
Tipo: text
Publicado em 17/01/2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.59%
Cholinesterases (ChE) are specialized carboxylic ester hydrolases that catalyse the hydrolysis of choline esters. They are classified into either acetylcholinesterase (AChE) or butyrylcholinesterase (BChE). Determination of ChE in the tissues is the appropriate tool for the diagnosis of organophosphorus and carbamate exposures. In general, a significant inhibition was seen in both AChE and BChE activities after 6 months of freezing at ?80°C and after 3 months of freezing at ?20°C. Linear regression of mean AChE and BChE was observed in all individual samples during the months of the two freezing methods. Bland and Altman plot of the ratios of the two freezing methods have showen the mean difference between the two freezing methods to be 8.8, and SD was 144.7 and ?127.6 for upper and lower limits, respectively, for liver, while in muscle the mean difference was 1.5 and SD was 32.5 and ?28.9 for upper and lower limits, respectively.

Psychosocial Correlates of Dual Methods for Contraception and STI Protection in Urban Adolescents

Pack, Robert P.; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita F.; Cottrell, Lesley A.
Fonte: International Scholarly Research Network Publicador: International Scholarly Research Network
Tipo: text
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.61%
Purpose. To identify correlates of combined hormonal contraception and condom use (dual method use) compared with no methods, condoms only or hormonal contraception only. Data are from a baseline assessment of 335 youth (52% female) enrolled in an intervention trial. Multinomial logistic regression identified theory-based factors associated with dual method use. At last intercourse 47% of respondents used dual methods, 29% condom only, 14% hormonal contraception only, and 10% no methods. No method users were less likely than dual-method users to feel “dirty” about pregnancy, to have ask about historical condom use, to have more than two partners, to view condom use as normative for boys and more likely to perceive pregnancy risk as remote. Hormonal-contraception-only users were more likely to have sex weekly and perceive sex as pleasurable for girls, and less likely to view condom use as normative for boys and to ask a partner to use a condom. Condom-only users were more likely to perceive pregnancy chance as remote, and less likely to have more than two partners and to want peers to think they were virgins. Interventions should include benefits of dual methods while counseling about the negative impact of STI and unplanned teen pregnancy.

Comparison of Whole Genome Amplification Methods for Analysis of DNA Extracted from Microdissected Early Breast Lesions in Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded Tissue

Arneson, Nona; Moreno, Juan; Iakovlev, Vladimir; Ghazani, Arezou; Warren, Keisha; McCready, David; Jurisica, Igor; Done, Susan J.
Fonte: International Scholarly Research Network Publicador: International Scholarly Research Network
Tipo: text
Publicado em 14/03/2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.59%
To understand cancer progression, it is desirable to study the earliest stages of its development, which are often microscopic lesions. Array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) is a valuable high-throughput molecular approach for discovering DNA copy number changes; however, it requires a relatively large amount of DNA, which is difficult to obtain from microdissected lesions. Whole genome amplification (WGA) methods were developed to increase DNA quantity; however their reproducibility, fidelity, and suitability for formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples are questioned. Using aCGH analysis, we compared two widely used approaches for WGA: single cell comparative genomic hybridization protocol (SCOMP) and degenerate oligonucleotide primed PCR (DOP-PCR). Cancer cell line and microdissected FFPE breast cancer DNA samples were amplified by the two WGA methods and subjected to aCGH. The genomic profiles of amplified DNA were compared with those of non-amplified controls by four analytic methods and validated by quantitative PCR (Q-PCR). We found that SCOMP-amplified samples had close similarity to non-amplified controls with concordance rates close to those of reference tests, while DOP-amplified samples had a statistically significant amount of changes. SCOMP is able to amplify small amounts of DNA extracted from FFPE samples and provides quality of aCGH data similar to non-amplified samples.

Accuracy of Four Tooth Size Prediction Methods on Malay Population

Mahmoud, Belal Khaled; Abu Asab, Saifeddin Hamed I.; Taib, Haslina
Fonte: International Scholarly Research Network Publicador: International Scholarly Research Network
Tipo: text
Publicado em 14/11/2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.59%
Objective. To examine the accuracy of Moyers 50%, Tanaka and Johnston, Ling and Wong and Jaroontham and Godfrey methods in predicting the mesio-distal crown width of the permanent canines and premolars (C + P1 + P2) in Malay population. Materials and Methods. The study models of 240 Malay children (120 males and 120 females) aged 14 to 18 years, all free of any signs of dental pathology or anomalies, were measured using a digital caliper accurate to 0.01?mm. The predicted widths (C + P1 + P2) in both arches derived from the tested prediction equations were compared with the actual measured widths. Results. Moyers and Tanaka and Johnston methods showed significant difference between the actual and predicted widths of (C + P1 + P2) for both sexes. Ling and Wong method also showed statistically significant difference for males, however, there was no significant difference for females. Jaroontham and Godfrey method showed statistical significant difference for females, but the male values did not show any significant difference. Conclusion. For male Malay, the method proposed by Jaroontham and Godfrey for male Thai proved to be highly accurate. For female Malay, the method proposed by Ling and Wong for southern Chinese females proved to be highly accurate.

Predictive research methods of enamel and dentine for initial caries detection

Kunin, Anatoly A; Belenova, Irina A; Ippolitov, Yury A; Moiseeva, Natalia S; Kunin, Dmitry A
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: text
Publicado em 26/06/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.61%
Currently, various research methods of enamel and dentine for precautionary diagnostics of initial caries forms are developed; however, the vast majority of these do not provide objective criteria of caries diagnostics or are very difficult to perform. Therefore, the search of diagnostics and enamel research methods, which will allow predicting caries emergence and to carry out personalised prevention of this pathology, is necessary. In this review, modern diagnostic methods that allow understanding the main aspects of caries process, assess the risk of its development, and also suggest the possibility of emergency prevention of caries progression in the nearest future are presented.

Research Methods Priorities in Geriatric Palliative Medicine

Aldridge Carlson, Melissa D.
Fonte: Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Publicador: Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.
Tipo: text
Publicado em /08/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.61%
Continuing the momentum of geriatric palliative medicine research achieved during the past decade requires a focus on research methods priorities that span the continuum of research from small pilot studies testing new interventions to large multisite studies evaluating implementation of proven interventions and models of care. Each phase of this continuum presents unique challenges for investigators who are designing, conducting, and reporting results of these scientific endeavors. The goal of this article is to describe the top priorities in research methods for the field of geriatric palliative medicine that will enable the field to rapidly respond to the changing landscape of health care policy and quality improvement initiatives.

Comparison of Epidemiological Methods for Estimation of Hepatitis B Incidence and Residual Risk for Blood Donors in Southern Brazil

Kupek, Emil; Petry, Andrea
Fonte: SAGE-Hindawi Access to Research Publicador: SAGE-Hindawi Access to Research
Tipo: text
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.63%
Background and Objective. The objective of this work was to compare three methods for estimating hepatitis B virus (HBV) incidence and residual risk. Methods. Computerized blood donor records in southern Brazil were examined for the period 2004–2006. The methods for estimating HBV incidence included stand-alone HBsAg, HBsAg yield method, and an extension of the latter which added recent anti-HBc seroconversions as incident HBV cases. Results. HBV incidences for the above methods were 9.91, 20.09, and 22.93 per 100000 repeat donors, respectively. In the same order, corresponding residual risks were 1?:?62482, 1?:?30821, and 1?:?47559, respectively. First-time donors had 52 higher HBV incidence compared to repeat donors. Conclusion. Although the three methods compared produced overlapping 95% confidence intervals, their variation was considerably lower for the method which included recent anti-HBc seroconversions. First-time donors are primary cause for concern regarding HBV transmission via blood transfusion in southern Brazil.

Modularity and Commonality Research: Past Developments and Future Opportunities

Fixson, Sebastian K.
Tipo: working paper
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.63%
Research on modularity and commonality has grown substantially over the past 15 years. Searching 36 journals over more than the past 35 years, I identify over 160 references in the engineering and management literature that focus on modularity or commonality in the product and process development context. Each of the references is analyzed along the dimensions subject, effect, and research method. The subjects of these studies have been products, processes, organizations, and even innovations, although the set of references shows a strong preference towards products. Similarly, a broad range of effects has been studied, albeit with the topic cost dominating all other effects. A variety of research methods has been applied to the study of modularity and commonality but the distribution of research methods differs substantially for modularity and commonality research. Despite the wealth of existing research, there are still significant opportunities for future research. In particular, studies that incorporate modularity and commonality’s multiple effects on various players along the supply chain, that combine multiple research methods, and that follow systems over time appear very promising.

Tropical cyclone preparedness and response : opportunities for operations research

Murphy, Maurice D
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: thesis Formato: 87 p.
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.47%
This thesis explores how operations research methods can be applied in the emergency response community by looking at two recent tropical storm disasters; tropical cyclone Yemyin in Pakistan, June 2007 and super typhoon Durian in the Philippines, Nov 2006. The case studies are used to highlight three common problem areas; determining the scope of the disaster, agency coordination, and relief logistics. The thesis identifies some operational models and applicable research and suggests that these ideas should be formulated as emergency management decision making tools particularly for use in the developing world.; by Maurice D. Murphy.; Thesis (S.M.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Sloan School of Management, Operations Research Center, 2008.; Includes bibliographical references (p. 79-87).