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Acute Toxic Leukoencephalopathy: Potential for Reversibility Clinically and on MRI With Diffusion-Weighted and FLAIR Imaging

MCKINNEY, Alexander M.; KIEFFER, Stephen A.; PAYLOR, Rogerich T.; SANTACRUZ, Karen S.; KENDI, Ayse; LUCATO, Leandro
Fonte: AMER ROENTGEN RAY SOC Publicador: AMER ROENTGEN RAY SOC
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.07%
OBJECTIVE. Toxic leukoencephalopathy may present acutely or subacutely with symmetrically reduced diffusion in the periventricular and supraventricular white matter, hereafter referred to as periventricular white matter. This entity may reverse both on imaging and clinically. However, a gathering together of the heterogeneous causes of this disorder as seen on MRI with diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and an analysis of their likelihood to reverse has not yet been performed. Our goals were to gather causes of acute or subacute toxic leukoencephalopathy that can present with reduced diffusion of periventricular white matter in order to promote recognition of this entity, to evaluate whether DWI with apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values can predict the extent of chronic FLAIR abnormality ( imaging reversibility), and to evaluate whether DWI can predict the clinical outcome ( clinical reversibility). MATERIALS AND METHODS. Two neuroradiologists retrospectively reviewed the MRI examinations of 39 patients with acute symptoms and reduced diffusion of periventricular white matter. The reviewers then scored the extent of abnormality on DWI and FLAIR. ADC ratios of affected white matter versus the unaffected periventricular white matter were obtained. Each patient`s clinical records were reviewed to determine the cause and clinical outcome. Histology findings were available in three patients. Correlations were calculated between the initial MRI markers and both the clinical course and the follow-up extent on FLAIR using Spearman`s correlation coefficient. RESULTS. Of the initial 39 patients...

Avaliação dos possíveis efeitos tóxicos do extrato fluido de Casearia sylvestris, em ratos Wistar; Evaluation of the possible toxic effects of fluid extract of Casearia sylvestris in Wistar rats

Ameni, Aline Zancheti
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: dissertação de mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 13/07/2011 Português
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36.07%
A planta Casearia sylvestris, popularmente conhecida como guaçatonga, é comumente utilizada para o tratamento de diversas afecções como queimaduras, ferimentos, herpes labial e genital, distúrbios do trato gastrointestinal, como gastrites, úlceras, gengivites, aftas, halitose; além disto, atribui-se à planta ação cicatrizante, tônica, depurativa, anti-reumática, antiinflamatória, antiofídica, antidiarréica, entre outras. Atualmente, é catalogada como planta medicinal de interesse ao Sistema Único de Saúde no Brasil. Entretanto, até o momento, não haviam estudos relativos à avaliação de sua toxicidade. Assim, o objetivo desta pesquisa foi o de estudar, em ratos, os possíveis efeitos tóxicos da C. sylvestris. Para tal, foram realizados os testes de citotoxicidade com o objetivo de analisar o potencial tóxico das diferentes formas de extração da planta, e estudos pré-clínicos de toxicidade oral aguda, e em doses repetidas, por 28 e 90 dias, realizados de acordo com protocolos preconizados pelas agências reguladoras nacionais (Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária - ANVISA) e internacionais (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development - OECD) de avaliação de risco para substâncias químicas. No presente estudo...

New targets and therapeutic approaches in inherited metabolic disorders

Brasil, Sandra Dolores Arduim, 1985-
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2013 Português
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Tese de doutoramento, Farmácia (Biologia Celular e Molecular), Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Farmácia, 2013; Inherited metabolic disorders (IMDs) are rare autosomal recessive disorders, showing a high allelic and phenotypic heterogeneity. The main therapeutic goal in these disorders is to restore the metabolic balance and, until now, most available therapies are not definitive and only alleviate the patients’ symptoms. In this work, three IMDs were analyzed, two organic acidurias, propionic and methylmalonic acidurias, and one aminoacidopathy, pyruvoyltetrahydropterin synthase. Organic acid disorders or organic acidurias (OAs) are characterized by the excretion of non-amino organic acids in urine. Two of the most common OAs are propionic and methylmalonic acidurias. These two disorders are caused by defects in the oxidation pathway of propionyl-CoA into succinyl-CoA that enters the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Propionic aciduria is caused by mutations affecting the PCCA or PCCB genes that encode the subunits of the propionyl-CoA carboxylase enzyme, while methylmalonic aciduria is caused by mutations affecting not only the MUT gene but also the genes encoding the proteins involved in the trafficking and synthesis of the enzyme cofactor...

The controvertible role of kava (Piper methysticum G. Foster) an anxiolytic herb, on toxic hepatitis

Amorim,Maria F. D.; Diniz,Margareth F. F. M.; Araújo,Maria S. T.; Pita,João C. L. R.; Dantas,Jadson G.; Ramalho,Josué A.; Xavier,Aline L.; Palomaro,Thayse V.; B. Júnior,Nelson L.
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Farmacognosia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Farmacognosia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2007 Português
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35.98%
Kava is an anxiolytic herbal medicine used in the treatment of sleep and anxiety disorders. Some cases of kava-induced hepatotoxicity have been reported in the literature leading to its banishment in most countries worldwide. Clinically, the spectrum ranged from transient elevations of liver enzyme levels to fulminant liver failure and death. Liver transplantation was performed in a few cases. This paper provides a review of the currently available literature on kava-related toxic hepatitis which may result from its use, discusses the possible mechanisms for the potentially severe hepatotoxicity and describes some features which must be considered when adverse liver effects seem to be associated to kava administration. In conclusion, the incidence of kava toxicity on the liver remains to be investigated; however, some concerns before or during kava use are important, due to the possibility of severe liver dysfunction.

Occupational Hepatic Disorders in Korea

Kim, Hyoung Ryoul; Kim, Tae Woo
Fonte: The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences Publicador: The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences
Tipo: text
Português
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26.11%
Occupational hepatic disorders are classified into toxic hepatitis, viral hepatitis, and chemical-induced malignancy in Korea. Toxic hepatitis cases were reported in workers who were exposed to dimethylformamide, dimethylacetamide, or trichloroethylene. Pre-placement medical examination and regular follow-up are necessary to prevent the development of toxic hepatitis. Viral hepatitis was chiefly reported among health care workers such as doctors, nurses and clinical pathology technicians who could easily be exposed to blood. Preventive measures for these groups therefore include vaccination and serum monitoring programs. Hepatic angiosarcoma caused by vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) exposure is a very well known occupational disease and it has not been officially reported in Korea yet. Some cases of hepatocellular carcinoma were legally approved for compensation as an occupational disease largely by overwork and stress, but not supported by enough scientific evidence. Effort to find the evidence of its causal relationship is needed.

Occupational Neurological Disorders in Korea

Kim, Eun-A; Kang, Seong-Kyu
Fonte: The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences Publicador: The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences
Tipo: text
Português
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26.05%
The purpose of this article was to provide a literature review of occupational neurological disorders and related research in Korea, focusing on chemical hazards. We reviewed occupational neurological disorders investigated by the Occupational Safety and Health Research Institute of Korean Occupational Safety and Health Agency between 1992 and 2009, categorizing them as neurological disorders of the central nervous system (CNS), of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) or as neurodegenerative disorders. We also examined peer-reviewed journal articles related to neurotoxicology, published from 1984 to 2009. Outbreaks of occupational neurological disorder of the CNS due to inorganic mercury and carbon disulfide poisoning had helped prompt the development of the occupational safety and health system of Korea. Other major neurological disorders of the CNS included methyl bromide intoxication and chronic toxic encephalopathy. Most of the PNS disorders were n-hexane-induced peripheral neuritis, reported from the electronics industry. Reports of manganese-induced Parkinsonism resulted in the introduction of neuroimaging techniques to occupational medicine. Since the late 1990s, the direction of research has been moving toward degenerative disorder and early effect of neurotoxicity. To understand the early effects of neurotoxic chemicals in the preclinical stage...

Aromatic Small Molecules Remodel Toxic Soluble Oligomers of Amyloid ? through Three Independent Pathways*

Ladiwala, Ali Reza A.; Dordick, Jonathan S.; Tessier, Peter M.
Fonte: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Publicador: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Tipo: text
Português
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26.11%
In protein conformational disorders ranging from Alzheimer to Parkinson disease, proteins of unrelated sequence misfold into a similar array of aggregated conformers ranging from small oligomers to large amyloid fibrils. Substantial evidence suggests that small, prefibrillar oligomers are the most toxic species, yet to what extent they can be selectively targeted and remodeled into non-toxic conformers using small molecules is poorly understood. We have evaluated the conformational specificity and remodeling pathways of a diverse panel of aromatic small molecules against mature soluble oligomers of the A?42 peptide associated with Alzheimer disease. We find that small molecule antagonists can be grouped into three classes, which we herein define as Class I, II, and III molecules, based on the distinct pathways they utilize to remodel soluble oligomers into multiple conformers with reduced toxicity. Class I molecules remodel soluble oligomers into large, off-pathway aggregates that are non-toxic. Moreover, Class IA molecules also remodel amyloid fibrils into the same off-pathway structures, whereas Class IB molecules fail to remodel fibrils but accelerate aggregation of freshly disaggregated A?. In contrast, a Class II molecule converts soluble A? oligomers into fibrils...

Endocrine, metabolic, nutritional, and toxic disorders leading to dementia

Ghosh, Amitabha
Fonte: Medknow Publications Publicador: Medknow Publications
Tipo: text
Publicado em /12/2010 Português
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46.11%
One of the first steps toward the correct diagnosis of dementia is to segregate out the nondegenerative dementias from possible degenerative dementias. Nondegenerative dementias could be due to traumatic, endocrine, metabolic, nutritional, toxic, infective, and immunological causes. They could also be caused by tumors, subdural hematomas, and normal pressure hydrocephalus. Many of the nondegenerative dementias occur at an earlier age and often progress quickly compared to Alzheimer’s disease and other degenerative dementias. Many are treatable or preventable with simple measures. This review aims to give an overview of some of the more important endocrine, metabolic, nutritional, and toxic disorders that may lead to dementia.

Autism Spectrum Disorders and Identified Toxic Land Fills: Co-Occurrence Across States

Ming, Xue; Brimacombe, Michael; Malek, Joanne H.; Jani, Nisha; Wagner, George C.
Fonte: Libertas Academica Publicador: Libertas Academica
Tipo: text
Publicado em 20/08/2008 Português
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26.24%
It is believed that gene by environmental interactions contribute to the pathogenesis of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We hypothesize that ASD are associated with early and repeated exposures to any of a number of toxicants or mixtures of toxicants. It is the cumulative effects of these repeated exposures acting upon genetically susceptible individuals that lead to the phenotypes of ASD. We report our initial observations of a considerable overlap of identified toxic landfills in the State of New Jersey and the residence of an ASD cohort, and a correlation between the identified toxic Superfund sites on each U.S. state and the total number of diagnosed cases of ASD in those states. The residence of 495 ASD patients in New Jersey by zip code and the toxic landfill sites were plotted on a map of Northern New Jersey. The area of highest ASD cases coincides with the highest density of toxic landfill sites while the area with lowest ASD cases has the lowest density of toxic landfill sites. Furthermore, the number of toxic Superfund sites and autism rate across 49 of the 50 states shows a statistically significant correlation (i.e. the number of identified superfund sites correlates with the rate of autism per 1000 residents in 49 of the states (p = 0.015; excluding the state of Oregon). These significant observations call for further organized studies to elucidate possible role(s) of environmental toxicants contributing to the pathogenesis of ASD.

Early Life Programming and Neurodevelopmental Disorders

Bale, Tracy L.; Baram, Tallie Z.; Brown, Alan S.; Goldstein, Jill M.; Insel, Thomas R.; McCarthy, Margaret M.; Nemeroff, Charles B.; Reyes, Teresa M.; Simerly, Richard B.; Susser, Ezra S.; Nestler, Eric J.
Tipo: text
Publicado em 15/08/2010 Português
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26.04%
For more than a century, clinical investigators have focused on early life as a source of adult psychopathology. Early theories about psychic conflict and toxic parenting have been replaced by more recent formulations of complex interactions of genes and environment. Although the hypothesized mechanisms have evolved, a central notion remains: early life is a period of unique sensitivity during which experience confers enduring effects. The mechanisms for these effects remain almost as much a mystery today as they were a century ago. Recent studies suggest that maternal diet can program offspring growth and metabolic pathways, altering lifelong susceptibility to diabetes and obesity. If maternal psychosocial experience has similar programming effects on the developing offspring, one might expect a comparable contribution to neurodevelopmental disorders, including affective disorders, schizophrenia, autism, and eating disorders. Due to their early onset, prevalence, and chronicity, some of these disorders, such as depression and schizophrenia, are among the highest causes of disability worldwide according to the World Health Organization 2002 report. Consideration of the early life programming and transcriptional regulation in adult exposures supports a critical need to understand epigenetic mechanisms as a critical determinant in disease predisposition. Incorporating the latest insight gained from clinical and epidemiological studies with potential epigenetic mechanisms from basic research...

Quinolinic Acid, an Endogenous Molecule Combining Excitotoxicity, Oxidative Stress and Other Toxic Mechanisms

Pérez-De La Cruz, Verónica; Carrillo-Mora, Paul; Santamaría, Abel
Fonte: Libertas Academica Publicador: Libertas Academica
Tipo: text
Publicado em 23/02/2012 Português
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26.16%
Quinolinic acid (QUIN), an endogenous metabolite of the kynurenine pathway, is involved in several neurological disorders, including Huntington’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, schizophrenia, HIV associated dementia (HAD) etc. QUIN toxicity involves several mechanisms which trigger various metabolic pathways and transcription factors. The primary mechanism exerted by this excitotoxin in the central nervous system (CNS) has been largely related with the overactivation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors and increased cytosolic Ca2+ concentrations, followed by mitochondrial dysfunction, cytochrome c release, ATP exhaustion, free radical formation and oxidative damage. As a result, this toxic pattern is responsible for selective loss of middle size striatal spiny GABAergic neurons and motor alterations in lesioned animals. This toxin has recently gained attention in biomedical research as, in addition to its proven excitotoxic profile, a considerable amount of evidence suggests that oxidative stress and energetic disturbances are major constituents of its toxic pattern in the CNS. Hence, this profile has changed our perception of how QUIN-related disorders combine different toxic mechanisms resulting in brain damage. This review will focus on the description and integration of recent evidence supporting old and suggesting new mechanisms to explain QUIN toxicity.

RNA-binding proteins in microsatellite expansion disorders: mediators of RNA toxicity

Echeverria, Gloria V.; Cooper, Thomas A.
Tipo: text
Português
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26.3%
Although protein-mediated toxicity in neurological disease has been extensively characterized, RNA-mediated toxicity is an emerging mechanism of pathogenesis. In microsatellite expansion disorders, expansion of repeated sequences in noncoding regions gives rise to RNA that produces a toxic gain of function, while expansions in coding regions can disrupt protein function as well a produce toxic RNA. The toxic RNA typically aggregates into nuclear foci and contributes to disease pathogenesis. In many cases, toxicity of the RNA is caused by the disrupted functions of RNA-binding proteins. We will discuss evidence for RNA-mediated toxicity in microsatellite expansion disorders. Different microsatellite expansion disorders are linked with alterations in the same as well as disease-specific RNA binding proteins. Recent studies have shown that microsatellite expansions can encode multiple repeat-containing toxic RNAs through bidirectional transcription and protein species through repeat-associated non-ATG translation. We will discuss approaches that have characterized the toxic contributions of these various factors.

Toxic Encephalopathy

Kim, Yangho; Kim, Jae Woo
Fonte: Occupational Safety and Health Research Institute Publicador: Occupational Safety and Health Research Institute
Tipo: text
Português
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26.13%
This article schematically reviews the clinical features, diagnostic approaches to, and toxicological implications of toxic encephalopathy. The review will focus on the most significant occupational causes of toxic encephalopathy. Chronic toxic encephalopathy, cerebellar syndrome, parkinsonism, and vascular encephalopathy are commonly encountered clinical syndromes of toxic encephalopathy. Few neurotoxins cause patients to present with pathognomonic neurological syndromes. The symptoms and signs of toxic encephalopathy may be mimicked by many psychiatric, metabolic, inflammatory, neoplastic, and degenerative diseases of the nervous system. Thus, the importance of good history-taking that considers exposure and a comprehensive neurological examination cannot be overemphasized in the diagnosis of toxic encephalopathy. Neuropsychological testing and neuroimaging typically play ancillary roles. The recognition of toxic encephalopathy is important because the correct diagnosis of occupational disease can prevent others (e.g., workers at the same worksite) from further harm by reducing their exposure to the toxin, and also often provides some indication of prognosis. Physicians must therefore be aware of the typical signs and symptoms of toxic encephalopathy...

Aging, Protein Aggregation, Chaperones, and Neurodegenerative Disorders: Mechanisms of Coupling and Therapeutic Opportunities

Cohen, Ehud
Fonte: Rambam Health Care Campus Publicador: Rambam Health Care Campus
Tipo: text
Publicado em 31/10/2012 Português
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26.22%
Late onset is a key unifying feature of human neurodegenerative maladies such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases and prion disorders. While sporadic cases typically emerge during the patient’s seventh decade of life or later, mutation-linked, familial cases manifest during the fifth or sixth decade. This common temporal emergence pattern raises the prospect that slowing aging may prevent the accumulation of toxic protein aggregates that lead to the development of these disorders, postpone the onset of these maladies, and alleviate their symptoms once emerged. Invertebrate-based studies indicated that reducing the activity of insulin/IGF signaling (IIS), a prominent aging regulatory pathway, protects from neurodegeneration-linked toxic protein aggregation. The validity of this approach has been tested and confirmed in mammals as reducing the activity of the IGF-1 signaling pathway-protected Alzheimer’s model mice from the behavioral and biochemical impairments associated with the disease. Here I review the recent advances in the field, describe the known mechanistic links between toxic protein aggregation and the aging process, and delineate the future therapeutic potential of IIS reduction as a treatment for various neurodegenerative disorders.

Physical linkage of metabolic genes in fungi is an adaptation against the accumulation of toxic intermediate compounds

McGary, Kriston L.; Slot, Jason C.; Rokas, Antonis
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: text
Português
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26.07%
Genomic analyses have proliferated without being tied to tangible phenotypes. For example, although coordination of both gene expression and genetic linkage have been offered as genetic mechanisms for the frequently observed clustering of genes participating in fungal metabolic pathways, elucidation of the phenotype(s) favored by selection, resulting in cluster formation and maintenance, has not been forthcoming. We noted that the cause of certain well-studied human metabolic disorders is the accumulation of toxic intermediate compounds (ICs), which occurs when the product of an enzyme is not used as a substrate by a downstream neighbor in the metabolic network. This raises the hypothesis that the phenotype favored by selection to drive gene clustering is the mitigation of IC toxicity. To test this, we examined 100 diverse fungal genomes for the simplest type of cluster, gene pairs that are both metabolic neighbors and chromosomal neighbors immediately adjacent to each other, which we refer to as “double neighbor gene pairs” (DNGPs). Examination of the toxicity of their corresponding ICs shows that, compared with chromosomally nonadjacent metabolic neighbors, DNGPs are enriched for ICs that have acutely toxic LD50 doses or reactive functional groups. Furthermore...

Compensation for Occupational Neurological and Mental Disorders

Kang, Dong-Mug; Kim, Inah
Fonte: The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences Publicador: The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences
Tipo: text
Português
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26.06%
Standards for the recognition of occupational diseases (ODs) in Korea were established in 1954 and have been amended several times. In 2013, there was a significant change in these standards. On the basis of scientific evidence and causality, the International Labour Organization list, European Commission schedule, and compensated cases in Korea were reviewed to revise the previous standards for the recognition of ODs in Korea. A disease-based approach using the International Classification of Diseases (10th version) was added on the previous standards, which were agent-specific approaches. The amended compensable occupational neurological disorders and occupational mental disorders (OMDs) in Korea are acute and chronic central nervous system (CNS) disorders, toxic neuropathy, peripheral neuropathy, manganese-related disorders, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Several agents including trichloroethylene (TCE), benzene, vinyl chloride, organotin, methyl bromide, and carbon monoxide (CO) were newly included as acute CNS disorders. TCE, lead, and mercury were newly included as chronic CNS disorders. Mercury, TCE, methyl n-butyl ketone, acrylamide, and arsenic were newly included in peripheral neuropathy. Post-traumatic stress disorders were newly included as the first OMD. This amendment makes the standard more comprehensive and practical. However...

Imprinted Genes and the Environment: Links to the Toxic Metals Arsenic, Cadmium and Lead

Smeester, Lisa; Yosim, Andrew E.; Nye, Monica D.; Hoyo, Cathrine; Murphy, Susan K.; Fry, Rebecca C.
Fonte: MDPI Publicador: MDPI
Tipo: text
Publicado em 11/06/2014 Português
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26.07%
Imprinted genes defy rules of Mendelian genetics with their expression tied to the parent from whom each allele was inherited. They are known to play a role in various diseases/disorders including fetal growth disruption, lower birth weight, obesity, and cancer. There is increasing interest in understanding their influence on environmentally-induced disease. The environment can be thought of broadly as including chemicals present in air, water and soil, as well as food. According to the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), some of the highest ranking environmental chemicals of concern include metals/metalloids such as arsenic, cadmium, and lead. The complex relationships between toxic metal exposure, imprinted gene regulation/expression and health outcomes are understudied. Herein we examine trends in imprinted gene biology, including an assessment of the imprinted genes and their known functional roles in the cell, particularly as they relate to toxic metals exposure and disease. The data highlight that many of the imprinted genes have known associations to developmental diseases and are enriched for their role in the TP53 and AhR pathways. Assessment of the promoter regions of the imprinted genes resulted in the identification of an enrichment of binding sites for two transcription factor families...

Movement Disorders in Adult Surviving Patients with Maple Syrup Urine Disease

Carecchio, Miryam; Schneider, Susanne A.; Chan, Heidi; Lachmann, Robin; Lee, Philip J.; Murphy, Elaine; Bhatia, Kailash P.
Tipo: text
Português
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26.17%
Maple syrup urine disease is a rare metabolic disorder caused by mutations in the branched-chain ?-keto acid dehydrogenase complex gene. Patients generally present early in life with a toxic encephalopathy because of the accumulation of the branched-chain amino acids leucine, isoleucine, and valine and the corresponding ketoacids. Movement disorders in maple syrup urine disease have typically been described during decompensation episodes or at presentation in the context of a toxic encephalopathy, with complete resolution after appropriate dietary treatment. Movement disorders in patients surviving childhood are not well documented. We assessed 17 adult patients with maple syrup urine disease (mean age, 27.5 years) with a special focus on movement disorders. Twelve (70.6%) had a movement disorder on clinical examination, mainly tremor and dystonia or a combination of both. Parkinsonism and simple motor tics were also observed. Pyramidal signs were present in 11 patients (64.7%), and a spastic-dystonic gait was observed in 6 patients (35.2%). In summary, movement disorders are common in treated adult patients with maple syrup urine disease, and careful neurological examination is advisable to identify those who may benefit from specific therapy.

Blood disorders typically associated with renal transplantation

Yang, Yu; Yu, Bo; Chen, Yun
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: text
Publicado em 19/03/2015 Português
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26.07%
Renal transplantation has become one of the most common surgical procedures performed to replace a diseased kidney with a healthy kidney from a donor. It can help patients with kidney failure live decades longer. However, renal transplantation also faces a risk of developing various blood disorders. The blood disorders typically associated with renal transplantation can be divided into two main categories: (1) Common disorders including post-transplant anemia (PTA), post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD), post-transplant erythrocytosis (PTE), and post-transplant cytopenias (PTC, leukopenia/neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and pancytopenia); and (2) Uncommon but serious disorders including hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS), thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA), therapy-related myelodysplasia (t-MDS), and therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia (t-AML). Although many etiological factors involve the development of post-transplant blood disorders, immunosuppressive agents, and viral infections could be the two major contributors to most blood disorders and cause hematological abnormalities and immunodeficiency by suppressing hematopoietic function of bone marrow. Hematological abnormalities and immunodeficiency will result in severe clinical outcomes in renal transplant recipients. Understanding how blood disorders develop will help cure these life-threatening complications. A potential therapeutic strategy against post-transplant blood disorders should focus on tapering immunosuppression or replacing myelotoxic immunosuppressive drugs with lower toxic alternatives...

Cigarette Smoke Toxins Deposited on Surfaces: Implications for Human Health

Martins-Green, Manuela; Adhami, Neema; Frankos, Michael; Valdez, Mathew; Goodwin, Benjamin; Lyubovitsky, Julia; Dhall, Sandeep; Garcia, Monika; Egiebor, Ivie; Martinez, Bethanne; Green, Harry W.; Havel, Christopher; Yu, Lisa; Liles, Sandy; Matt, Georg; De
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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26.11%
Cigarette smoking remains a significant health threat for smokers and nonsmokers alike. Secondhand smoke (SHS) is intrinsically more toxic than directly inhaled smoke. Recently, a new threat has been discovered – Thirdhand smoke (THS) – the accumulation of SHS on surfaces that ages with time, becoming progressively more toxic. THS is a potential health threat to children, spouses of smokers and workers in environments where smoking is or has been allowed. The goal of this study is to investigate the effects of THS on liver, lung, skin healing, and behavior, using an animal model exposed to THS under conditions that mimic exposure of humans. THS-exposed mice show alterations in multiple organ systems and excrete levels of NNAL (a tobacco-specific carcinogen biomarker) similar to those found in children exposed to SHS (and consequently to THS). In liver, THS leads to increased lipid levels and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, a precursor to cirrhosis and cancer and a potential contributor to cardiovascular disease. In lung, THS stimulates excess collagen production and high levels of inflammatory cytokines, suggesting propensity for fibrosis with implications for inflammation-induced diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma. In wounded skin...