O sistema de controle por alocação dos pólos com filtro foi utilizado para controlar a atitude de um modelo de veículo lançador de satélites. Com este intuito, foram confeccionados um modelo e uma base de fixação que permite a movimentação nos três graus de liberdade. Utilizando a resposta à entrada degrau em conjunto com um sistema de controle PID obtido de forma empírica para estabilizar o sistema, as características da planta foram identificadas e então o sistema de controle por alocação de pólos foi projetado. Este sistema apresentou uma oscilação em torno da referência com amplitude menor do que 0,5° e tempo de pico para a entrada degrau na ordem de 2,17 segundos. Um segundo controlador PID foi projetado de forma analítica para se obter uma referência, porém apresentou resposta com características inferiores ao controlador por alocação de pólos. Os dois sistemas de controle projetados conseguem manter o modelo estável mesmo quando um dos motores é desligado.; Pole placement control system with filter was implemented to control the attitude of a satellite launch vehicle model. With this purpose, a model and a fixing base with three degrees of freedom was made. Utilizing the system response to step input with PID controller empirically designed to stabilize the system...
During the atmospheric flight of the Brazilian satellite launch vehicle the pressure inside the satellite compartment should be equalised with the atmospheric pressure. This becomes necessary due to the high pressure differences which result when the vehicle reaches high altitudes with decreasing atmospheric pressures, generating high loads acting on the internal surface of the fairing. The equalisation is achieved through venting holes placed around the fairing of the satellite compartment. The design of the venting orifices should be constrained to the restriction of constant evacuation of the compartment, so that, at any time of the trajectory, the pressure difference is minimal. Meeting this constraint becomes complex due to the flight environment of the vehicle which is characterised by very high acceleration levels. So, the flow around the fairing undergoes constant variation of the velocity field going from subsonic to hypersonic velocities. The position, size and number of venting orifices were determined using gas dynamic analysis and calculations and later validated through flight tests. The article describes the mean features of the design process, discusses the venting criterion, and shows the flight results.
An increasing number of agencies and organizations around the world provide guidelines for the disposal of launch vehicle stages placed in Earth orbit. The limitation of orbital lifetime following the satellite delivery mission, particularly in low Earth orbit, is viewed as one of the most important space debris mitigation measures. For higher altitude missions, orbital stages may be maneuvered into more rapidly decaying orbits or may be left in longer-term disposal orbits. This paper summarizes the recent disposal practices of all launch vehicle types and evaluates their compliance with existing national standards. Although the owners and operators of some satellite systems, e.g., Iridium and Globalstar, have levied orbital stage disposal requirements on launch service providers, in general, insufficient attention and communication is given to this topic. Sunsynchronous and geosynchronous missions may pose some of the most difficult challenges for the responsible disposal of orbital stages. A variety of disposal options are normally available, some of which may even influence the design of the spacecraft to be deployed. Also at issue is whether normal launch vehicle propellant reserves can be relied upon for post-mission disposal of orbital stages.
The Space Launch Initiative (SLI) program is developing a second-generation reusable launch vehicle. The program goals include lowering the risk of loss of crew to 1 in 10,000 and reducing annual operations cost to one third of the cost of the Space Shuttle. The SLI missions include NASA, military and commercial satellite launches and crew and cargo launches to the space station. The SLI operations analyses provide an assessment of the operational support and infrastructure needed to operate candidate system architectures. Measures of the operability are estimated (i.e. system dependability, responsiveness, and efficiency). Operations analysis is used to determine the impact of specific technologies on operations. A conceptual path to reducing annual operations costs by two thirds is based on key design characteristics, such as reusability, and improved processes lowering labor costs. New operations risks can be expected to emerge. They can be mitigated with effective risk management with careful identification, assignment, tracking, and closure. SLI design characteristics such as nearly full reusability, high reliability, advanced automation, and lowered maintenance and servicing coupled with improved processes are contributors to operability and large operating cost reductions.
A conceptual design is presented for a carrier vehicle for an air launched space booster. This airplane is capable of carrying a 500,000 pound satellite launch system to an altitude over 40,000 feet for launch. The airplane features a twin fuselage configuration for improved payload and landing gear integration, a high aspect ratio wing for maneuverability at altitude, and is powered by six General Electric GE-90 engines. The analysis methods used and the systems employed in the airplane are discussed. Launch costs are expected to be competitive with existing launch systems.
To be placed into a highly elliptical transfer orbit by the Atlas Centaur (AC-61) launch vehicle, the INTELSAT V-F satellite has 12,000 voice circuits and 2 color television channels and incorporates a maritime communication system for ship to shore communications. The stages of the launch vehicle and the launch operations are described. A table shows the launch sequence.
The Canadiari Telesat-G (ANIK-D1) commercial communications satellite was launched successfully from the Eastern space and Missile Center (ESMC) at 7:10 p.m., EDT, on August 25, 1982, by a Delta 3920 Vehicle, Mission Number 164. Performance of the two stage Delta launch vehicle was nominal and placed the payload in a low circular orbit as planned. The Payload Assist Module (PAM-D), which is part of the payload, also performed nominally. The synchronous transfer orbital elements achieved by Delta/PAM, compared with the nominal expected, are provided. The satellite performed satisfactorily during the transfer orbit, and the ABM was fired successfully at 5:29 p.m., EDT, on August 29, 1982. The satellite was maneuvered to a position 104 degrees West Longitude above the equator. Satellite status is satisfactory and it has entered service.
The launch schedule for Intelsat 5-B, the prime Intelsat satellite to provide communications services between the Americas, Europe, the Middle East, and Africa, is presented. The planned placement of the satellite into an elliptical transfer orbit, and circularization of the orbit at geosynchronous altitude over the equator are described. Characteristics of the Atlas Centaur launch vehicle, AC-56, are given. The launch operation is summarized and the launch sequence presented. The Intelsat team and contractors are listed.
A brief summary of the launch vehicle, spacecraft, and mission is contained. Information relative to launch windows, vehicle telemetry coverage, realtime data flow, telemetry coverage by station, selected trajectory information, and a brief sequence of flight events is also included.
The largest and heaviest spacecraft yet to be launched into geosynchronous orbit by an Atlas Centaur launch vehicle, FLTSATCOM D is part of a versatile military satellite communication system which includes terminals at Navy land bases, and on naval aircraft, ships, and submarines. The design and capabilities of the launch vehicle are described as well as those of the satellite. Information relative to launch windows, flight plan, radar and telemetry coverage, selected trajectory information is presented. A brief sequence of flight events is included.
The major outputs of the study are the constructability studies which resulted in the definition of the concepts for satellite, rectenna, and satellite construction base construction. Transportation analyses resulted in definition of heavy-lift launch vehicle, electric orbit transfer vehicle, personnel orbit transfer vehicle, and intra-orbit transfer vehicle as well as overall operations related to transportation systems. The experiment/verification program definition resulted in the definition of elements for the Ground-Based Experimental Research and Key Technology plans. These studies also resulted in conceptual approaches for early space technology verification. The cost analysis defined the overall program and cost data for all program elements and phases.
Recoverable launch vehicle concepts for the Solar Power Satellite program were identified. These large launch vehicles are powered by proposed engines in the F-1 thrust level class. A description of the candidate launch vehicles and their operating mode was provided. Predictions of the sonic over pressures during ascent and entry for both types of vehicles, and prediction of launch noise levels in the vicinity of the launch site were included. An overall assessment and criteria for sonic overpressure and noise levels was examined.
The RCA-SATCOM-11 satellite, scheduled to be launched from Cape Canaveral, Fla. on March 25, 1976, using a Delta launch vehicle, was discussed. The following subjects were described: satellite itself, launch vehicle, launch operations, key personnel.
A summary of the constraints and requirements on the Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS-A) orbit and launch vehicle analysis is presented. The propulsion system (hydrazine) and the launch vehicle (Delta 2910) selected for EOS-A are examined. The rationale for the selection of the recommended orbital altitude of 418 nautical miles is explained. The original analysis was based on the EOS-A mission with the Thematic Mapper and the High Resolution Pointable Imager. The impact of the revised mission model is analyzed to show how the new mission model affects the previously defined propulsion system, launch vehicle, and orbit. A table is provided to show all aspects of the EOS multiple mission concepts. The subjects considered include the following: (1) mission orbit analysis, (2) spacecraft parametric performance analysis, (3) launch system performance analysis, and (4) orbits/launch vehicle selection.
An evaluation of the Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS) design, performance, and cost factors which affect the choices of an orbit and a launch vehicle is presented. Primary emphasis is given to low altitude (300 to 900 nautical miles) land resources management applications for which payload design factors are defined. The subjects considered are: (1) a mission model, (2) orbit analysis and characterization, (3) characteristics and capabilities of candidate conventional launch vehicles, and space shuttle support. Recommendations are submitted for the EOS-A mission, the Single Multispectral Scanner payload, the Single Multispectral Scanner plus Thematic Mapper payload, the Dual Multispectral Scanner payload, and the Dual Multispectral Scanner plus Thematic Mapper payload.