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Sulfide toxicity kinetics of a uasb reactor

PAULA JR., D. R.; FORESTI, E.
Fonte: Brazilian Society of Chemical Engineering Publicador: Brazilian Society of Chemical Engineering
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.08%
The effect of sulfide toxicity on kinetic parameters of anaerobic organic matter removal in a UASB (up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket) reactor is presented. Two lab-scale UASB reactors (10.5 L) were operated continuously during 12 months. The reactors were fed with synthetic wastes prepared daily using glucose, ammonium acetate, methanol and nutrient solution. One of the reactors also received increasing concentrations of sodium sulfide. For both reactors, the flow rate of 16 L.d-1 was held constant throughout the experiment, corresponding to a hydraulic retention time of 15.6 hours. The classic model for non-competitive sulfide inhibition was applied to the experimental data for determining the overall kinetic parameter of specific substrate utilization (q) and the sulfide inhibition coefficient (Ki). The application of the kinetic parameters determined allows prediction of methanogenesis inhibition and thus the adoption of operating parameters to minimize sulfide toxicity in UASB reactors.

Characterization and kinetics of sulfide-oxidizing autotrophic denitrification in batch reactors containing suspended and immobilized cells

MORAES, B. S.; SOUZA, T. S. O.; FORESTI, E.
Fonte: IWA PUBLISHING Publicador: IWA PUBLISHING
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.96%
Sulfide-oxidizing autotrophic denitrification is an advantageous alternative over heterotrophic denitrification, and may have potential for nitrogen removal of low-strength wastewaters, such as anaerobically pre-treated domestic sewage. This study evaluated the fundamentals and kinetics of this process in batch reactors containing suspended and immobilized cells. Batch tests were performed for different NO(x)(-)/S(2-) ratios and using nitrate and nitrite as electron acceptors. Autotrophic denitrification was observed for both electron acceptors, and NO(x)(-)/S(2-) ratios defined whether sulfide oxidation was complete or not. Kinetic parameter values obtained for nitrate were higher than for nitrite as electron acceptor. Zero-order models were better adjusted to profiles obtained for suspended cell reactors, whereas first-order models were more adequate for immobilized cell reactors. However, in the latter, mass transfer physical phenomena had a significant effect on kinetics based on biochemical reactions. Results showed that sulfide-oxidizing autotrophic denitrification can be successfully established for low-strength wastewaters and have potential for nitrogen removal from anaerobically pre-treated domestic sewage.; FAPESP (Fund. de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de Sao Paulo); CNPq (Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnologico)

Effect of sulfide concentration on autotrophic denitrification from nitrate and nitrite in vertical fixed-bed reactors

Moraes, Bruna de Souza; Souza, T. S. O.; Foresti, Eugenio
Fonte: ELSEVIER SCI LTD; OXFORD Publicador: ELSEVIER SCI LTD; OXFORD
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.08%
Autotrophic denitrification coupled with sulfide oxidation represents an interesting alternative for the simultaneous removal of nitrate/nitrite and sulfide from wastewaters. The applicability of such bioprocess is especially advantageous for the post treatment of effluents from anaerobic reactors, since they usually produce sulfides, which can be used as endogenous electron donor for autotrophic denitrification. This study evaluated the effect of sulfide concentration on this bioprocess using nitrate and nitrite as electron acceptors in vertical fixed-bed reactors. The results showed that intermediary sulfur compounds were mainly produced when excess of electron donor was applied, which was more evident when nitrate was used. Visual evidences suggested that elemental sulfur was the intermediary compound produced. There was also evidence that the elemental sulfur previously formed was being used when sulfide was applied in stoichiometric concentration relative to nitrate/nitrite. Nitrite was more readily consumed than nitrate. For both electron acceptors and sulfide concentrations tested, autotrophic denitrification was not affected by residual heterotrophic denitrification via endogenic activity, occurring as a minor additional nitrogen removal process. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.; FAPESP (Fundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de Sao Paulo); Fundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de Sao Paulo (FAPESP); CNPq (Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnologico); Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnologico (CNPq)

Determination of the intrinsic kinetic parameters of sulfide-oxidizing autotrophic denitrification in differential reactors containing immobilized biomass

Moraes, B. S.; Foresti, Eugenio
Fonte: ELSEVIER SCI LTD; OXFORD Publicador: ELSEVIER SCI LTD; OXFORD
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.03%
Nitrogen removal coupled with sulfide oxidation has potential for the treatment of effluents from anaerobic reactors because they contain sulfide, which can be used as an endogenous electron donor for denitrification. This work evaluated the intrinsic kinetics of sulfide-oxidizing autotrophic denitrification via nitrate and nitrite in systems containing attached cells. Differential reactors were fed with nitrified synthetic domestic sewage and different sulfide concentrations. The intrinsic kinetic parameters of nitrogen removal were determined when the mass transfer resistance was negligible. This bioprocess could be described by a half-order kinetic model for biofilms. The half-order kinetic coefficients ranged from 0.425 to 0.658 mg N-1/2 L-1/2 h(-1) for denitrification via nitrite and from 0.190 to 0.609 mg N-1/2 L-1/2 h(-1) for denitrification via nitrate. In this latter, the lower value was due to the use of electrons donated from intermediary sulfur compounds whose formation and subsequent consumption were detected. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.; Fundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de Sao Paulo (FAPESP); FAPESP (Fundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de Sao Paulo); Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnologico (CNPq); CNPq (Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnologico)

A comparative study on the anti-inflammatory effects of single oral doses of naproxen and its hydrogen sulfide (H2S)-releasing derivative ATB-346 in rats with carrageenan-induced synovitis

Ekundi-Valentim, Eduardo ; Mesquita, Filiphe de Paula Nunes; Santos, Karen Tiago dos; Paula, Marco Aurélio Vieira de; Martorelli, Juliana Florenzano; Zanoni, Cristiane I; Rodrigues, Leandro; Nucci, Gilberto de; Teixeira, Simone Aparecida; Ferreira, He
Fonte: Medical Gas Research 2013, 3:24; London Publicador: Medical Gas Research 2013, 3:24; London
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.96%
Abstract Background Non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are the most commonly prescribed agents for arthritic patients, although gastric effects limit their long-term use. Considering the reported gastric safety of hydrogen sulfide (H2S)-releasing NSAIDs, in addition to the anti-inflammatory effects of H2S administration to rats with synovitis, we decided to evaluate the effects of the H2S-releasing naproxen derivative ATB-346 in this animal model. Methods Male Wistar rats were anesthetized with inhalatory halothane and pre-treated with equimolar oral doses of either naproxen (0.3, 1, 3 or 10 mg/kg) or ATB-346 (0.48, 1.6, 4.8, or 16 mg/kg) 30 min before the i.art. injection of 7.5 mg of carrageenan (CGN) into the right knee joint cavity. Joint swelling and pain score were assessed after 1, 3 and 5 h, and tactile allodynia after 2 and 4 h. After the last measurement, the joint cavity lavages were performed for counting of the recruited leukocytes. The drugs (at the highest doses) were also tested for their gastric effects by evaluating macroscopical damage score and neutrophil recruitment (measured as myeloperoxidase – MPO activity) in the stomachs 5 h after administration of the drugs. In addition...

Avaliação da utilização de diferentes materiais suporte na biofiltração de sulfeto de hidrogênio; Utilization of different packing materials in the hydrogen sulfide biofiltration

Pantoja Filho, Jorge Luis Rodrigues
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: dissertação de mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 25/04/2008 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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O sulfeto de hidrogênio é um gás que pode causar os mais diversos danos se lançado ao meio ambiente devido, principalmente, à sua elevada toxicidade, corrosividade, odores indesejáveis e alta demanda de oxigênio. Atualmente existem diferentes processos físico-químicos estabelecidos para o tratamento desse composto, entretanto são consideradas técnicas onerosas do ponto de vista econômico e ambiental. Os processos biológicos constituem-se como uma alternativa bastante interessante quando comparados aos processos físico-químicos, sendo que a biofiltração é o processo mais amplamente utilizado. Neste trabalho, foram avaliados três tipos diferentes de materiais suporte, sendo um sintético - espuma de poliuretano - e dois orgânicos - fibra de côco e bagaço de cana -, para a biofiltração de uma mistura gasosa contendo 'H IND.2'S'. Como inóculo, optou-se pela utilização de cultura mista originária de duas fontes: a) unidade de biofiltro aerado submerso pertencente ao Serviço Autônomo de Água e Esgoto da Cidade de São Carlos, b) unidade de lodos ativados pertencente a São Carlos S/A - Indústria de Papel e Celulose. A adaptação do inóculo foi realizada em meio nutriente específico. Foi observado um período de partida de somente 2 dias nos três sistemas. Com o intuito de avaliar o impacto do aumento progressivo das taxas de carregamento mássico no desempenho dos três biofiltros...

Utilização de sulfeto como doador de elétrons para a desnitrificação autotrófica aplicada ao tratamento de esgoto sanitário; Utilization of sulfide as electron donor in autotrophic denitrification applied to treatment of domestic sewage

Moraes, Bruna de Souza
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: dissertação de mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 20/02/2009 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.17%
A presente pesquisa teve, por principal objetivo, avaliar a viabilidade da desnitrificação autotrófica, empregando sulfeto como doador de elétrons, aplicada a efluentes de reatores anaeróbios tratando esgoto sanitário. Estudos anteriores indicam que o sulfeto presente na fase líquida de efluentes e no biogás pode ser utilizado como doador de elétrons para a desnitrificação. Porém, há poucas informações sobre as interações entre os ciclos do carbono, nitrogênio e enxofre neste processo que permitam a utilização prática dos fundamentos já conhecidos sobre a desnitrificação na presença de sulfeto. Neste trabalho, realizaram-se ensaios de desnitrificação na presença de sulfeto, a fim de se avaliar o potencial de uso desse composto como doador de elétrons. Inicialmente, foram utilizados frascos de 1 L contendo biomassa imobilizada em espuma de poliuretano, alimentados com meio sintético nitrificado contendo sulfeto como doador e nitrito e nitrato como receptores de elétrons. Variou-se a concentração de sulfeto, obtendo-se diferentes relações N/S. Constatou-se desnitrificação completa de ambos os receptores estudados; entretanto, isto só ocorreu com estabilidade para relações N/S inferiores à relação estequiométrica baseada nas reações químicas correspondentes...

Isolamento e caracterização de microrganismo envolvido na desnitrificação autrófica pela oxidação de sulfeto em reator vertical de leito fixo; Isolation and characterization of a microorganism involved on autotrophic denitrification by sulfide oxidation in a vertical fixed-bed reactor

Mestrinelli, Fabiana
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: dissertação de mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 15/10/2010 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.96%
O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a comunidade envolvida na desnitrificação autotrófica pela oxidação de sulfetos, aplicada ao pós-tratamento de efluentes anaeróbios. O enriquecimento da comunidade bacteriana e da comunidade desnitrificante autotrófica foi realizado a partir de amostras da biomassa coletadas de três reatores verticais de leito fixo operados em condições distintas, sendo, redução autotrófica de nitrato, redução autotrófica de nitrito e redução autotrófica de nitrato com excesso de sulfeto. Após a determinação da melhor condição de enriquecimento, a cultura foi purificada, identificada por meio de ferramentas da biologia molecular e caracterizada quanto às melhores condições de crescimento. O enriquecimento foi bem sucedido com a biomassa dos três reatores. No entanto, a condição de redução de nitrato com relação 'N'/'S' igual a 0,8 foi a que apresentou maior concentração de microrganismos desnitrificantes autotróficos. A bactéria isolada foi identificada como Pseudomonas stutzeri. A velocidade específica máxima de crescimento da cultura ('mü'máx) foi de 0,037/h, com tempo de duplicação de 18,7 horas. O rendimento celular (Y) do composto nitrogenado foi de 0,15 gSSV.g/'N' e a velocidade de desnitrificação foi de aproximadamente 0...

Desnitrificação autotrófica usando sulfeto como doador de elétrons para remoção de nitrogênio de efluentes de reatores anaeróbios utilizados no tratamento de esgotos sanitários; Autotrophic denitrification using sulfide as electron donor for nitrogen removal from anaerobically pre-treated domestic sewage

Souza, Theo Syrto Octavio de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 15/04/2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.87%
A remoção de nitrogênio é um aspecto importante do tratamento de águas residuárias, visto que este nutriente causa diversos inconvenientes, com consequentes danos à saúde humana e ao meio ambiente. A forma mais utilizada para a remoção biológica de nitrogênio de águas residuárias é a nitrificação autotrófica seguida de desnitrificação heterotrófica. Esta última etapa necessita de doadores de elétrons orgânicos, provenientes de fontes endógenas ou exógenas. Isto pode encarecer os sistemas de tratamento que utilizam reatores anaeróbios como primeira unidade de tratamento biológico, já que os efluentes destes não possuem matéria orgânica prontamente degradável, exigindo a adição de fontes exógenas de doadores de elétrons. Neste sentido, a desnitrificação autotrófica usando compostos reduzidos de enxofre como doadores de elétrons mostra-se interessante, já que sulfetos são comumente encontrados em efluentes anaeróbios. O objetivo deste projeto de pesquisa é a avaliação da desnitrificação autotrófica usando sulfeto como doador de elétrons para remoção de nitrogênio de efluentes de reatores anaeróbios tratando esgoto sanitário. Para atingir esse objetivo, foram realizados estudos exploratórios...

Diversidade microbiana associada ao uso de sulfeto como doador de elétrons para a remoção de nitrogênio de efluentes de reatores anaeróbios aplicados ao tratamento de esgotos sanitários; Microbial diversity associated with the use of sulfide as electron donor for nitrogen removal from wastewater of reactors applied to anaerobic treatment of sewage

Fonseca, Débora Faria
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 10/08/2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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A ampla ocorrência de contaminação de águas por compostos de nitrogênio em concentrações superiores às recomendadas pela legislação tem suscitado interesse no desenvolvimento de tecnologias viáveis de remoção desses compostos. A remoção biológica de nitrogênio apresenta como principais vantagens os custos relativamente reduzidos e a possibilidade de maior eficiência. Compostos reduzidos de enxofre como sulfetos podem ser oxidados a enxofre elementar ou a sulfato por bactérias oxidantes de sulfeto que utilizam nitrato ou nitrito como receptor de elétrons. Esta desnitrificação reduz os requerimentos globais de carbono para a remoção de nutrientes, com menor produção de lodo, proporcionando grande economia. O objetivo desta pesquisa consistiu em contribuir para o conhecimento acerca dos aspectos microbiológicos do processo de desnitrificação com o uso de sulfeto. Foram avaliados os efeitos dos modos de operação dos reatores desnitrificantes sobre a biomassa em cada uma das diferentes configurações e monitorada a colonização microbiana por meio de técnicas de Biologia Molecular como PCR/DGGE, sequenciamento e análises filogenéticas. Os fragmentos do gene RNAr 16S foram relacionados aos gêneros Pseudomonas...

A new palladium chelate compound for determination of sulfide

Petruci, João Flávio da Silveira; Cardoso, Arnaldo Alves
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 368-372
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.96%
A new palladium chelate compound is described for the determination of sulfide in aqueous samples. The reagent, bis(2-aminobenzoate)palladium(II) (PdA 2), was prepared by reaction of tetrachloropalladate (PdCl 4 -) with 2-aminobenzoic acid. The compound was characterized by infrared spectroscopy and CHN elemental analysis. The measurement was based on the selective reaction of PdA 2 with sulfide in an aqueous medium, which quantitatively produced fluorescent 2-aminobenzoate (? ex=245nm, ? em=410nm). The analytical response was linear in the range 0.10-20.0?mol (S 2-) L -1 (r>0.99), with a limit of detection of 0.075?molL -1 and repeatability (RSD) of 3.4%. There was no interference from CO 3 2-, NO 3 -, Cl -, SO 4 2-, Br -, NO 2 -, K +, NH 4 +, Na +, citrate or S 2O 8 2-. The fluorescence intensity decreased in the presence of H 3CCOO -, PO 4 3- and SCN -, while OH - caused a positive interference. The new fluorescent compound was successfully applied for the determination of sulfide in synthetic wastewater and natural water sample. The advantages of the proposed palladium chelate are absence of toxic by-products, simple synthesis procedure of reagent and yield reaction of about 85%, easy handling and fast acquirement of analytical signal. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Evaluation of amendments in the rehabilitation of sulfide mine tailings from São Domingos

Abreu, M.M.; Varennes, A.; Santos, E.S.; Macias, F.
Fonte: Cordovil, C. e Ferreira, L. Publicador: Cordovil, C. e Ferreira, L.
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/conferenceobject
Publicado em /09/2010 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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RAMIRAN International Conference; The São Domingos mining area is located in the Iberian Pyrite Belt, SE Portugal, and represents a serious environmental hazard (Matos and Martins, 2006). Exploitation dated back to pre-roman and roman times with extraction of Ag, Au and Cu exploitation, mainly in the gossan (resulting from the ore weathering). The intense exploitation started in the middle of 19th century, both in the gossan and sulfide ore-containing Cu, Zn, As and Pb, and lasted until 1960, with the exhaustion of the ore (Quental et al., 2002). Different types of waste materials were left: gossan, host rocks (volcanic with shales, and shales), roman and modern slags, smelting ashes and brittle and blocks of pyrite (Matos, 2004; Álvarez-Valero et al., 2008). All sulfide mine wastes are typically heterogeneous and contain high amounts of trace elements, acidic pH and small contents of organic matter and nutrients. The large dumps containing pyrite and other metal sulfides generate, by oxidation, acidic mine drainage (AMD) which increases the availability of trace elements for microorganisms and plants in the surrounding soils. All of these characteristics contribute towards a system that is barely capable of supporting the establishment or survival of plants. The use of amendments and spontaneous colonization (vegetation) from mining areas (phytostabilization) are cost-effective and environmentally sustainable methods to rehabilitate these contaminated and degraded areas even in arid and semi-arid conditions (Tordoff et al....

Sulfide toxicity kinetics of a uasb reactor

Paula Jr.,D. R.; Foresti,E.
Fonte: Brazilian Society of Chemical Engineering Publicador: Brazilian Society of Chemical Engineering
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2009 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.08%
The effect of sulfide toxicity on kinetic parameters of anaerobic organic matter removal in a UASB (up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket) reactor is presented. Two lab-scale UASB reactors (10.5 L) were operated continuously during 12 months. The reactors were fed with synthetic wastes prepared daily using glucose, ammonium acetate, methanol and nutrient solution. One of the reactors also received increasing concentrations of sodium sulfide. For both reactors, the flow rate of 16 L.d-1 was held constant throughout the experiment, corresponding to a hydraulic retention time of 15.6 hours. The classic model for non-competitive sulfide inhibition was applied to the experimental data for determining the overall kinetic parameter of specific substrate utilization (q) and the sulfide inhibition coefficient (Ki). The application of the kinetic parameters determined allows prediction of methanogenesis inhibition and thus the adoption of operating parameters to minimize sulfide toxicity in UASB reactors.

Sulfate and dissolved sulfide variation under low COD/Sulfate ratio in Up-flow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) treating domestic wastewater

Subtil,Eduardo Lucas; Cassini,Sérvio Túlio Alves; Gonçalves,Ricardo Franci
Fonte: Instituto de Pesquisas Ambientais em Bacias Hidrográficas Publicador: Instituto de Pesquisas Ambientais em Bacias Hidrográficas
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.96%
In this study, the dynamics of sulfate reduction and dissolved sulfide generation (S2-, HS-, H2Saq) in liquid phase was evaluated in an UASB reactor treating domestic wastewater with low COD/Sulfate content. The evaluation in the UASB reactor was performed at three sludge heights (0.25, 1.25, 2.25 taps) and effluent of the reactor. Sulfate reduction was verified in the reactor, with an average reduction of 24 % throughout the experiment period. However, the dissolved sulfide concentration in the reactor was not higher than 5.0 mg Sdiss/L. The kinetic model of first order showed good fit to describe the sulfate reduction under different COD/sulfate ratio, with K1app between 2.94x10-5 s-1 and 1.17x10-5 s-1 with correlation coefficients for data over 91%. The maximum rate to sulfate reduction was 18.0 mg SO4(2-)/L.h-1 and small variation in COD/sulfate ratio promotes a significant change both in sulfate and sulfide concentrations.

Inhaled Hydrogen Sulfide Prevents Endotoxin-Induced Systemic Inflammation and Improves Survival by Altering Sulfide Metabolism in Mice

Tokuda, Kentaro; Kida, Kotaro; Marutani, Eizo; Crimi, Ettore; Bougaki, Masahiko; Khatri, Ashok; Kimura, Hideo; Ichinose, Fumito
Fonte: Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Publicador: Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.
Tipo: text
Publicado em 01/07/2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Aims: The role of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide [LPS])-induced inflammation is incompletely understood. We examined the impact of H2S breathing on LPS-induced changes in sulfide metabolism, systemic inflammation, and survival in mice. Results: Mice that breathed air alone exhibited decreased plasma sulfide levels and poor survival rate at 72?h after LPS challenge. Endotoxemia markedly increased alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity and nitrite/nitrate (NOx) levels in plasma and lung myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in mice that breathed air. In contrast, breathing air supplemented with 80?ppm of H2S for 6?h after LPS challenge markedly improved survival rate compared to mice that breathed air alone (p

Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Sulfide Oxidation by Oxygen: A Look at Inorganically Controlled Reactions and Biologically Mediated Processes in the Environment

Luther, George W.; Findlay, Alyssa J.; MacDonald, Daniel J.; Owings, Shannon M.; Hanson, Thomas E.; Beinart, Roxanne A.; Girguis, Peter R.
Fonte: Frontiers Media SA Publicador: Frontiers Media SA
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.21%
The thermodynamics for the first electron transfer step for sulfide and oxygen indicates that the reaction is unfavorable as unstable superoxide and bisulfide radical ions would need to be produced. However, a two-electron transfer is favorable as stable S(0) and peroxide would be formed, but the partially filled orbitals in oxygen that accept electrons prevent rapid kinetics. Abiotic sulfide oxidation kinetics improve when reduced iron and/or manganese are oxidized by oxygen to form oxidized metals which in turn oxidize sulfide. Biological sulfur oxidation relies on enzymes that have evolved to overcome these kinetic constraints to affect rapid sulfide oxidation. Here we review the available thermodynamic and kinetic data for H2S and HS• as well as O2, reactive oxygen species, nitrate, nitrite, and NOx species. We also present new kinetic data for abiotic sulfide oxidation with oxygen in trace metal clean solutions that constrain abiotic rates of sulfide oxidation in metal free solution and agree with the kinetic and thermodynamic calculations. Moreover, we present experimental data that give insight on rates of chemolithotrophic and photolithotrophic sulfide oxidation in the environment. We demonstrate that both anaerobic photolithotrophic and aerobic chemolithotrophic sulfide oxidation rates are three or more orders of magnitude higher than abiotic rates suggesting that in most environments biotic sulfide oxidation rates will far exceed abiotic rates due to the thermodynamic and kinetic constraints discussed in the first section of the paper. Such data reshape our thinking about the biotic and abiotic contributions to sulfide oxidation in the environment.; Organismic and Evolutionary Biology

Silver accumulation in Daphnia magna in the presence of reactive sulfide

Bianchini, Adalto; Rouleau, Claude; Wood, Chris
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.21%
Previously, we demonstrated a higher silver body burden when Daphnia magna were exposed to silver in the presence of environmentally relevant concentrations (25 nM) of reactive sulfide, but the explanation was unclear. In the present study, D. magna were exposed to AgNO3 (0.93_g Ag/L = 8.6nM as a mixture of cold Ag and 110mAg) in synthetic water in either the presence or absence of 25nM sulfide as zinc sulfide clusters. After 1-h exposure, daphnids were transferred to clean water for up to 5-h depuration. At different times of Ag exposure and depuration, daphnids were randomly sampled for whole body silver burden. Also, after 1 h, daphnids were sampled for silver accumulation in “gills” (small organs on the thoracic appendages), digestive tract, and carcass. Other groups were exposed to the same silver and sulfide concentrations for 1 h and then sampled for whole-body autoradiography. Silver body burden was about two-fold higher in the presence of sulfide. A two-fold increase in silver burden in “gills” and digestive tract, but not in carcass, was also observed in the presence of sulfide. Absolute differences due to sulfide were greatest in digestive tract and explained most of the difference in whole body burden. Transfer to clean water caused a significant drop in silver concentration in whole body and all compartments to similar levels in the two groups after 5-h depuration. These results indicate that the higher silver body burden observed in the presence of sulfide is mainly due to sulfide-bound silver in the digestive tract of the daphnids. This conclusion is supported by autoradiography...

Does sulfide or water hardness protect against chronic silver toxicity in Daphnia magna? A critical assessment of the acute-to-chronic toxicity ratio for silver

Bianchini, Adalto; Wood, Chris
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.11%
The protective effects of sulfide and water hardness against acute and chronic silver toxicity in Daphnia magna were assessed in the presence of food. Results showed that both sulfide and water hardness protected against lethal acute and chronic silver toxicity in terms of mortality. However, only sulfide showed a protective effect against the sub-lethal chronic silver effects on growth and reproduction. These findings suggest that both reactive sulfide and water hardness must be taken into account in the development of a chronic version of the Biotic Ligand Model (BLM) for waterborne silver. Furthermore, acute-to-chronic ratio values for silver toxicity showed that only small increases in toxicity are seen over the chronic exposure relative to the acute toxicity. Mortality is the most sensitive endpoint in moderately hard water and in the presence of sulfide. Reproduction, measured as the number of neonates produced per adult per reproduction day, is the most sensitive one in hard water in the absence of sulfide.

Evaluation of the effect of reactive sulfide on the acute toxicity of silver (i) to daphnia magna. Part 1: description of the chemical system

Bowles, Karl; Bianchini, Adalto; Brauner, Colin; Kramer, James; Wood, Chris
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.21%
Experiments were designed to assess the potential protective effect of the presence of sulfide against the acute (48-h) toxicity of silver(I) to Daphnia magna. Tests were conducted in borosilicate glass beakers (250 ml) in moderately hard synthetic water. Toxicity solutions were replaced after 24 h by static renewal method. This paper describes the chemical system, and the acute toxicity results are presented in a companion paper. Sulfide was below detection limit (,5 nM) in controls with no sulfide added. Sulfide, added as zinc sulfide clusters at approximately 35- or approximately 350-nM concentration, dropped in concentration to approximately 25 and 250 nM, respectively, over the 24-h period of measurements. Silver also decreased in concentration during the experiment (up to 59%), and the rate of loss was greater in the absence of sulfide compared with the presence of sulfide. A filtration experiment indicated a 1:1 binding ratio of silver to sulfide and a conditional stability constant for the Ag(I)–zinc sulfide complex of log K9 5 8.9. The losses of sulfide and silver during the experiments highlighted the need for regular monitoring of the important chemical components of the system, even during short (48-h) toxicity tests.

Evaluation of the effect of reactive sulfide on the acute toxicity of silver (i) to daphnia magna. Part 2: toxicity results

Bianchini, Adalto; Bowles, Karl; Brauner, Colin; Gorsuch, Joseph; Kramer, James; Wood, Chris
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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37.21%
The protective effect of reactive sulfide against AgNO3 toxicity to Daphnia magna neonates was studied. Acute (48- h) toxicity tests were performed in the absence (,5 nM) and presence of low (;25 nM) and high (;250 nM) concentrations of zinc sulfide clusters under oxic conditions. In both the presence and the absence of sulfide, lower mean lethal concentration (LC50) values were observed when measured as opposed to nominal silver concentrations were used in calculations. This reflected the fact that measured total silver concentrations were lower than nominal concentrations due to losses of silver from solution observed during the experiment. High concentration (;250 nM) of sulfide completely protected against toxicity up to the highest silver concentration tested (2 mg/L [19 nM]) with measured silver data. In the presence of environmentally realistic levels of sulfide (;25 nM) in receiving waters, acute silver toxicity was reduced by about 5.5-fold. However, when filtered (0.45 mm) silver concentrations alone were considered, toxicity (48-h LC50) was similar in the absence (0.22 mg/L) and presence (0.28 mg/L) of sulfide. The difference between measured total and filtered silver was attributed to chemisorption of the metal sulfide onto the membrane filter and provides evidence that the toxic fraction of silver is that which is unbound to sulfide. Accumulation of silver was greater in daphnids exposed to silver in the presence of sulfide than in its absence...